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v. 23 



3 1833 00824 5992 



pmcrttan fhtf imtartan ffiptieftt 

1 ^aceec/ir/^s 


APRIL 9, 1913— OCTOBER 15, 1913. 





78 6865 11 

y UL \\ 

Vol. 23 

New Series 

Part I 






flP^ILi 9, 1913 









American Antiquarian 


Note of Committee of Publication vii 

Officers and Members of the Society ix-xxvi 


Proceedings of the Meeting 1 

Report of the Council 3 

Obituaries 9 

The Most Successful American Privateer Wilfred II. Munro 12 

Wisdom of the North American Indian in Speech and Legend 

* ' Alexander F. Chamberlain 63 



Some Humors of American History James Ford Rhodes 97 

Letters of John Quincy Adams, 1811-1814 
£ Charles Francis Adams 110 


Proceedings of the Meeting. 171 

Report of the Council 176 

Obituaries 188 

Report of the Treasurer 190 

Report of the Librarian 196 

List of Donors 215 

Andrew Craigie and the Scioto Associates 

Archer B. Hulbert 222 

The Papers of the Johnson Family of Connecticut 

Max Farrand 237 

Bibliography of American Newspapers Clarence S. Brigham 247 

Index 404 


The twenty-third volume of the present series contains the records of 
the Proceedings of April 9 and October 15, 1913. 

The reports of the Council have been presented by Henry W. Cunning- 
ham and Waldo Lincoln. 

Paj>erti have been received from Wilfred H. Munro, Alexander F. 
ChjuuberUin, Jumes Ford Rhodes, Charles Francis Adams, Archer B. 
iiulbert, aJid Mux Farrand. 

At the end of the volume id printed the first installment of a Bibliography 
U American Newspapers, UjlKJ-lbliO, covering the States alphabetically 
horn AkbaniA to Indiana, prepared by the Librarian, Mr. Brigham. 

Obfcu&rj BOtittM of the following deceased members appear in this 
T<4* Juhn Bhaw Billings, Francis Blake, George Ebenezer Francis, 
I'nuict* IhMxy Lee, Frederick Albion Ober, and William Addison Smith. 




ffimtzitan pnfiquattan *&otitfy 

Elected October 15, 1913. 

WALDO LINCOLN, A.B., of Worcester, Mass. , 

SAMUEL ABBOTT GREEN, LL.D., of Boston, Mass. 
ANDREW McFARLAND DAVIS, A.M., of Cambridge, 



NATHANIEL PAINE, A.M., of Worcester, Mass. 
SAMUEL BWBTT GREEN, A.M., of Worcester, Mass. 
GRANVILLE STANLEY HALL, LL.D., of Worcester, Mass. 
SAMUEL UTLEY, LL.B, of Worcester, Mass. 
ARTHUR PRENTICE RUGG, LL.D., of Worcester, Mass. 

FRANCIS RLENSHAW DEWEY, A.M., of Worcester, Mass. 


GEORGE PARKER WINSHIP, A.M., of Providence, R. I. 
Secretary tot foreign Corteaponoence. 

JAMES PHINNEY BAXTER, Ljtt.D., of Portland, Me. 

Secretary tor Domestic aorreeponoence. 

CHARLES FRANCIS ADAMS, LL.D., of Lincoln, Mass. 

UecorMna Secretatg. 

CHARLES LEMUEL NICHOLS, M.D., of Worcester, Mass. 


AUGUSTUS GEORGE BULLOCK, A.M., of Worcester, Mass. 


Elected October 15, 1913. 

Committee of publication. 
FRANKLIN PIERCE RICE, of Worcester, Mass. 
GEORGE HENRY HAYNES, Ph.D., of Worcester, Mass. 
CHARLES LEMUEL NICHOLS, M.D., of Worcester, Mass. 

BENJAMIN THOMAS HILL, A.B., of Worcester, Mass. 
HENRY ALEXANDER MARSH, of Worcester, Mass. 

finance Committee. 

WALDO LINCOLN, A.B., of Worcester, Mass. 

FRANCIS HENSHAW DEWEY, A.M., of Worcester, Mass. 


Xibvarp Committee. 
WALDO LINCOLN, A.B., of Worcester, Mass. 
NATHANIEL PAINE, A.M., of Worcester, Mass. 
FRANKLIN PIERCE RICE, of Worcester, Mass. 

Committee on tbe Wall 

WALDO LINCOLN, A.B., of Worcester, Mass. 
SAMUEL UTLEY, LL.B., of Worcester, Mass. 
CHARLES LEMUEL NICHOLS, M.D., of Worcester, Mass. 

SAMUEL UTLEY, LL.B., of Worcester, Mass. 


^Librarian jBmeritua. 
EDMUND MILLS BARTON, of Worcester, Mass. 







October, 1860. 


Nathaniel Paine, A.M., . . 

April, 1862. 

Horace Davis, J.LI)., 


Worcester, Mass. 
San Francisco, Cal 
Boston, Mass. 

October, 1865. 

iriurnL Abbott Queen, LL.D., . 

April, 1875. 

IU SK8T MiAvi: BaNi uoi i, A.M., . . San Francisco, Cal. 
AL&£K? {UUftlUftON HoYT, A.M., . Boston, Mass. 

April, 1876. 

Gha)U*B* Cahd Surtii, A.M., . 

October, 1877. 

Iloiturr Alonzo Brock, 

October, 1878. 

Edmund Mills Barton, 

April, 1879. 
Franklin Bowditch Dexter, Litt.D., New Haven, Conn. 

April, 1880. 
Samuel Swett Green, A.M., . . Worcester, Mass. 

Boston, Mass. 
Richmond, Va. 
Worcester, Mass. 


April, 1881. 
Adolph Francis Bandelier, .. . . New York, N. Y. 

October, 1881. 
Henry Cabot Lodge, LL.D., . . . Nahant, Mass. 

April, 1882. 

Andrew McFarland Davis, A.M., . Cambridge, Mass. 
Stephen Denison Peet, Ph.D., . . Salem, Mass. 
Frederic Ward Putnam, Sc.D., . . Cambridge, Mass. 

April, 1884. 

John Bach McMaster, LL.D., . . Philadelphia, Pa. 

October, 1884. 

Henry Adams, LL.D., Washington, D. C, 

William Harden, Savannah, Ga. 

Andrew Dickson White, D.C.L., . Ithaca, N. Y. 

April, 1885. 

Rev. Joseph Anderson, D.D., . . Woodmont, Conn. 

Reuben Colton, A.B., Boston, Mass. 

Theodore Frelinghuysen D wight, . Vaud, Switzerland. 

Henry PIerbert Edes, A.M., . . . Cambridge, Mass. 

October, 1885. 
Edward Channing, Ph.D., . . . Cambridge, Mass. 

October, 1886. 
Lucien Carr, A.M., Cambridge, Mass. 

April, 1887. 
James Phinney Baxter, Litt.D., . Portland, Me. 

April, 1888. 
Augustus George Bullock, A.M., . Worcester, Mass. 


October, 1888. 

Granville Stanley Hall, LL.D., 
John- McKlnstry Merriam, A.B., 

October, 1889. 

William Eaton Foster, Litt.D., 

April, 1890. 

ELumis Taylor, LL.D., . . .. 
Thomas Lindall Wlnthrop, . 

October, 1890. 

Jams* Dunn ill Angell, LL.D., . 
Jons Franklin Jameson, LL.D., . 

April, 1891. 

Ch J m, es Pi c k e ring B o w ditch , A.M. 
Charles Peuiam Greenodgh, LL.B., 
Edwin Doak Mead, . . ••. 

October, 1891. 

Dueuqi Francis Adams, LL.D., . 
P«AN€tS HtNftiuH Dewey, A.M., 
B«f, Calvin Steiuhns, AM., . . 

April, 1 892, 

Rvnixxf Gold Thwajtes, LL.D., . 

October, 1892. 

El'oknb Frederick. Buss, A.M., . 

April, 1893. 


October, 1893. 

Simeon Eben Baldwin, LL.D., 
Henry Phelps Johnston, A.M., . 
Henry Alexander Marsh, 
Albert Shaw, LL.D., .... 

Worcester, Mass. 
Frani ingbam, Mass. 

Providence, R. I. 

Washington, D. C. 
Boston, Mass. 

Aim Arbor, Mich. 
Washington, D. C. 

Boston, Mass. 
Brookline, Mass. 
Boston, Mass. 

Lincoln, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 

Madison, Wis. 
Cincinnati, Ohio. 
New York, N. Y. 

New Haven, Conn. 
New York, N. Y. 
Worcester, Mass. 
New York, N. Y. 


April, 1900. 

tLkMVMi DtUST, LL-B , Worcester, Mass. . 

(Kc her, 1900. 

HtoWAJUJ UtiOfcKH Gilbert, A B., . Ware, Mass. 

j&Jtfd Foftp IllfODKtt, l.L.I)., . Boston, Mass. 

Kstt* IUbixiw Ft if &a ell, .... Tilton, N. H. 

April, 1901. 

Ita'MAMiN Thomas Hill, A.B., . Worcester, Mass. 

KlT* Huntt Frxcu Jenks, A.M., Canton, Mass. 

AlUm Cla** Thomas, A.M., . Haverford, Pa. 

Rj •. Charles Stuart Vedder, LL.D., Charleston, S. C. 

IUrr, Wiulston Walker, Litt.D:, . New Haven, Conn. 

October, 1901. 

L* m m> Arthur Encjler, LL.D., . St. Louis, Mo. 

O&OmOB LtmaN KlTTREDQE, LL.D., . Cambridge, Mass. 

SaMIJKI- Walker McCall, LL.D., . Winchester, Mass. 

Ati-.utT Matiiii v,s, A.M., .... Boston, Mass. 

Kj ., Thoma* Franklin Waters, A.M., Ipswich, Mass. 

April, 1902. 

WlLUATI DfiNlSON Ltman, A.M., . . Walla Walla, Wash. 

October, 1902. 

AutXAXDKft Francis Chamberlain, Ph.D., Worcester, Mass. 

Wiiuam MacDonald, LL.D., . Providence, R. I. 

Roger Uiullow Muuuman, Ph.D., . Cambridge, Mass. 

April, 1903. 

Anson Daniel Mouse, LL.D., . . Amherst, Mass. 

April, 1904. 

Clarence Winthhop Bowen, Ph.D., New York, N. Y. 

Victor Hugo Paltsits, .... New York, N. Y. 

October, 1904. 

Daniel Berkeley Updike, A.M., . Boston, Mass. 


October, 1905. 

Clarence Saunders Brigham, A.M., 
William Henry Holmes, . . . 

April, 1906. 

Frederick Lewis Gay, A.B., . . . 

October, 1906. 

William Keeney Bixby, LL.D., . . 
Lincoln Newton Kinnicutt, . 
Franklin Pierce Rice, . 

Worcester, Mass. 
Washington, D. C. 

Brookline, Mass. 

St. Louis, Mo. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 

April, 1907. 
Worthington Chatjncey Ford, A.M., Boston, Mass. 

October, 1907. 

Charles McLean Andrews, Ph.D., 
Clarence Monroe Burton, A.M., 
Thomas McAdory Owen, LL.D. ; 
Herbert Putnam, LL.D., . 
James Schouler, LL.D., 
Frederick Jackson Turner, LL.D., 
Henry Ernest Woods, A.M., 

April, 1908. 

William Beer, 

Franz Boas, Ph.D., ...... 

George Lincoln Burr, LL.D., . 
Alcee Fortier, Litt.D., . . . . 

Peter Joseph Hamilton, A.M., . 
Don Gleason Hill, LL.B., 
Charles Henry Hull, Ph.D., 
William Coolidge Lane, A.B., . 
Andrew Cunningham McLaughlin, A. 
Herbert Levi Osgood, Ph.D., 
Edward Luther Stevenson, Ph.D., . 
Julius Herbert Tuttle, . 
Charles Grenfill Washburn, A.B., 
Samuel Bayard Woodward, M.D., . 

New Haven, Conn. 
Detroit, Mich. 
Montgomery, Ala. 
Washington, D. C. 
Intervale, N. H. 
Cambridge, Mass. 
Boston, Mass. 

New Orleans, La. 

New York, N. Y. 

Ithaca, N. Y. 

New Orleans, La. 
San Juan, Porto Rico 

Dedham, Mass. 

Ithaca, N. Y. 

Cambridge, Mass. 
M., Chicago, 111. 

New York, N. Y. 

New York, N. Y. 

Dedham, Mass. 

Worcester, Mass. 

Worcester, Mass. 


s : 

October, 1908. 

Vtm;>m% Htrmuun Blakesleb, Ph.] 
lUtm C&AJUUB& Hesby Catterall, 
Cut** hvuuvwa DUKIIVAY, Ph.D., 

Mai Fahjund, Ph.D., 

Kfe* .: BUCK WSKfi HODGE, . 
Will km Vail Kki.len, I.I..D., 
A L K&oebkb, Ph.D., 
A unit* Piu&mcK Rugg, LL-.D., . 
?.? • .-.ucall Howard Saville, . 
Ai>iii;i» Maeston Tozzer, Ph.D., 

tprlJi 1909. 

Wiir-MEu Harold Munuo, L.H.D., 
W 1 1 u \ u N h 1 #0 n , A M . , 
Jtumic Bifttmr Smith, LL.D., 

October, 1909, 

HeStMAM VaKDRNBIRO Ames, Ph.D., . Philadelphia, Pa. 

!:*>»■ a *£» rvriu.rr Ayer, .... Chicago, 111. 

Hiauu BiXOitAX, Ph.D., . . New Haven, Conn, 

Ili**u WiMtutrU.i; (inmngiiam, A.B., Manchester, Mass, 

fttsiAKfo B^WuaK Dixon, Ph.D., , . Cambridge, Mass. 

f&Utl Fau,svm Dremer, AM, . . Worcester, Mass. 

Aumt Bisjinhix Ih«r, 1. 1. I)., . Cambridge, Mass. 

Hmr... Hti'Kniftiui KffAFf. D D», . . Worcester, Mass. 

)., Worcester, Mass. 
Ph.D., Ithaca, N. Y. 

Laramie, Wyo. 

New Haven, Conn. 

Washington, D. C. 

Boston, Mass. 

San Francisco, Cal. 

Worcester, Mass. 

New York, N. Y. 

Cambridge, Mass. 

Pawtueket, R. I. 
Providence, R. I. 
Paterson, N. J. 
Boston, Mass. 

April, 1910. 

IfxmuTt Lyndon- Fe&naid, B.S., 
OAruLAmD Hunt, 


Barrett Wendell, A.B., . 
Albert Henhy Whitin, 

October, 1910. 

Albert Carlos Bates, 
George Francis Dow, 
cbarle8 evans, . 
Homer Gage, M.D., 

Cambridge, Mass. 
Washington, D. C- 
New York, N. Y. 
Boston, Mass. 
Whitinsville, Mass. 

Hartford, Conn. 
Salem, Mass. 
Chicago, 111. 
Worcester, Mass. 


Samuel Verplanck Hoffmann, . 
Rev. Henry Ainsworth Parker, A.M, 
William Milligan Sloane, LL.D., . 

April, 1911. 

Thomas Willing Balch, LL.B., . 
John Spencer Bassett, Ph.D., 
Archibald Cary Coolidce, Ph.D., . 
Carl Russell Fish, Ph.D., . . 
John Holladay Latane, Ph.D., . 

New York, N. Y. 
Cambridge, Mass. 
Princeton, N. J. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Boston, Mass. 
Madison, Wis. 
Lexington, Va. 

April, 1912. 

Clarence Walworth Alvord, Ph.D., Urbana, 111. 
Livingston Davis, A.B., . . . Milton, Mass. 

Archer Butler Hulbert, A.M., 
George Emery Littlefield, A.B., 
Charles Henry Taylor, Jr., . 

Marietta, Ohio. 
Boston, Mass. 
Boston, Mass. 

October, 1912. 

William Archibald Dunning, LL.D., New York, N. Y. 
Samuel Whitaker Pennypacker, LL.D., 

Permypacker's Mills, Pa. 
William Howard Taft, LL.D., . . New Haven, Conn. 
Lyon Gardiner Tyler, LL.D., . . Williamsburg, Va. 

October, 1913. 

Herbert Eugene Bolton, Ph. D., 
Rev. Herbert Edwin Lombard, . 
Bernard Christian Steiner, Ph. D., 
Woodrow Wilson, LL.D., . . . . 

Berkeley, Cal. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Baltimore, Md. 
Washington, D. C. 





April, 1910. 

J&ajm l\ A«»iu>fi4rrri, 

1 %MW& A, Loo?a; Quevedo, M.A., 


April, 1910. 

MiMU VlCKKlK IUi.i iViAN, . 

April, 1910. 

J / Cahlou Roo&ioucz, LL.B., . 


April, 1 90S. 
K a u%mn- V tmors Dionkb, LID., 

April, 1910. 

A*nts,» Ofl^nai pouoirrr, Litt.D., . 
Wiiium Liwtvo* Okakt, A.M., 
iVuium Wood, D.C.L., 

October, 1910. 
QmmaM McKinnon Wrong, A.M., . 


April, 1909. 

I V '' '".■'• 


Joae Tohidio Medina, 


Buenos Aires. 

La Plata. 

La Paz. 

Rio de Janeiro. 






Santiago de Chile. 


April, 1910. 

Federico Gonzalez Suarez, 




October, 1896. 

Henry Vignaud, Bagneux, Seine. 


April, 1875. 

Otto Keller, Ph.D., Stuttgart. 

April, 1893. 

Johannes Conrad, LL.D., .... Halle. 

April, 1910. 
Eduard Seler, Ph.D., . . . . . Berlin. 


April, 1882. 
Rt. Hon. James Bryce, D.C.L., . . Sussex. 

October, 1892. 

Charles Harding Firth, Litt.D., . Oxford. 
Paul Vinogradoff, LL.D., . . . Oxford. 

October, 1894. 

Hubert Hall, London. 

October, 1901. 

Sir Arthur Herbert Church, D.Sc, Shelsley, 

Kew Gardens. 
October, 1910. 

Alfred Percival Maudslay, . . London. 

October, 1913. 
Vere Langford Oliver, .... Sunninghill. 


October, 1895. 
Johann Christoph Vollgraff, L.H.D., Utrecht. 



April. I&S7. 

Kenuftft IfiJuiKirr Thompson; , . Mdrida, Yucatan. 

Octotar, IH90. 
Kl tSM k*o*, PhD., Mexico. 

October, 1904. 
fAA%tl> CaJU*JE» A.M., . . . . . Menda, Yucatan. 

April* 1907. 
itt&kMi Gavcia, Mexico. 

April, 1910. 

AmrOftfO PdtArtKL, Mexico. 


October, 1906. 

fkutft hummvji Christiania. 

OcJobtr, 1912. 
ItoMRSO Aurciarao PurET, . . . . Washington, D. C, 


October, 1906. 
ftSMJJUtorO M Am a do, Lisbon. 


April. 1912. 
TwjkMK CViTDAtL, Kingston, Jamaica. 




♦Charles Francis Adams, LL.D., . Lincoln, Mass. 

George Burton Adams, Litt.D., New Haven, Conn. 

Henry Adams, LL.D., Washington, D. C. 

Clarence Walworth Alvord, Ph.D., Urbana, 111. 

Herman Vandenburg Ames, Ph.D., . Philadelphia, Pa. 

Rev. Joseph Anderson, D.D., . . Woodmont, Conn. 

Charles McLean Andrews, Ph.D., . New Haven, Conn. 

James Burrill Angell, LL.D., . . Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Edward Everett 1 Ayer, Chicago, 111. 

Thomas Willing Balch, LL.B., . . Philadelphia, Pa. 

♦Simeon Eben Baldwin, LL.D., . . New Haven, Conn. 

Hubert Howe Bancroft, A.M., . . San Francisco, Cal. 

Adolph Francis Bandelier, . . . New York, N. Y. 

♦Edmund Mills Barton, .... Worcester, Mass. 

John Spencer Bassett, Ph.D., . Northampton, Mass. 

♦Albert Carlos Bates, .... Hartford, Conn. 

James Phinney Baxter, Litt.D., . Portland, Me. 

William Beer, New Orleans, La. 

Alexander Graham Bell, LL.D., . Washington, D. C. 

Hiram Bingham, Ph.D., .... New Haven, Conn. 

♦William Keeney Bixby, LL.D., . St. Louis, Mo. 

George Hubbard Blakeslee, Ph.D., Worcester, Mass. 

Eugene Frederick Bliss, A.M., . . Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Franz Boas, Ph.D., v New York, N. Y. 

Herbert Eugene Bolton, Ph.D., . Berkeley, Cal. 

♦Charles Pickering Bowditch, A.M., Boston, Mass. 

♦Clarence Winthrop Bowen, Ph.D., New York, N. Y. 

Clarence Saunders Brigham, A.M., Worcester, Mass. 

Robert Alonzo Brock, .... Richmond, Va. 

Augustus George Bullock, A.M., . Worcester, Mass. 

George Lincoln Burr, LL.D., . Ithaca, N. Y. 

* Life members. 




CUAtXCl Monroe Burton, A.M., . Detroit, Mich. 

ta&ftft CARS, A.M., Cambridge, Mass. 

Hum OlURUEii Henry Catterall, Ph.D., Ithaca, N. Y. 
AtJHUMPKS Francis Chamberlain, Ph.D., Worcester, Mass. 
•ix^.iUi. ClUNNlNG, Ph.D., . . . Cambridge, Mass. 
ftjrt;*E3f Colton, A.B., .... Boston, Mass. 
SaJTCKI Morris Gonant, .... Pawtucket, R. I. 
*A*am.i.uj> Gary Coolidge, Ph.D., . Boston, Mass. 
•IIilsrt Winchester Cunningham, A.B., Manchester, Mass. 
•Andrew McFarland Davis, A.M., . Cambridge, Mass. 

HoiUCIS DAVIS, LL.D., San Francisco, Cal. 

"J m.NUMoN Davis, A.B., .... Milton, Mass. 
•Frames Uknbhaw Dewey, A.M., . Worcester, Mass. 
•Pft*.\KLIN How ditch Dexter, Litt.D., New Haven, Conn. 

HoUKD BmiRAGE Dixon, Ph.D., 

Cambridge, Mass. 

GiujHGK Francis Dow, Salem, Mass. 

Fiu*ss Parnum Dresser, A.M., . 
Clyde Augustus Duniway, Ph.D., 
VVhxiaw Archibald Dunning, LL.D. 
Tmhodore Frelingiiuysen Dwight, . 


*1L\ry Herbert Edes, A.M., . 
Ki»\it;.ND ■ Arthur Engler, LL.D., 
CitA&LKa Evans, ....... 

Mvx Fariland, Ph.D., 

MttHHtTT Lyndon Fernald, B.S., 
Carl Russell Fish, Ph.D., 
William Trowbridge Forbes, A.B., 


Ktctx Fortier, Litt.D., . . . . 
•William Eaton Foster, Litt.D., 
Homer Gage, M.D., ..'■■.... 
Hi: v.. Austin Samuel Garver, A.M., 
^Frederick Lewis Gay, A.B., 
Edward Hooker Gilbert, A-B., . 

John Green, LL.D., 

•Samuel Abbott Green, LL.D., . 
•Samuel Swett Green, A.M., 

Worcester, Mass. 
Laramie, VVyo. 
New York, N. Y. 
Vand, Switzerland. 
New York, N. Y. 
Cambridge, Mass. 
St. Louis, Mo. 
Chicago, 111. 
New Haven, Conn. 
Cambridge, Mass. 
Madison, Wis. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Boston, Mass. 
New Orleans, La. 
Providence, R. I. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Brookline, Mass. 
Ware, Mass. 
St. Louis, Mo. 
Boston, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 

• lift me tube n 


Charles Pelham Greenough, LL.B., 
Edwin Augustus Grosvenor, LL.D., 
Lewis Winters Gunckel, Ph.B,, 
Granville Stanley Hall, LL.D., 
Peter Joseph Hamilton, A.M., . 
William Harden, . . . 

Albert Bushnell Hart, LL.D., . 
♦George Henry Haynes, Ph.D., . 
Benjamin Thomas Hill, A.B., 
Don Gleason Hill, LL.B., 
Frederick Webb Hodge 
♦Samuel Verplanck Hoffman, 
William Henry Holmes, . 
Albert Harrison Hoyt, A.M., . 
Archer Butler Hulbert, A.M., . 
Charles Henry Hull, Ph.D., 

Gaillard Hunt, 

Archer Milton LIuntington, A.M 
John Franklin Jameson, LL.D., . 
Rev. Henry Fitch Jenks, A.M., 
Henry Phelps Johnston, A.M., . 
William Vail Kellen, LL.D., 
♦Lincoln Newton Kinnicutt, 
George Lyman Kittredge, LL.D., 
Rev. Shepherd Knapp, D.D., 
Alfred L. Kroeber, Ph.D., . 
William Coolidge Lane, A.B., . 
John Holladay Latane, Ph.D., . 
*Rt. Rev. William Lawrence, LL.D 
♦Waldo Lincoln, A.B., 
♦George Emery Littlefield, A.B., 
William Roscoe Livermore, . 
♦Henry Cabot Lodge, LL.D., 
Rev. Herbert Edwin Lombard, . 
Arthur Lord, A.B., .... 
♦Joseph Florimond Loubat, LL.D., 
Rev. William DeLoss Love, Ph.D., 
♦Abbott Lawrence Lowell, LL.D., 

Brookline, Mass. 

Amherst, Mass. 
Dayton, Ohio. 
Worcester, Mass. 
San Juan, Porto Rico. 
Savannah, Ga. 
Cambridge, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Dedham, Mass. 
Washington, D. C. 
New York, N. Y. 
Washington, D. C. 
Boston, Mass. 
Marietta, Ohio. 
Ithaca, N. Y. 
Washington, D. C. 
New York, N. Y. 
Washington, D. C. 
Canton, Mass. 
New York, N. Y. 
Boston, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Cambridge, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
San Francisco, Cal. 
Cambridge, Mass. 
Lexington, Va. 
Boston, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Boston, Mass. 
Boston, Mass. 
Nahant, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Plymouth, Mass. 
Paris, France. 
Hartford, Conn. 
Cambridge, Mass. 

* Life members. 




WtLUi&f DttKISON Iamax, A.M., . 
t&JUMVEL Waikkh McCall, LL.D., 
HffSJUUftl Mac Dona i.D. LL.D., . 
imt^atm Ci nmnoham McLaughlin, 

N Bach Mc.M\m-i k, LL.D., . 
Hr.-fKi Ai J SUNDEB Mulsh, 
. Mats hews, A.B., 

!^*i!« Doak Mead, 

'Tti« ■■M4» Cobwin Mendeniiall, LL.D., 
j ■ -Hs MehEvvnu Merriam, A.B., 

,eh BifiELOW Meiuuman, Ph.D., 
jQumD*Cfi Bloomfield Moore, A.B., 
AxMiS Daniel Morse, LL.D., 

;. . Uilt BlXVESTER MORSE, Ph.D., 

WjuHi.i) Harold Munro, L.H.D., 

v* u iiv.! Nelson, A.M., 

' uhles Lemuel Nichols, M.D., 

Hi:f4»tKuT Levi Osgood, Ph.D., 

t*iiQMA8 Mr A dory Owen, LL.D., 

N mus'iEL Paine, A.M., 

Yji iv-'a Hugo Paltsits, . . . 


,\lj'Hd; Denison Peet. Ph.D., . 
Sahll Whitaker Pennypacker, LI 

liir.DUuc Ward Putnam, Sc.D., . 
Herbert Putnam, LL.D., . 
•James Ford Rhodes, LL.D., . 
•Fiujnkun Pierce Kick, 
•Arthur Prentice Rugg, LL.D., 
f EuA8 Harlow Russell, . 
Marshall Howard Saville, . 

J AWES ScHQULER, LL.D., . ^ . 

Aluert Shaw, LL.D., .... 
William Milligan Sloane, LL.D., 
Charles Card Smith, A.M., . 
Justin Harvey , Smith, LL.D., 
Lzra Bcollay Stearns, A.M., 

• Life tnewben. 

. Walla Walla, Wash. 

Winchester, Mass. 

Providence, R. I. 
A.M., Chicago, 111. 
. Philadelphia, Pa. 

Worcester, Mass. 

Boston, Mass. 
. Boston, Mass. 

Ravenna, Ohio. 


Cambridge, Mass. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Amherst, Mass. 

Salem, Mass. 

Providence, R. I. 

Pater son, N. J. 

Worcester, Mass. 

New York, N. Y. 

Montgomery, Ala. 

Worcester, Mass. 

New York, N. Y. 
A.M., Cambridge, Mass. 

Salem, Mass. 
Pennypacker's Mills, Pa. 

Cambridge, Mass. 

Washington, D. C. 

Boston, Mass. 

Worcester, Mass. 

Worcester, Mass. 

Tilton, N. IL 

New York, N. Y. 

Intervale, N. H. 

New York, N. Y. 

Princeton, N. J. 

Boston, Mass. 

Boston, Mass. 

Fitchburg, Mass. 


*Rev. Calvin Stebbins, A.B., 
Bernard Christian Steiner, Ph.D. 
Edward Luther Stevenson, Ph.D., 
William Howard Taft, LL.D., 
*Charles Henry Taylor, Jr., 
Hannis Taylor, LL.D., 
Allen Clapp Thomas, A.M., . . 
Reuben Gold Thwaites, LL.D., . 
Alfred Marston Tozzer, Ph.D., 
Frederick Jackson Turner, LL.D., 
Julius Herbert Tuttle, . 
Lyon Gardiner Tyler, LL.D., 
Daniel Berkeley Updike, A.M., 
*Samuel Utley, LL.B., . . • . 
Rev. Charles Stuart Vedder, LL.D., 
Rev. Williston Walker, Litt.D., . 
Charles Grenfill Washburn, A.B., 
Rev. Thomas Franklin Waters, A.M 
Barrett Wendell, A.B., . 
Andrew Dickson White, D.C.L., 
Albert Henry Whitin, 
Woodrow Wilson, LL.D. 
*George Parker Winship, A.M., 
Thomas Lindall Winthrop, 
Henry Ernest Woods, A.M., 
Samuel Bayard Woodward, M.D., 

Baltimore, Md. 

New York, N. Y. 
New Haven, Conn. 
Boston, Mass. 
Washington, D. C. 
Haverford, Pa. 
Madison, Wis. 
Cambridge, Mass. 
Cambridge, Mass. 
Dedham, Mass. 
Williamsburg, Va. 
Boston, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Charleston, S. C. 
New Haven, Conn. 
Worcester, Mass. 
., Ipswich, Muss. 
Boston, Mass. 
Ithaca, N. Y. 
Whitinsville, Mass. 
Washington, D. C. 
Providence, R. I. 
Boston, Mass. 
Boston, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 

* Life member*. 

1013.] Proceedings. 






The meeting was called to order at 10.30 A. M. by 
the Vice-President, Mr. Andrew McFaeland Davis. 

The following members were present: 

Samuel Abbott Green, Charles C. Smith, Edmund M. 
Barton, Samuel Swett Green, Andrew McF. Davis, 
Reuben Colton, Henry H. Edes, A. George Bullock, 
William E. Foster, Charles P. Bowditch, George H. 
11 ay ues, Arthur Lord, Charles L. Nichols, Edward S. 
Morse, George P. Winship, Austin S. Carver, Samuel 
Utley, James F. Rhodes, Albert Matthews, Alexander 
l\ Chamberlain, William MacDonald, Victor II. Palt- 
<its, 1). Berkeley Updike, Clarence S. Brigham, Lincoln 
N f . Kinnicutt, Franklin P. Rice, William C. Lane, 
Julius II. Tuttle, Charles G. Washburn, Samuel B. Wood- 
ward, Wilfred H. Munro, Henry W. Cunningham, Frank 
V. Dresser, Albert B. Hart, Shepherd Knapp, Barrett 
Wendell, Albert C. Bates, Homer Gage, Henry A. 
Parker, Livingston Davis, George E. Littlehcld. 

After the Secretary had read the call for the meeting, 
it was voted to dispense with the reading of the minutes 
of the preceding meeting, which had been distributed 
to the members in print. 

The report of the Council was read by Mr. Cunning- 
ham, and was referred to the Committee of Publication. 

2 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Papers were then read by Prof. Wilfred II. Munro 
upon "The Most Successful American Privateeer," 
by Prof. Alexander F. Chamberlain upon "Wisdom of 
the North American Indian in Speech and Legend," 
and by Mr. James Ford Rhodes upon "Some Humors 
of American History." 

After the meeting, the members of the Society were 
entertained at luncheon by Mr. Livingston Davis, at 
the house of his mother, Mrs. Edward L. Davis, on Com- 
monwealth Avenue. 




Report of the Council. 


On behalf of the Council I have the honor to submit 
the report for the last six months. 

Our Centennial Celebration last October was a marked 
success, and emphasized anew the national character of 
our Society, attended as it was by the President of the 
United States, the British Ambassador, the senior 
Senator from Massachusetts, the Minister from Peru, 
and an ex-Governor of Pennsylvania, all of whom were 
members of the Society and took some part in the exer- 
cises. A large and distinguished company, from our 
own membership and as delegates from kindred organ- 
izations was present at the various functions and many 
of them brought greetings and congratulations from 
their Societies, and all listened with interest to the story 
of our hundred years of work and progress, so excellently 
told by the orator of the morning. At luncheon we 
enjoyed the hospitality of President Lincoln at his 
house, and in the afternoon the Meeting House of the 
Second Parish on Court Hill was packed to the doors 
with members and guests to listen to Senator Lodge 
and Professor McLaughlin. The exercises of the day 
closed with a large and brilliant dinner at the Worcester 
Club, which will not soon be forgotten by those who 
were fortunate enough to be present. The dignity of 
President Taft with his keen appreciation of his election 
to this Society in whose membership his father had taken 
great interest, the brilliancy, magnetism and historic 
learning of Mr. Bryce, the wonderful command of the 
English tongue shown by our South American member, 
Mr. Pezet, and the speech of Governor Pennypacker 
who told us of his historic family homestead, all these, 

4 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

and more, gave a fitting close to our Centennial, and will 
linger long in our memories. 

We may today be permitted to take advantage of 
the absence of our President, who is on his way home 
from the West Indies where he has been passing the 
winter, to say that much of the success of our celebration 
was due to the admirable arrangements made by him, 
and to his tact and dignity as a presiding officer. And 
in all these duties, his associates on the committee, 
Messrs. Washburn and Rugg, were of the greatest as- 
sistance, and to all three of them are the thanks of the 
members due. The official account of the Proceedings 
is in print and has just been distributed to members. 
Besides the regular Proceedings, this contains a com- 
plete list of all the members and officers of the Society 
from 1812 to 1912, a most interesting and instructive 
list showing, at least in one case, four generations of one 
family in our ranks. There have been about a thousand 
members, and the residence and date of election of each 
have been given, and of all but about twenty of the de- 
ceased members, the date of death. These latter have 
so far eluded us, in spite of the most exhaustive search. 

The volume also contains a sketch by our Librarian 
of the Book of Records of the Council for New England, 
presented by our associate, Frederick Lewis Gay, the 
most valuable single acquisition ever received. The 
Society has no publication now in preparation. 

Since October we have pursued the even tenor of our 
way, quietly adding to our collections of newspapers 
and early imprints, and our rich stores of Americana 
have been consulted by scholars either in person or by 
letter, and fortunate are we in being able to respond to 
these demands through a Librarian, who not only knows 
our treasures but has in addition that rare combination 
of scholarly instincts and a prompt and business-like 
method of applying his knowledge. The largest gifts 
received have been the legacy of $3,000 from the Edward 
L. Davis estate, a gift of $1,000 from the widow of the 
late Rev. Dr. Daniel Merriman, in accordance with a 


Report of the Council. 

request left by her husband, and a second gift of $500, 
making $1,000 in all, from the widow of our associate, 
Deloraine P. Corey. Those of you who visit the new 
Antiquarian Hall must be impressed not only by the 
reposeful dignity of the surroundings, but by the acces- 
sibility of our books, newspapers and manuscripts, and 
the opportunities for consulting them. 

Splendidly situated as our new building is with broad 
streets upon three sides, yet we were menaced in the 
rear by a vacant lot, which might be built upon by an 
unsatisfactory neighbor, and this, in addition might 
prevent the Society in the future from being able to 
expand in the one direction in which it would be likely 
to need more room, namely, in addition to its stack. 
Therefore the President has, in accordance with the 
power given him at our last meeting, bought from the 
Worcester Art Museum this adjoining piece of about 
20,000 square feet of vacant land, and has given a five- 
year note for $3,755 in payment therefor. A member 
lias agreed to pay the interest on this note for five years, 
and it is hoped that before the expiration of that time 
some one or more members will put the Society into 
unencumbered ownership of tliis piece of land. This is 
one of the opportunities open to someone to be of service. 

Our Society being national and our members so scat- 
tered over America that many of them are rarely able 
to attend a meeting, it might be wise for the Society to 
enter upon some comprehensive scheme for keeping in 
closer touch with these distant members and enlisting 
a keener interest on their part in our welfare. The re- 
ports of our Proceedings with the papers read at our 
meetings are excellent, but something more might be 
done, more frequent and brief communications telling 
of our treasures, our recent acquisitions, and our needs, 
possibly some index or brief bibliography to show exactly 
what we have here, something more in detail than the 
Hand-book published by our Librarian in 1909, though 
that was a step in the right direction. These activities, 
too, would tend to acquaint the public more with our 

6 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Society and its work. Committees might he formed to 
correspond with members at a distance, and get them 
to collect for our library whatever may be found in their 
neighborhood of early American books, papers and 

Membership in this Society is an honor, and should 
be prized, and accepted with its obligations to be of 
service. Many are waiting at our doors and those who 
are within the gates should take more than a passive 
interest. All who live within a reasonable distance of 
Worcester and Boston should make it their duty to 
attend our meetings and see for themselves what the 
Society is doing, and those far away should consider 
themselves as the representatives in their community. 

The Council offers these suggestions for the consider- 
ation of the members. 

Our collections should be strengthened along the lines 
where they are best, the chief of which are newspapers 
and American imprints before 1820, and we should use 
every endeavor to make these complete, and should col- 
lect many books printed since 1820. 

Hundreds of libraries collect American biographies, 
genealogies, town histories, and legal and theological 
books, but we stand among the highest in our two special- 
ties. No other libraries except the Library of Congress 
or the Wisconsin Historical Library make any large and 
systematic collection of newspapers, and we alone are 
the collectors of early American printed books and 
pamphlets. Our collection of American maps is one of 
the most complete in the country. We are gathering 
all American almanacs, institutional and society reports, 
railroad reports and dozens of other classes of material 
which no other library in the country attempts to pre- 
serve in a comprehensive way. Here again the Council 
points out to members ways in which they can be use- 
ful, either by adding to these collections or putting the 
officers in funds with which to buy them. 

Then, too, we should not neglect valuable American 
manuscripts, and should take not only all that come our 

1913.] Report of the Council 7 

way, but should solicit them where in so doing we do not 
trespass upon the chosen fields of any local or sister 
societies who might have a prior claim upon them. 
For there must be hundreds of valuable manuscripts 
which come at some time before the eyes of our members 
and which they might secure for our library, and that if 
not taken at the moment might go to no other library, 
and be lost to history. 

It may also be wise to consider that what seems recent 
and modern to us now, will in a hundred or even fifty 
years be of historic value. And we might co-operate 
with other Societies in publishing and giving to the 
scholarly world our treasures, as we did in the case of 
the Mather Diaries. Sundry other publications and 
ways of usefulness occur to the Council, but all of these 
require means beyond our limits, and for the fulfilment 
of these desires the Council appeals to the members, and 
would be glad to confer more definitely and specifically 
with any who will aid us. 

One sad touch which increasing years bring with them 
is the change in our membership, and in our officers. 
Since we last met, three members have died. Francis 
Blake, eminent for his scientific attainments and for 
his invention of the telephone transmitter; Dr. George 
Ebenezer Francis, physician of Worcester, skilled not 
only in his profession but in botany, photography for 
historic purposes, and in almost any other avocation 
that he touched; and lastly, Col. John Shaw Billings, 
eminent as Surgeon, Army officer, builder of hospitals, 
and director of the great consolidated Library of the 
City of New York. Obituary sketches of these members 
will be prepared for the Proceedings by the Biographer. 
No names of candidates for membership will be submit- 
ted at this meeting, as it was thought courteous not to 
name any in the absence of our President. 

The Council, too, has seen many changes, with three 
new members within a year, and with the loss by resig- 
nation of one of its most valued associates, Prof. Franklin 
B. Dexter. Professor Dexter has given devoted service 


8 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

to the Board since October 1885, and since October 1897, 
as Secretary for Foreign Correspondence, journeying 
from New Haven to Worcester for the meetings and each 
time taking one or two days from his professional work. 
The Society owes him much, for he has been constant 
in his generosity, and his example of service is one we 
might all follow, for through such devotion of its mem- 
bers in many lines has the Society become great. 


For the Council. 






John Shaw Billings, a member of this Society since 
1899, died in New York City, March 11, 1913. He was 
born in Switzerland County, Indiana, April 12, 1839, 
was graduated from Miami University in 1857 and from 
the Medical College of Ohio in 1800. 

In 1861 he entered the United States Army as assistant 
surgeon and after nearly thirty-four years service retired 
in 1895 holding the rank of deputy Surgeon-General. 
During the Civil War he was in charge of hospitals in 
West Philadelphia and New York, was in held service 
with the army of the Potomac and in 1804 went to Wash- 
ington where he organized the Veterans Reserve Corps 
and had charge of the physicians' contracts and of prop- 
erty and distributing accounts, remaining until 1875 
during which time he developed the library of the Sur- 
geons-Generals' office till it became the largest collection 
of medical books in the world. 

Under his directions a catalogue which has been called 
" Epoch Making" was prepared. . Among his many 
public services at this time he helped reorganize the 
United States Marine Hospital, was Vice-President of 
the National Board of Health, edited the mortality and 
vital statistics of the tenth census and the vital and social 
statistics of the eleventh census and was advisor to sev- 
eral hospitals. 

In New York he found two libraries established on 
three foundations, three miles apart with 350,000 vol- 
umes and a staff of forty persons, and he left the present 
public library with its home building planned by him, 

10 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

forty branch buildings, a collection of over two million 
volumes, with a staff of over 1,000 persons. He was 
a member of more than forty learned societies. These 
degrees were conferred upon him: A. M. from Miami 
University; "M. D. from the Medical College of Ohio, 
also from Munich and Dublin; LL.D. from Edinburgh, 
Harvard, Buda Pesth, Yale, and Johns Hopkins; D. C. L. 
from Oxford. He married Kate M. Stevens, of Wash- 
ington, September 3, 1862. s. u. 


Francis Blake was born in Needham, Mass., Decem- 
ber 25, 1850, and died in Weston, Mass., January 19, 

He was connected with the U. S. Coast Survey for 
thirteen years and later devoted himself to experimental 
physics. He invented many electrical devices, among 
them the Blake Transmitter which plays an important 
part in telephones throughout the world. The honorary 
degree of A. M., was conferred upon him by Harvard 
in 1902. He was a member of many learned societies, 
American and Foreign, including this Society to which 
he was elected in 1900. 

He married Elizabeth L. Hubbard, of Weston, Mass., 
on June 24, 1873. s. u. 


George Ebenezer Francis, was born in Lowell, Mass., 
May 29, 1838, and died in Worcester, November 20, 1912. 
He' was graduated from Harvard in 1858 with the degree 
of A. B., which was followed by that of M. D. in 1863 
and by that of A. M. in 1872. After short terms of 
service as volunteer surgeon in the U. S. Army he was 
appointed acting assistant surgeon in the U. S. Navy 
and held that position over two years. In October 
1865, he began the practice of medicine in Worcester 
and continued in that profession until just before his 




Dr. Francis was enthusiastically devoted to his pro- 
fession and was deeply interested in many local societies. 
He became a member of this Society in 1886 and has 
contributed two papers to its Proceedings: "Photog- 
raphy as an Aid to Local History" in 1888, and "Notes 
on the Life and Character of Dr. William Paine," in 

On June 23, 1863, he married Rebecca N. Kinnicutt, 
who, with one daughter, survives him. s. u. 

12 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 


An EnsoDE of the War of 1812 


The most successful American Privateer was the Yankee. She sailed 
from Bristol, Rhode Island, a town whose citizens had already, for a 
hundred years, been actively interested in the business of privateering. 

In 1680, four years after the death of the Indian 
"King Philip" the lands of the conquered sachem were 
by grant of the English king, Charles II, conferred upon 
his colony of Plymouth. In that year a town was found- 
ed to which the name Bristol was given. For one hun- 
dred and fifty years after its foundation this town car- 
ried on a commerce that was entirely disproportionate 
to its size. It was a very important commercial center 
in the days when a large proportion of the commerce 
of the American colonies and states was carried on by 
the vessels that hailed from Narragansett Bay. Its 
commerce was at first mainly with the West India islands. 
Then a brisk trade was built up with the " Coast of Af- 
rica" — a trade that was especially profitable in the early 
years of the nineteenth century. In 1804 the first cargo 
was imported from China. A profitable business with 
the "Northwest Coast" naturally followed. 

The year 1812 saw the town at the zenith of its com- 
mercial prosperity. It could then have numbered not 
more than 2,800 people, of whom 2,600 were white. 
(The blacks for many years constituted from six to seven 
per cent of the population, possibly because of the voy- 
ages to Africa.) The leading merchant of the town was 
James DeWolf, a man of extraordinary business ability, 

1913.] The Most Successful American Privateer. 13 

who was afterward chosen to represent Rhode Island 
in the United States Senate. His business had suffered 
largely at the hands of the British war vessels and he 
had kept an accurate account of his losses. When the 
Declaration of War was proclaimed, June 19, 1812, he 
felt that his day of retaliation had come. Eleven days 
after the proclamation he sent to the Secretary of War 
this letter. 

Bristol, R. I., Juno 30, 1812. 
The Honorable William Eustis, 
Secretary of War: — 

Sir; I have purchased and now ready for sea, an armed brig, 
(one of the most suitable in this country for a privateer) of 
one hundred and sixty tons burden, mounting eighteen guns, 
and carries one hundred and twenty men, called the Yankee, 
commanded by Oliver Wilson. Being desirous that she should 
be on her cruise as soon as possible, I beg that you will cause 
a commission to be forwarded as soon as practicable to the 
Collector of the District, that this vessel may not be detained. 
1 am very respectfully, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

James De Wolf. 

The commission of the Yankee was issued July 13, 
1812. , Her owners were James DeWolf and John Smith, 
the latter owning but one quarter of the vessel. Her 
officers were Oliver Wilson, Captain; Manly Sweet, 
James Usher, 2d, and Thomas II . Russell, Lieutenants. 
Captain Wilson was only twenty-six years old. The 
Articles of Agreement under which the privateeer sailed 
were as follows: — 

Articles of Agreement between the Owners, Officers 

and Company of the Private armed Vessel of 

War, "Yankee." 

1st. It is agreed by the parties that the Owners fit the 
Vessel for sea and provide her with great guns, small arms, 
powder, shot and all other warlike stores, also with suitable 
medicines and every other thing necessary fur such a vessel. 
and her cruise for all of which no deduction is to be made from 
the shares, for which the Owners or their substitutes shall 
receive or draw One Half the nett proceeds of all such Prizes 
or prize as may be taken, and the other half shall be the prop- 

14 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

erty of the Vessel's Company to be divided in proportions as 
mentioned in the 15th article, except the cabin-stores and fur- 
niture which belong to the Captain. 

2d. That for preserving due decorum on board said vessel, 
no man is to quit or go out of her on board any other vessel, 
or on shore without having first obtained leave of the Com- 
manding officer on board, under the penalty of such punish- 
ment or fine as shall be decreed by the Captain and Officers. 

3d. That the Cruise shall be where the Owners or the major 
part of them shall direct. 

4th. If any person shall be found a RINGLEADER of 
any Mutiny, or causing disturbance, or refuse to obey the 
Captain, or any Officer, behave with Cowardice, or get drunk 
in time of action, he or they shall forfeit his or their shares of 
any dividend, or be otherwise punished at the discretion of 
the Captain and Officers. 

5th. If any person shall steal or convert to his own use 
any part of a prize or prizes, or be found pilfering any moWy 
or other things belonging to this Vessel, her Officers, or Com- 
pany, and be thereof convicted by her Officers, he shall be 
punished and forfeit as aforesaid. 

6th. That whoever first spies a prize or sail, that proves 
worth 100 dollars a share, shall receive Fifty Dollars from the 
gross sum; and if orders are given for boarding, the first man 
on the deck of the Enemy shall receive Half a share to be de- 
ducted from the gross sum of prize-money. 

7th. That if any one of the said Company shall in time of 
action lose an eye or a joint, he shall receive Fifty Dollars, and 
if he lose a leg or an arm, lie shall receive Three Hundred 
Dollars to be deducted out of the Gross sum of Prize-money. 

8th. That if any of said Company shall strike or assault 
any male prisoner, or rudely treat any female prisoner, he 
shall be punished or fined as the Officers shall decree. 

9th. That if any of the said Company shall die or be killed 
in the voyage, and any prizes be taken before or during the 
action in which he is so killed, his share or shares shall be paid 
to his legal representatives. 

10th. That whoever deserts the said Vessel, within the 
time hereinafter mentioned, shall forfeit his Prize-money to 
the Owners and Company of the said Vessel, his debts to any 
person on board being first paid out of it, provided it does not 
amount to more than one half the same. 

11th. That on the death of the Captain, the command to 
devolve on the next in command and so in rotation. 

12th. That no one of said company shall sell any more 
than one half his share or right of claim thereto of any prize 
previous to her being taken. 

1913.] The Most Successful American Privateer. 15 

13th. That the Captain and Officers shall appoint an agent 
of said Vessel's company for and during the term of the said 

14th. That all and everyone of said Company do agree to 
serve on board of said Vessel for the term of four months, 
conformable to the terms herein mentioned, beginning the 
said term at the time of her departure from the harbour of 

loth. That One Half of the Nett proceeds of all prizes 
taken by the said Vessel which is appropriated to the Vessel's 
Company shall be divided among them in the following man- 
ner (viz) To the Captain sixteen Shares and all such privileges 
and freedoms as are allowed to the Captains of Private armed 
Vessels of War from this Port. 

To the First Lieutenant nine Shares. To the 2d and 3d 
Lieutenants and Surgeon eight Shares each. Prize masters 
and Master's Mate and Captain of Marines six Shares each; 
Carpenter, Boatswain and Gunner four Shares each. Boat- 
swain's Mates two and one half Shares each. The residue to 
be divided among the Company in equal Shares excepting 
Landsmen or raw hands who draw one and one half Shares 
each, and boys who draw one Share each. Ten Shares to 
be reserved to the order of the Captain to be distributed by 
him to such as he may deem deserving among the Vessel's 

The Yankee was immediately and immensely success- 
ful. In this respect she was unlike the other privateers 
of the "War of 1812." It is a mistake to suppose that 
the business of privateering was, as a rule, a successful 
one. Most of the vessels engaged in it barely paid their 
expenses. To very many the cruise resulted only in a 
loss. Much depended on the sailing qualities of the ship, 
and the way in which she was handled; but much more 
depended upon sheer luck. The privateers, as a rule, 
did an enormous amount of damage to the shipping of 
the enemy without reaping any corresponding advantage 
themselves. The Yankee, however, not only inflicted 
enormous damage upon the enemy but was also enor- 
mously profitable to her owners. 

Her officers on her first cruise were Oliver Wilson, 
Captain, and Manly Sweet, James Usher, 2d, and Thomas 
PL Russell, Lieutenants. She carried a crew of 115 

16 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

men (they must have been packed like sardines), and 
made for the coast of Nova Scotia. One of her first 
prizes was the Royal Bounty, a full rigged .ship of 658 
tons (about four times the size of the Yankee, but 
manned by a (Tew of only 25 men). The Bounty was 
taken after a running fight in which three Americans 
were wounded, while two of the English were killed and 
seven wounded. The boldness of Captain Wilson in 
attacking a vessel so much larger than his own was 
remarkable, but the end justified his conduct. As a rule 
the privateers avoided engagements with ships of superi- 
or size, remembering that, primarily, their object was not 
to fight battles for the glory of the flag, but to capture 
ships for their own pecuniary advantage. They could 
and did fight bravely and successfully upon occasion, 
but, ordinarily, deemed it wiser to show their heels to a 
superior foe. Nine other prizes were taken on the first 
cruise of less than three months, the most valuable of 
which was the ship Francis whose cargo netted more 
than $200,000 to her captors. That first cruise paid for 
the brigantine several times over, and resulted in a 
dividend of more than $700 per share. 

Small wonder then that the Bristol sailors almost 
fought for a place on her decks for her second cruise, 
when she sailed again from the harbor on the fifteenth 
of October. The Journal of that second cruise is pub- 
lished in full as a part of this paper. Captain Wilson's 
instructions this time were to scour the west coast of 
Africa and to come home in the track of vessels sailing 
to Europe from Brazil and the West Indies. After a 
hundred and fifteen days the Yankee came sailing back 
into her harbor with a prize on each side. The dividend 
for each share in the second cruise was $338.40. 

On the 10th of May 1813, the brigantine was com- 
missioned for her third cruise. Elisha Snow was her 
Captain. The Lieutenants were Thomas Jones, Samuel 
Barton and George A. Bruce. British war vessels were 
swarming along the coast. Captain Snow learned that 
a frigate and a fourteen-gun brig were waiting for him 

1913.] The Most Successful American Privateer. 17 

near Block Island. Choosing his time with care he sailed 
from Newport on the 20th of May and steered joyfully 
for British waters. His instructions were to "take 
enough prizes to make up a handsome cruise, calculating 
one-half the prizes to be retaken." Three months later 
he was again lying at anchor in Bristol harbor. Seven 
prizes were taken on this cruise but most of them were 
recaptured. The most important of them was the ship 
Thames, of 312 tons burden, with 287 bales of cotton 
on board. Vessel and cargo were valued at $110,000. 
The prize money for each share was $173.54. 

The fourth cruise was almost a failure. A new set of 
officers was on board. They were Thomas Jones, Cap- 
tain, and Thomas Milton, George Eddy and Sampson 
Gullifer, Lieutenants. All told there were 109 persons 
on the ship. Among the crew we still see the names 
of Jack Jibsheet and Cuffee Cockroach enumerated as 
cabin boys. They seem to have been steadily attached 
to the vessel. Almost all the names of the ship's 
company were British. It is very likely, however, 
that the two cabin boys, notwithstanding their pure 
Anglo-Saxon names, may have been of African lineage. 
The instructions this time were to cruise "on the track 
of homeward bound vessels near the Grand Banks." 
Prizes were to make for Nantucket Shoals and to get 
into the first port on the Vineyard Sound, avoiding 
Boston. But two prizes reached port, and the dividend 
for each share was only $17.29. 

There was no competition for berths on the fifth cruise. 
Indeed, some of the sailors swam ashore before the pri- 
vateer left the harbor of Bristol. All the probabilities 
seemed to point rather to a prison in England than a 
profit in America. Elisha Snow was again in command. 
His Lieutenants were Samuel Barton, John Smith and 
Francis Elliott. Thomas Jones, the Captain of the 
voyage before, was 2d Captain. The cruise was not 
finished as planned because the Yankee was driven into 
New Bedford by an English man-of-war and the crew 
deserted almost to a man. Four prizes only were taken, 

18 American Antiquarian Society. [April, ] 

three of which were of no value whatever. But the 
fourth reached Portland, Maine, in safety. She was a 
full rigged ship, the San Jose Indiano, and with her cargo ! 
she sold for more than half a million dollars. The voy- I 
age that had been undertaken with the greatest hesita- 
tion was the most profitable of ail. The two gentlemen 
of color, Jibsheet and Cockroach, received respectively 
$738.19 and $1,121.88 as their dividends. Captain 
Snow's "lay" was $15,789.69, and the owners realized 
$223,313.10. It was the luckiest cruise made by any 
privateer during the war. Naturally resulted a season 
of great hilarity in the home port. Imagine the effect 
upon a little town of less than 3,000 people today if a 
million dollars were suddenly and unexpectedly poured * 
into the pockets of its people! Notwithstanding 1 the 
immense risks there were volunteers enough for the 
sixth cruise — which was to be the last one. 

Captain Snow had apparently decided to let well 
enough alone, for William C. Jenckes was the new Cap- 
tain. The 2d Captain was Benjamin K. Churchill, 
"a fellow of infinite humor" as we shall presently 
see. A. B. Hetherington, Henry Ward well and Sam- 
uel Grafton were the Lieutenants. The times had 
become most strenuous as may be judged from this 
section of the sailing directions. "You must depend 
principally upon the goods you take on board to make 
your cruise, as the prizes you man will be very uncer- 
tain. " The cruise lasted 105 days. Five prizes were 
taken and reported to the owners in a letter written by 
Second Captain Churchill. Only one of these brought 
money to their captors. This was the brig Courtney, 
which with its cargo sold for $70,000. One was the 
General Welle sley, an East Indian teakbuilt ship of GOO 
tons, in which its captors at first thought they saw a 
second Sail Jose Indiano. Her value was estimated at 
upwards of $200,000. She was ordered to make for 
the port of Charleston, S. C, but, with two of her prize 
crew and 52 of her original crew of Lascars, was lost on 
Charleston Bar. Captain Churchill ended his letter 

1913.] The Most Successful American Privateer. 19 

as follows:— P. S. "I have lost one of my legs on this 
cruise. " 

Less than three years was the Yankee upon the seas 
as a Private Armed Vessel of War. In those years she 
captured British property of the value of more than 
five million dollars. She sent into the town of Britsol 
a million of dollars as the profit from her six cruises. 
No other Privateer sailing from an American port ever 
established such a record. 


(Kept by Noah Jones, Captain's Clerk). 
Brig Yankee, Oliver Wilson, Commander 

Thursday, 15th October, 1812. 

At 4 p. m. Capt. Wilson, accompanied by his Lieutenants, 
Master, Surgeon and Clerk, came on board. All hands were 
piped to muster, and on inspection the Commander found his 
crew consisted of ninety-five as prime fellows as ever went 
to sea. 

N. B. The Yankee is completely equipped with arms, am- 
munition, provisions and other necessary articles for a six 
months cruise. She mounts 14 guns at present — 8 twelve 
pound carronades, 4 long sixes, and two long fours — has one 
long double-fortified twelve pounder (a v beautiful piece) in 
her hold, to' be hereafter mounted, — with GO stand of arms and 
a large quantity of pistols, cutlashes and boarding pikes. 

Friday, 16th October 1812 

The Commander quartered the officers and seamen at their 
several stations in time of action, regulated the Messes, fixed 
the allowance of provisions, water, etc., ordered a regular Bill 
of Fare, and pointed out to every officer and man his duty on 
board the Yankee. At 9 a. m. Lieutenant Hardiman of the 
Army came on board to enquire for a deserter. Capt. Wilson 
immediately ordered the Boatswain's Mate to pipe all hands 
on deck and requested Lieutenant Hardiman to examine them 
man by man, to discover his deserter. He did so without 

At 2 p. m. the wind coming suddenly round to the N. W. 
Captain Wilson gave orders to loose the foretopsail, send up 
the foretop-gallant yard, fire a gun, and set the signals for 

20 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

sailing. At 4 the wind shifted to the N. E.— dark and cloudy 
with appearance of bad weather. At 5 clewed up the foretop- 
sail and got the barge in upon deck. 

Saturday, 17th October 1812 

At daylight sailing orders were issued by the Commander. 
Loosed square foresail, foretopsail and mainsail, fired gun, 
and set our colours. At 6 a. m. unmoored and got underway; 
when abeam of the Private Armed Schooner Tom of Baltimore, 
Thomas Wilson Commander, the officers and company of the 
Yankee gave them three cheers which was immediately re- 
turned. Fired a salute of three guns as we passed Fort Wal- 
cott. Wind N. N. W. fair weather and extremely pleasant. 
At 7 passed R. I. Light, At y 2 past 7 gibed ship to the S. S. E. 
— set all drawing sails — considerable swell. At l /z past 9 
a. m. Block Island bore west, distant 5 leagues; — from which 
we take our departure on our cruise. At meridian discovered 
a sail at a great distance — could not distinguish what she was. 
Lat. 40°56'. 

1st Day— Sunday 18th October 1812 

First part light winds and hazy weather. 2 p. m. discovered 
a schooner ahead standing to the westward. At 3 saw a large 
ship, also standing to the westward. At 4 p. m. piped all 
hands to quarters and exercised the seamen and marines at 
the great guns and small arms. The Commander found them 
well disciplined and fit for immediate service. 5 a. m. dis- 
covered a sail 2 points on the lee bow. Took in the studding 
sails on the stabbord side and hauled up to the eastward. 
6.30 a. m. saw another sail right ahead; took in larboard stud- 
dingsails and royal, and brought her close upon the wind — 
heading N. E. At 9 a. m. having lost sight of the sail kept 
away to the S. E. and set studding sails. Latter part gentle 
breezes and hazy weather. At meridian no sail in sight. 
Course S. E. b S. Lat. Obs. 39°51'. 

(For several days the Journal chronicles mainly the condition of the 
weather and the necessary changes in the sails. The fact was quickly 
established that the vessel was "perfectly staunch and strong and a must 
excellent sea boat." The brigantine was always a most remarkable 
sailor. She answered the helm readily and scudded over the waves while 
other vessels were still courting the capricious winds. After the war, 
when she was simply a merchant vessel plying between Bristol and the 
Island of Cuba, she made some runs between the Moro and Block Island 
light in shorter time than that scheduled for the regular trips of the 
steamship lines. With a man o' war's crew to handle her, her speed must 
have been marvellous. Only the more important portions of the Journal 
will henceforth be printed. The total number of persons on board when the 
"Muster Roll" was called on the second day was one hundred. Ed.) 

1913.] The Most Successful American Privateer. 21 

2d Day— Monday October 19th 

The log ends with the following paragraph. "The Surgeon 
has been much indisposed with seasickness since he left New- 
port. He finds the best remedy to be sleep. There' is only 
one person (John Briggs) with a sore thumb on the Surgeon's 

(Apparently an epidemic of sore thumbs had been feared. Ed.) 
3d Day— Tuesday October 20th 
. . . . 7 p. m. Shipped a heavy sea abaft the beam 
which stove in all three of the Arm Chests, and capsized the 
musquets, bayonets, cutlashes, pistols, armourer's tools etc. 
into the lee scuppers. The Carpenter repaired the damage 
as soon as possible and replaced the arms. . . No sail in 
sight. . . The Surgeon still indisposed. John Briggs and 

Lat. Obs. Sons 7 . 

4th Day— Wednesday October 21st 
The officers of Marines, Armourer and his mates 
busy in cleaning arms from the rust contracted during the bad 
weather, oiling them, and stowing them in the arm-chests in 
good order. John Briggs, Cyrus Simmons and Ned Ingraham 
on the Doctor's list. 

5th Day—Thursday October 22d 
. At 4 p. m. all hands piped to quarters. The 
Commander again pointed out to every man his station; ap- 
pointed Lieutenants Barton and Jone^ to lead the 1st and 2d 
Divisions of Boarders, and distributed the swords, cutlashes 
and pistols among the seamen. The officers then exercised 
the seamen and marines at the great guns and small arms, 
going through the usual manouvres during an engagement. 
After which all hands were summoned aft and the Commander 
read over certain Instructions regulating, under severe penal- 
ties, the conduct of the officers and crew, upon all occasions, 
particularly in time of action, or when on board an enemy's 
vessel. . . . The Surgeon still indisposed and ate no 
dinner. Briggs, Simmons, Ingraham and Angell on the Doc- 
tor's list with trilling complaints. Lat. Obs. 35°24'. 

(From this time forward Lieut. Barton is very much in the foreground. 
He was a near relative of Col. Barton of "The Rhode Island Line, " who 
in the Revolutionary War had distinguished himself by his daring capture 
of the British General Prescott within the Enemy's lines. It goes without 
saying, therefore, that he was quite devoid of fear. In after life he still 
followed the sea even though he had become extremely corpulent and had 
acquired an abdominal development which compelled universal attention 
if not admiration. Once he was chased by a French Privateer. A shot 

22 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

which happened to strike the ship's cat scattered her entrails all over the 
deck. The cabin boy cast a startled glance at the dead cat, then looked 
at his Captain and was immediately doubled up with laughter. " Well, " 
said the Captain, "what are you laughing about now?" "Nothing," 
said the boy, "only I was thinking what an awful mess there would be if 
one of those balls should strike you in the belly." Ed.) 

6th Day Friday October 23d 
At 6 a. m. the man at the. mast head called out a 
sail bearing N. b E. distant about two leagues. 6.30 a. m. 
piped all hands to quarters, loosed the guns, and cleared for 
action. 7.20 a. in. fired a gun without shot, upon which the 
sail hove to. . At 8 a. m. ran under the lee of a large 

copper-bottomed American ship and sent the barge on board. 
Found her to be the Ariadne of Boston, Captain Bartlett 
Holmes, from Alexandria bound to Cadiz with a full cargo of 
flour, 17 days out. Capt. Holmes informed us that on the 
11th inst. he was boarded by an officer from the United States, 
Commodore Decatur. (The President, Congress and Argus 
were in company standing to the eastward.) The Ariadne's 
crew having mutinied Capt. Holmes requested Com. Decatur 
to take four of the ringleaders on board the frigate, which 
he did accordingly. Capt. H. mentioned that his ship had 
sprung a leak, and being short handed, with a disorderly muti- 
nous crew, he was bound home again in distress. The Com- 
mander put a letter on board, directed to the owners, informing 
them of the good health and spirits of the crew, and our sit- 
uation in Lat. 25° N. and Long. 56° W. . . . • 

7th Day Saturday 24th Oct. 

. . . . . Lat. 3o°9' 

8th Day Sunday 25th Oct. 

Briggs, Simmons, Lewis and Angell on the Sur- 
geon's list with light complaints. Lat. Obs. 35°15'. Long, 
pr. lunar Obs. at 12 Meridian 53°3'. 

9th Day Monday 26th Oct> 
Fair weather with strong gales from the westward. Scud- 
ding before the wind under square-foresail, fore topsail and 
foretopmast staysail. At 5 p. m. discovered from the deck 
(owing to the negligence of the man at the foretop) two large 
sail in our wake, distant about three leagues, standing after 
us with their topgallant sails up. Immediately hauled up to 
the S. E. and set square-foresail, single-reefed mainsail and 
fore and aft foresail. The sails astern frequently luffed up 
and yawned off and when we saw them last stood to the N. E. 
Frequent squalls with rain and a tremendous 

1913.] The Most Successful American Privateer. 23 

sea. Course S. E. b E. under three-reefed mainsail close- 
reefed square-foresail, and double-reefed foretopsail, with the 
foretopmast-staysail. Same persons on the Surgeon's list. 
Shipped a great deal of water upon deck, the cumins of the 
sea frequently coming on board and penetrating every part 
of the vessel. Lai, 34°40'. 

10th Day Tuesday 27th Oct. 
. . . . No sail in sight and nothing remarkable. Lat. 
Obs. 33°26'. N. B. It is something singular that since we 
left port we have had only one pleasant day. There has been 
a continual succession of gales of wind from all parts of the 
compass, attended with torrents of rain, squalls, whirlwinds, 
thunder and lightning, and a tremendous sea frequently break- 
ing on board and occasioning considerable damage; carrying 
away several spars and staving the arm-chests. Indeed it 
may be said that our vessel has sailed thus far under but not 
over the Atlantic Ocean. 

11th Day Wednesday 28th Oct. 
. Middle and latter part of the day stiff gales 
with a high sea. Shipped a great deal of water upon deck. 
Lat. Obs. 32°5 / . 

12th Day Thursday 29th Oct. 

During these 24 hours strong gales with frequent squalls of 
wind and rain, and a very high sea frequently breaking on 
board. Lat. Obs. 30°27'. Lunar Obs. at 23 M. past Meridian 
41°55'41". Cyrus Simmons, John Briggs, Amos A. Allen, 
James Angell, Ebenezer Byrum and William Redding on the 
Surgeon's list. 

13th Day Friday 30th Oct. 

(A delightful change.) At meridian the weather began to 
moderate. 1 p. m. fair weather with a clear horizon and the 
sea going down. Let all the reefs out of the mainsail and 
square-foresail, sent up maintopmast, rigged out the jib-boom 
and set the jib, At 9 p. m. took a single reef in the fore-top- 
sail and mainsail. During the night fresh breezes and clear 
weather. Lat. Obs. 28°43'. Long, per Lunar Obs. at IS m. 
past 10— 40°11 / . 

14th Day Saturday 31st Oct. 
Lat. 29°N. & Long. 40° 20' W. At G a. m. Discovered a sail 
from the masthead at a great distance bearing W. S. W. Light 
breezes from the north inclining to a calm. Piped all hands 
upon deck, set all drawing sails, in chase and got out the sweeps. 
9 a. m. found we came up rapidly with the chase which ap- 
peared to be a brig standing to the S. W. At meridian spoke 

24 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

the Portuguese Brig Henriette, Capt. Jenkins, from Madeira, 
18 days out, in ballast, bound to Philadelphia. Capt. Jenkins 
informed us that on the 21st he spoke an American ship and 
brig bound home; on the 22d he was boarded by an officer 
from a British Frigate. Captain Jenkins left at Madeira 
several American vessels bound home with full cargoes; also 
two English ships loading with wine for the West Indies. 
Shortly before Capt. Jenkins left Madeira an English brig 
loaded with wine sailed for the West Indies, likewise three 
English East Indiamen with full cargoes, under the cunvoy 
of a British Frigate as far as Palmas. There were no King's 
vessels at Madeira. An American Privateer, owned at New 
Orleans, was cruising off Madeira and had taken several prizes!! 
Capt. Jenkins being short of bread our Commander supplied 
him with this necessary article, and received in return sunn; 
vinegar, fish and fruit. Permitted the Henriette to proceed. 
. . . . Lat, Obs. 27°40'. (Wrote a letter to the Own- 
ers by the Henriette, Capt. Jenkins, informing them of our 
situation and of the good health of our Officers and Company.) 

15th Day Sunday 1st Nov. 
. . . Nothing remarkable. Lat. Obs. 27°14' N. 
Long. 38°28' W. 

16th Day Monday 2d Nov. 
At 4 p. m. piped all hands to quarters and the Officers exam- 
ined them man by man, to discover whether they were neat and 
clean in their persons and dress — according to the Command- 
er's instructions — to prevent fevers and the scurvey dining 
a long cruise. The crew were then summoned aft, and the 
Captain's Clerk read the General Instructions to the Officers 
and Company, regulating their conduct upon all occasions 
during the cruise. From 8 a. m. till 4 p. m. the Watches em- 
ployed about ship's duty; the Carpenter and his Mates busy 
about making new arm-chests; sail-makers in repairing ring- 
tale; Officers of Marines and Armorer in cleaning arms, and 
numbering muskets and cartridge boxes, and seamen and 
marines in mending rigging, drying sails, and other necessary 
duty. . . . The Surgeon is quite indisposed with the 
headache, loss of appetite and low spirits. Lat. Obs. 2G°1G / . 

17th Day Tuesday 3d Nov. 
. The watch only employed on ship's duty. Sam- 
uel Boynton and Ned Ingraham on the Surgeon's list. Lat. 
Obs. 25°3'. 

18th Day Wednesday 4th Nov. 
. Several tropic birds in sight. . . . The 
Prize-Master, Quartermaster's Mates, inferior officers and 


1913.] The Most Successful American Privateer. 25 

nearly all hands busy in repairing the nettings, bulwarks and 
side-cloths .... Lat. Obs. 23°44' (The Commander 
issued particular written instructions to his Officers, prescrib- 
ing their respective duties upon all occasions during the cruise. 
These instructions were drawn according to the customs and 
usages of the British and American navies.) 

19th Day Thursday 5th Nov. 

At sunrise discovered a sail bearing 2 points on the larboard 
bow. Jibed ship to the E. N. E. and set all drawing sails in 
chase. At 8 a. in. found the strange sail to be a brig with her 
starboard tacks on board, standing to the westward. 9 a. in. 
fired a gun to windward, upon which the sail luffed up and 
• showed Spanish colours, and then bore down for us. Took 
in all the light sails and then hove to. At 10 a. m. the sail 
came under our lee and we sent our barge on board. Found 
her to be the Spanish San Jose, alias El Pajaro, Captain Mig- 
uel Burgas, from Cadiz, 20 days out, bound to Santa Martha, 
or Porto Cabello, with a full cargo of red wines, aguadiente, 
fruit, sweet oil, soaps, olives, stationary, (sic) musical instru- 
ments and ladies' veils. When two days out Capt. Burgas 
saw a Spanish schooner standing for the Canaries. The 
San Jose left at Cadiz several American bessels bound to sea 
under Spanish colours; also several English men of war, and 
transports. Capt. Burgas informed us that on the 25th of 
August the French army raised the siege of Cadiz, and re- 
treated with great expedition, having previously destroyed 
their artillery. It was reported at Cadiz that there had been 
several skirmishes between the French and Russian armies but 
no decisive battle. Having examined the papers of the San 
Jose, and found the vessel and cargo to be bona fide Spanish 
property, permitted her to proceed on her voyage. 
Lat. Obs. 22°49'. Long. D. R. 26°57' San Jose Long. 25 d. 
Cadiz. Surgeon's list. James Angell, Cyrus Simmons, John 
Briggs, Samuel Boynton, Joseph Lewis and John Koster. 

20th Day Friday 0th Nov. 

At 1 p. m. being in Lat. 22°49', the Crew of the Yankee 
preparing to celebrate Old Neptune's ceremonies on passing 
the Tropics. Accordingly the old Sea God, attended by his 
Lady, barbers and constables, dressed in the most fantastic 
manner, with painted faces, and swabs upon their heads, hailed 
our brig, came on board, were received with a salute and 
three cheers, demanded of Captain Wilson whether he had 
any of his sons on board, and welcomed the Yankee into his 
dominions. On being answered in the affirmative he asked 
permission to initiate the marines and raw hands into the 

26 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

usual mysteries on such occasions. He then examined the 
Surgeon and being convinced that he came to sea to take care 
of his children when they were sick, he excused him from being 
shaved with an iron hoop, and from passing through the other 
disagreeable parts of the ceremony. After which Neptune 
and his companions went forward and regularly initiated about 
one fourth of our crew into all the curious forms requisite to 
make them true sons of the ocean. The several candidates 
for a seaman's character were properly painted, slushed, 
shaved, ducked, questioned and sworn. Their singular ques- 
tions and answers excited infinite laughter and merriment. 
After the ceremony concluded, the Commander, Officers and 
whole crew joined in a Ducking match, which aided in great 
good humour and pleasantry. The remainder of the day and 
evening were devoted to fencing, boxing, wrestling, singing, 
drinking, laughing, and every species of mirth and fun. Lat; 
Obs. 21°58'. 

21st Day Saturday 7th Nov. 

. Nothing remarkable. . . Same persons on 
Surgeon's list. Lat. Obs. 21°34 / . 

22d Day Sunday 8th Nov. 

. Cleaned out the cabin and got all the baggage 
and trunks on deck. Examined the Officers and crew, man 
by man, and found them neat and clean. At 10 a. m. the 
Commander and Officers attended prayers in the cabin. The 
Marines employed in singing psalms and the sailors in washing 
and mending their clothes. Lat. Obs. 21°1G / . Lunar Obs. 
at 5-20 was 31°17'. Same persons on the Surgeon's list. 

23d Day Monday 9th Nov. 

James Angel I, Cyrus Simmons, John Briggs, 
Samuel Boynton, Joseph Lewis, John Koster and James Craw- 
ford on the Surgeon's list with various complaints— none 
dangerous. Lat. 20°4'. A singular circumstance occurred 
to day. On opening a dolphin which one of the Prize-Masters 
caught we found a pistol ball in him which had been discharged 
about an hour before. 

24th Day Tuesday 10th Nov. 
..■•-.. . . Nothing remarkable. Lat. Obs. 20°19'. 

25th Day Wednesday 11th Nov. 
. . . . At 10 a. m. all hands were exercised in firing 
with the musket at a target. Found most of the crew to be 

excellent marksmen Observed the water to 

be considerably colored. Sounded with 100 fathoms. No 

1913.] The Most Successful American Privateer. 


bottom. Lat. Obs. 19°11'. Same persons on Surgeon's list; 
none incapable of duty. 

26th Day Thursday 12th Nov. 
. . . At 4 p. m. the Marines trained to the Manual 
Exercise; also to several new manouvres a la mode de Francois. 
The Boarders amuse themselves with fencing and the rest of 
the crew act as spectators. . . . Lat. Obs. 18°19'. 
'Long, per Lunar Obs. at 2 p. m. 28°53'30". Crawford and 
Koster struck off the Surgeon's list. The rest recovering fast. 

27th Day Friday 13th Nov. 
. At 4 p. m. the Commander exercised the Officers, 
— and the Captain of Marines his men and the Boarders, — 
to the use of the musket according to the French system by 
loading and firing without using the ramrod. ... At 
Yi past 11 a.m. Captain Wilson called out "Land ho! right 
ahead!!" ... At meridian found the land to be, by 
an observation of the sun, the Island of St. Anthony, one of 
the Cape de Verds, situated in Lat. N. 17°20' and 24°59'W. 
Long. Lat. Obs. 17° 15'. The island bore when first we made 
it S. E. b. E — distant about 5 miles. Cyrus Simmons, James 
Angell, James Thomas, Watson Morris, Aaron Mason, Samuel 
Boynton and Ned Ingraham on the Surgeon's list; none in- 
capable of duty. On examination the Commander finds 
Master Snow's lunar observations to be very correct, and that 
the dead reckoning could not be depended on. THUS in 
27 days we have run a distance of 3,500 miles, notwithstanding 
occasional head winds and a great deal of light calm weather. 
Nothing very remarkable occurred during our passage. 

28th Day Saturday 14th Nov. 

(Variable winds and frequent changing of sails. Strong 
gales and heavy squalls). No land in sight. Lat. Obs. 

29th Day Sunday 15th Nov. 

(Sighted several of the Cape Verde Islands) Hazy weather 
and frequent squalls. Made and took in sail occasionally. 
Lat. Obs. 16°21'. 

30th Day Monday 15th Nov. 

Fresh breezes and cloudy weather. At 4 p. m. came to 
in a wide bay at the south end of the Island of St. Nicholas; 
out with the barge and the Commander, Surgeon and Captain 
of Marines went on shore unarmed. Found the Island to be 
mountainous, barren and uncultivated. Saw only a few small 
huts near the shore inhabited by blacks who led us to a well 
of water, brackish and sulphurous. They told us we could 

28 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

fill only three barrels a day, and that there was no anchorage 
except within cable length of this iron bound coast. We saw 
the wreck of a large armed ship which was cast away there a 
short time before. They informed us there was a town or 
village two leagues distant, situated in a fine valley producing 
corn, grapes, fruits etc., where the Governor resided, but that 
wood and provisions were very dear. Capt. Wilson therefore 
concluded it would not be advisable to anchor there, purchased 
a few pigs, returned on board, and set sail with a lair wind 
for the Island of St. Jago. ... At meridian having 
run down the west side of the Isle of May, and looked into the 
port where there were only two small Portuguese boats, we 
wore ship and stood over for St. Jago. The Isle of May ap- 
pears more fertile than any of the Cape de Verdes we have 
seen yet. Habitations are scattered over every part of the 
Island and salt works appear along the beach. There is a 
small town composed of 15 or 20 houses at the south end of 
the Island but no fortifications that we could discover. Isle 
of May Lat, S. W. pt. 15° 4' N. Long. 22°46' W. Joseph 
Antony, Henry Mitchell, and George Schoonerson added to 
the Surgeon's list. 

31st Day Tuesday 17th Nov. 

The Officers and Company feasted most sumptuously on 
the pigs they bought at St. Nicholas. At 1 p. m. came to 
anchor in the harbour of Port Praya, Island of St. Jago. We 
ran from the Isle of May to that place in 1% hours, a distance 
of 30 miles, having a fine breeze from the N. N. E. and all 
sails set. At 2 p. m. the Commander, attended by his Surgeon 
and Clerk, went on shore. He reported himself to the Gov- 
ernor-General and Intendant as the Armed American Brig 
Yankee, and requested permission to obtain a supply of water, 
wood and fresh provisions. This permission was immediately 
granted, and the Governor expressed much satisfaction, and 
some degree of surprise, at seeing an American armed vessel 
in this distant part of the world. He inquired very particular- 
ly concerning the events of the war between America and 
England, and regretted that this circumstance had deprived 
these islands of the American commerce. He said they were 
in great want of flour, bread, rice, etc., and offered a supply of 
every article our vessel wanted in return for those articles. 
He informed us no English vessels had touched at this island 
for some weeks past, but that there was an old British brig on 
the south side of St. Anthony loading with salt for the Brazils. 
The Governor further mentioned that the Private Armed 
American Ship called the Alfred, Captain Williams, touched 
at this island a short time since and obtained a supply of water 

1913.] The Most Successful American Privateer. 29 

and provisions. The Alfred had taken and manned two val- 
uable prizes, and was then bound on a long cruise. On taking 
leave the General told Capt. Wilson that he should expect the 
customary salute which would be returned. 6 p. m. the barge 
returned on board. At 8 a. m. we fired a regular United States 
salute of 17 guns which was immediately returned by an equal 
number from the town. Part of the Officers and men em- 
ployed in filling water and the remainder about ship's duty. 

32d Day Wednesday 18th Nov. 

4 p. m. got all our water on board. 8 a m. The Intendant- 
General, Dr. Madina r came on board with the Governor- 
General's compliments on our arrival. He remained and 
took breakfast with us, and appeared pleased with the appear- 
ance of the Yankee. 9 a. m. Capt. Wilson went on shore with 
part of the crew and such articles as he had agreed to exchange 
for fresh provisions. On examining the Intendant's book of 
entries find that two English brigs from London, bound to the 
Cape of Good Hope, touched here for water on the 29th ult. 
and also the Sloop of War Morjiana, Capt. Georges, with des- 
patches for the same place. The Officers and Company have 
caught a great quantity of fish of different kinds since Ave came 
to anchor. . . . William lledding and Preserved Atwood 
added to the Surgeon's list. 

33d Day Thursday 19th Nov. 

First part of these 24 hours got all our wood and fresh stock 
on board. The Commander and several of his Officers dined 
with the Intendant. At J^ past 9 p. m. they returned on 
board. Immediately got under way with a fresh breeze. 
N. B. The harbour of Port Praya is spacious, 
secure and of easy entrance, with good anchorage in 10 fath- 
oms water. The town, also called Praya, is situated on the 
top of a mountain, or rock, and encloses an extensive* plain, 
the houses forming nearly a circle. There is a small stone 
church and four other decent buildings. Both the port and 
town are well fortified, mounting at least 70 pieces of cannon. 
The garrison however is most miserable, being composed en- 
tirely of blacks without discipline, arms, or even decent cloth- 
ing. It is a singular fact that most of their musquets are 
without locks. We have not the least hesitation in saying 
that with thirty men we might have surprised and taken the 
town. The officers of the Yankee feel much gratified with the 
politeness and attentions they received from the Governor 
General Don Antonine Cortine Del Ancastra, and from the 
Intendant De Madina. They have obtained a sufficient 
supply of wood and water for at least two months, and as much 

30 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

live stock and fruits as they wished to take on board. These 
articles were purchased at a small expense. Port Pray a 
Lat. 14°52' N. Long. 23°30 W. Same persons on the Surgeon's 

34th Day Friday 20th Nov. 
. . . .. Nothing remarkable. Lat. Obs. 14°37'. 

35th Day Saturday 21st Nov. 
.... No sail or land in sight. Lat. Obs. 14°22'. 

36th Day Sunday 22d Nov. 
(Cape Verds again in sight). Lat. Obs. 14°26' Surgeon's 
list — James Thomas, Lemuel Baker, George Gunnerson, John 
Briggs, Lyman Peck, Asa Switchell, William Redding, Ned 
Ingraham, Joseph Lewis, James Angell and Gibsheet. None 
disabled from duty but Redding. 

37th Day Monday 23d Nov. 

Y2 P as t meridian the Island of Goree hove in sight distant 
about 2 leagues to windward. 1 p. m. saw a schooner under 
full sail standing out of Goree harbour towards us. Piped 
all hands to quarters. 2 p. m. the schooner tacked to wind- 
ward; immediately tacked ship and set all sail in chase. At 
3 passed within 5 miles of Goree. 1 Discovered a large English 
Brig and several small craft at anchor under the fort. 
Finding we came up rapidly with the chase, and believing her 
to be an armed vessel, again piped all hands to quarters and 
cleared for action. 9 p. m. hoisted a light on our fore rigging, 
and discharged several muskets as a signal for the chase to 
heave to; not obeying these signals fired a shot under her 
stern; still continuing her course fired one of the bow guns, 
well loaded, directly into her; ufcon which she immediately 
bore away, and ran down close under our lee. As she passed 
us Capt. Wilson hailed her with the usual questions, and by 
the answers found her to be "His Britannic Majesty's Schoon- 
er St. Jago, from Goree bound to Senegal." After which the 
€ ' British Commander hailed us and was told we were "The 

Armed American Brig Yankee") after which he demanded 
"How we dared to fire into His Majesty's schooner ami ordered 
us to send our boat on board." Captain Wilson replied "I 
will not, strike your colours or I will sink you." Instantly 
His Britannic Majesty's Schooner wore upon her keel, and 
luffed up close on the wind, to prepare (as we supposed) for 
action. Not thinking it advisable to engage a King's vessel, 

1 The name Goree waa until very recently applied to the part of the town of Bristol 
in which the negroea lived. 

1913.] The Most Successful American Privateer. 31 

without knowing her force, at close quarters during a dark 
night, we resolved to wait until daylight, and therefore stood 
after her under easy sail. At 11 p. m. the St. J ago fired a shot 
which passed over us; we returned the compliment by giving 
him Long Tom— doubly charged with round and langrage. 
We thus returned shot for shot until 1 p. m., when the Com- 
mander and Officers thinking it inadvisable to engage a gov- 
ernment vessel, where we should only get hard blows, and 
probably lose some spars and men, ordered the Master to 
make sail and stand to the W.S.W. to deceive the Enemy as 
to our cruising station. At 2 p. m. lost sight of him astern. 
The Officers and men remained at quarters upwards of 5 hours 

and displayed great resolution and courage 

Lat. Obs. 14°2'. 

38th Day Tuesday 24th Nov. 

. Land in sight. . . Nothing remarkable. Lat. 
Obs. 11°40'. 

39th Day Wednesday 25th Nov. 
. At 4 p. m. Edward James, one of the seamen, 
received 12 lashes, in the main rigging, in presence of the 
whole crew, as a punishment for stealing a shirt from one of 
the Marines. 2 John Koster struck oil" the Surgeon's List- — 
the other invalids recovering fast— none incapable of duty. 
Lat. Obs. 8°53'. 

40th Day Thursday 26th Nov. 
Nothing remarkable. . . No Obs. 

41st Day Friday 27th Nov. 
. At 6 a. m. Jonathan Whitmarsh saw a sail bear- 
ing N. b. E. distant about 3 leagues. Set all sail in chase 
7 a. m. discovered the sail to be a sloop. . . 
9 a. m. piped all hands to Quarters, 10 a. m. cleared for ac- 
tion and fired a gun without shot, upon which the sail bore 
down for us. 10.3P she came under our lee with English col- 
ours Hying at her main peak. Captain Wilson hailed her and 
ordered "her to strike her colours instantly, which she did ac- 
cordingly. Sent the barge on board. Found her to be the 
Sloop Mary Ann of London, Stewart Sutherland, Master, 
70 & 21/95 tons burden, copper-bottomed, armed with 4 
carriage guns, and navigated by 9 persons, trading upon the 
coast, with a cargo of sundries. She was last from Dick's 
Cove, bound to Sierra Leone. Upon examining the Mary 

2 This is the only record of a punishment inflicted upon one of the crew during the whole 
cruise. As will later appear one of the Officers became subject lor censure on severa 

32 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Ann and cargo it was not advisable to send her as a prize to 
America, but to take out of her the most valuable part of her 
cargo and then set her on fire. Accordingly we received on 
board the Yankee a quantity of gold dust (value unknown) 
some ivory, trade muskets, a few Calcutta goods, and .sundry 
small articles of no great value. We then set fire to the Mary 
Ann and made sail on our course. The probable value of the 
Mary Ann and her cargo might be $12,000. Lat. Obs. 7°29' 
N. Surgeon's list James Angell, George Gunnerson, Asa 
Switcheli, Joseph Butman, Anson A. Allen, John Briggs, 
& Samuel Boynton. Slight complaints, none disabled from 
duty. The weather becomes remarkably hot, with almost 
continual calms, light winds, thunder, lightning and rain. 

42d Day Saturday 28th Nov. 
. All hands employed in stowing away the ivory. 
.... Lat. Obs. 7°33'. 

43d Day Sunday 29th Nov. 
. . . . Nothing remarkable. . . . Invalids re- 
covering fast Lat. Obs. 7°13'. 

44th Day Monday 30th Nov. 
. . . . Nothing remarkable. . . (Sail sighted but 
lost) Lat. Obs. 6°47'. The weather becomes insuiferably hot. 
Almost continual calms, with a vertical sun. 

45th Day out— -1st Dec. 1812 
. . . . Nothing remarkable. Lat. Obs. 6°45'. 

46th Day Wednesday 2d Dec. 
. At 7 a. m..Abner Midget saw a sail right ahead 
distant about 5 leagues. Got out all the sweeps. 8 a. m. 
observed several water spouts under the lee — squally with 
flying clouds and rain. At 11 made out the chase to be a 
schooner standing to the eastward. At meridian still in chase 
of the schooner distant about 2 leagues. Lat. Obs. G°55'. 

47th Day Thursday 3d Dec. 
At meridian continued in chase of the sail ahead. } <> past 
12 got out the boats to assist the sweeps by towing. Found 
we came up rapidly with the chase. 2 p. in. tired a gun; 
hoisted English colours; not answered. Y2 past 2 p. m. gave 
her a gun, upon which the chase showed English colours. 
3 p. m. being distant about \ l /i miles hoisted American colours 
and commenced firing Long Tom, towing the Brig all the time 
with the boats. 4 p. m. got the boats astern, piped all hands 
to Quarters and cleared for action. Light airs and a smooth 
sea. Being now within good gun shot commenced a brisk 

1913.] The Most Successful American Privateer. 


cannonade on the starboard side. The chase returned the 
fire with 4 guns, the shot frequently falling near and one shot 
wounding the jib. At 20 minutes past 4 p. in. the Enemy 
fired a stern-chaser, double-charged, and instantly blew up, 
occasioning a tremendous explosion. Observed the Enemy 
to be on fire and several men swimming alongside. Imme- 
diately ceased firing (although her colours were still flying) 
and sent our boats with Lieut. Barton and Master Snow on 
board to save the lives of the Enemy, and extinguish the fire. 
They took up the swimmers and then rowed alongside. The 
scene that now presented itself to their view was shocking 
beyond description. The vessel was still in flames, the quar- 
ter-deck was blown off, the Captain was found near the main- 
mast — naked, mangled and burnt in the most shocking man- 
ner, one of the seamen lay near bruised and burnt almost as 
bad, a black man was found dead on the cabin floor, and five 
others around him apparently dying. All these wounded men 
were sent on board the Yankee and there received every pos- 
sible attention from the Captain, Surgeon and Officers. Dr. 
Miller dressed their wounds and gave them the proper medi- 
cines but found the Captain and several of the blacks in a 
most dangerous condition. The Captain had received two 
deep wounds in the head which penetrated to the skull (prob- 
ably from our langrage shot), his arms and legs were much 
bruised, his skin nearly all burnt off and his whole system great- 
ly injured by the concussion. A small black boy had a most 
singular yet distressing appearance. This boy was literally 
blown out of his skin and for some time after he came on board 
we thought he was white. The sufferings of these poor fellows 
seemed very painful and excruciating. Lieut. Barton extin- 
guished the fire, sent all the prisoners on board together with 
a boatload of sundry articles taken out of the cabin which had 
not been consumed. Finding the prize no ways injured ex- 
cept in her quarter deck the Commander ordered Lieut. Bar- 
ton with a chosen crew to remain on board and to keep com- 
pany with us during the night. On examination of the Schoon- 
er's papers and log-book we found her to be the Letter of Marque 
Schooner called The Alder of Liverpool, (owned by Charles 
B. Whitehead) formerly called La Clarisse and taken from the 
French, commanded by Edward Crowley, 77 tons burthen, 
mounting 4 carriage guns, and navigated by 10 men, besides 
11 African crew, men. She left Sierra Leone 9 days ago bound 
to the Leeward on a trading voyage, with an assorted cargo 
of Bafts, 3 gunpowder, muskets, bar-lead & iron, beads, flints 
and sundries. The Alder appears to be about 4 years old, is 

1 Baft, or bafta, was a coarse stuff of Indian cotton. 

34 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

copper-bottomed, measures 67 feet in length, but her sails 
are very poor and she does not sail well. The probable 
value of this prize in America might be $5000; but her nett 
value could not exceed $3000. At 8 p. m. one of the black 
seamen died and was thrown overboard. 25 minutes past 
2 a. m. Captain Crowley notwithstanding every medical as- 
sistance departed this life in the greatest agony. For some 
hours previous to his dissolution he appeared to suffer excru- 
ciating torments and when informed of his approaching end 
did not seem sensible of his situation. His body was com- 
mitted to the waves with as much decency as was practicable. 
At 9 a. m. the boy before mentioned also died and had a 
watery grave. The white seamen and three other blacks 
are just wavering between life and death and we fear can not 

The Boatswain related to us the accident which led to the 
horrid catastrophy. He said the Captain stood at the helm 
steering the vessel and giving his orders; that himself and 
several of the seamen were stationed at the gun aft; that the 
instant it was discharged the gun capsized with great violence, 
broke one of the quarter deck planks, threw the wadd-all on 
fire — directly into the magazine which was situated abaft the 
cabin, and the vessel instantly blew up. (Himself and an- 
other seaman leaped into the sea when they saw the gun dis- 
mounted and thus saved themselves.) It is supposed the 
Captain was thrown from the helm into the air and then fell 
into the main rigging. The blacks who were so dreadfully 
mangled were in the magazine filling cartridges. Sent the 
carpenter with materials to repair the prize. At 4 a. m. came 
on one of the most tremendous tornadoes ever witnessed. It 
blew, rained, thundered and lightened in a truly terrific man- 
ner. Took in all sail and kept the vessel before it. The light- 
ning was unusually vivid and struck several times close on 
board. Having no conductor every mind was filled with ap- 
prehension and alarm. Latter part very light airs inclining 
to calm. The prisoners inform us there are several vessels of 
war at Sierra Leone, to wit, a new frigate, 2 sloops of war, a 
gun-brig, and several smaller vessels, all bound out on a cruise. 
They also tell us of two fine brigs which lately sailed from that 
place and are trading to the leeward — one of them owned by 
the late Captain of the Alder. The Alder has several shot 
in her sails, rigging, boat etc. but none in her hull. 4 Our 
invalids recovering fast. They all appeared at quarters except 
Goff who had a large swelling on his right arm. Lat. Obs. 

4 The Yankee in firing aimed to disable — not to destroy her possible prizes. 

1913.] The Most Successful American Privateer. 


48th Day Friday 4th Dec. 

During the greater part of these 24 hours calm with occa- 
sional light airs. At 4 and 6 p. in. the two other black seamen 
who were blown up on board the schooner died and were 
thrown overboard, making altogether six persons who have 
perished by this most unfortunate accident. The white sea- 
man is still in a most dangerous state, but the Surgeon gives 
us hopes of his recovery. 

We were much surprised on examination of the Alder's 
colours to discover a Pirate's flag and pendant. This circum- 
stance lessens our compassion for the deceased Captain Crow-? 
ley as it indicates a hostile disposition toward all mankind. 
On a consultation of officers it was deemed ad- 
visable to man our prize, put on board of her the muskets, 
bafts, iron, etc. we took out of the Sloop Mary Ann, send her 
to Loango to dispose of her cargo for gold dust, ivory, dye- 
woods, or other valuable articles, and then proceed to America. 
Accordingly the Commander commissioned Daniel Salisbury 
as Prize-master, together with Edward Jones as Mate and 
four seamen to navigate said prize on her intended voyage. 
Made out a prize commission, letter of instructions, invoices, 
etc. and gave the Prize-master all the schooner's papers. We 
sent on board of her every article we had taken out of the 
sloop or schooner, together with provisions and various other 
necessary articles. AH hands employed in despatching the 
prize. Lat. Obs. 7°. > /f)*f "OO/*!^' 

49th Day Saturday 5th Dec. <M->**6VQ> 
.- . The wounded foreigner recovers fast and is con- 
sidered out of danger. All invalids recovered. Lat. Obs. 

50th Day Sunday 6th Dec. 

At 3^2 past 4 p. m. saw the land. . . , Being Saturday 
night the crew drank a health to all sweethearts and wives 
and amused themselves with various diversions. The marines 
chanted psalms and hymns, the sailors sang " Old Tom Tough," 
and "Old Tom Bowling," and the officers listened with pleas- 
ure to the merriment of the crew. 5 Sounded frequently during 
the night in 40, 30, 21 & 15 fathoms of water. At daylight 
saw Cape Mount. . . . Two canoes came from the 
shore with blacks. They informed us there were no vessels 
of any description at the Cape, upon which we up helm, 
squared the yards and bore away to the leeward. 
Lat. Obs. G°38' N. 

5 In comparing the edifying music of the marines with the ungodly songs of the sailors 
the gentle reader will do well to hour in mind the fact that the writer wad the Captain of 

36 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

51st Day Monday 7th Dec. 
At 4 p. m. two canoes came along side from Cape Little 
Mount and informed us of a schooner loading with rice at 
Trade-town, and also of a large brig that sailed from Mon- 
serrada this morning bound to leeward. During the night, 
not wishing to pass by Monserrada, stood off and on under 
easy sail until daylight when we saw Cape Monserra distant 
about 7 leagues. 10 a. m. another canoe came off who con- 
firmed the news relative to the brig and also mentioned (Which 
we regret to hear) that a sloop of war passed down to leeward 
6 days ago. Bought a few plantains and cassadas of these 
natives but did not suffer them to come on board. These 
Africans came off the distance of 3 or 4 leagues in small bark 
canoes and were entirely naked; they most of them spoke some 
English. The foreign invalid seems worse to-day, owing no 
doubt to the excessive heat. Lat. Obs. 6°15' N. 

52d Day Tuesday 8th Dec. 
. At 6 a. m. saw a sail right ahead distant about 
4 leagues. Set all sail in chase. 9 a. m. made out the chase 
to be a brig standing in shore. .... 

53d Day Wednesday 9th Dec. 

Lat 5°35' N. Trade Town bearing N. E. distant about 4 
leagues. Commences with light airs inclining to calm. Con- 
tinued in chase of the sail ahead. We now discovered her to 
be a large armed brig, showing 8 ports on a side, with English 
colours flying at her main peak, apparently preparing for 
action. At 3^ past 1 p. m. the enemy commenced firing, 
heaving every shot over us. 2 p. m. he made sail and began 
discharging his stern-chasers. At Y2 past 2, being within half 
cannon shot, we commenced firing our Long Twelve. J4 past 
3 p. m., having approached within half-musket shot, we opened 
our whole battery upon the enemy and continued the action 
(the enemy keeping up a well directed fire from his cannon and 
& musketry) till 20 minutes past 4 p. m., — when observing that 

the Enemy's colours had been shot away in the early part of 
the engagement, and that his fire became very faint, the 
Commander gave orders to cease firing, and hailed her, en- 
quiring if she had struck. The enemy answered "I have." 
Sent Lieut. Barton on board and found her to be the English 
Letter of Marque Brig called the Andalusia, Anthony Yates 
Kendall, Master, 210 tons burthen, mounting 10 carriage 
guns, 6 twelve pound cannonades, & 4 longFrench nines, with 
small arms, ammunition etc./ navigated by a Captain, Super- 
cargo, and 17 white seamen, besides 81 free Africans who served 

1913.] The Most Successful American Privateer. 


as marines. The Andalusia is owned at Gibraltar, and was 
last from Sierra Leone bound to the Leeward with a cargo of 
sundries on a trading voyage. It appears from her Log that 
she captured an American brig called the Two Friends off 
Port Praya, and carried her into Sierra Leone. The action 
lasted nearly three hours from the time the first shot was fired 
until the Enemy struck. We engaged him 45 minutes within 
pistol shot. Captain Kendall and his Boatswain were both 
slightly wounded; the remainder owed their safety to their 
excellent bulwark. On boarding the prize we found her main- 
mast and foreyard badly wounded; one shot under her fore- 
chains, which passed through and lodged in the opposite tim- 
bers; another which entered the cabin and lodged in the Cap- 
tain's bed; nearly all her sails, braces, standing and running 
rigging shot away, and every part of the vessel more or less 
injured. All the white prisoners were sent on board the 
Yankee and Lieut. Barton with a strong watch remained on 
board the prize to guard the blacks. At G p. m. we made 
sail standing in shore, our prize in company, and came to an- 
chor in 20 fathoms water. At daylight piped all hands to 
duty, sent part of the crew on board the Andulusia to repair 
damages and employed the remainder of the officers and crew 
in mending our sails, splicing our rigging, cleaning the arms, 
landing the black prisoners on their own shore, and other 
necessary duty. On examining our vessel after the action 
found we had received one 121b shot through our bulwarks 
which passed out the lee side without any material injury, 
4 balls through the main-sail, G shot in the foretopsail, one 
grape-shot lodged in the mainmast, and the weather forebrace, 
and one of the shrouds shot away. No person wounded. 

At 7 a. m. we discovered a schooner in shore, standing to the 
northward. Weighed anchor and set sail in chase. 9 a. m. 
being nearly calm sent Master Snow with an armed boats' 
crew with orders to take possession of her and then to set sail 
for the Yankee. At meridian Master Snow not returned. 
Lat. Obs. 5°35' N. 

54th Day Thursday 10th Dec. 

At 4 p. m. Master Snow came to anchor under our lee with 
his little prize and gave the following account of his adventure. 
He said that on approaching the vessel he observed her boat 
attempting to land on the beach. That she struck on a rock, 
was capsized, throwing every article into the sea, and the 
Captain and crew swam on shore. That on going on board 
he found her entirely deserted, as he expected, and stripped 
of every valuable article, except a quantity of rice stowed in 
bulk. He immediately made sail and stood for the privateer. 

38 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

The prisoners inform us that the schooner is called the George, 
and owned by Mr. Carr of Sierra Leone; that she is an Amer- 
can pilot boat and was taken in the Gambia about six months 
ago. She appears to be 60 or 70 tons burthen, has very poor 
sails and foul bottom. No doubt if coppered, with new can- 
vass, she would sail remarkably well, at present she is very 
dull. As soon as she came to anchor we sent all our boats to 
take out the rice. We supplied our vessel and the other prize 
with as much of this article as was wanted, and then Captain 
Wilson made a present of the vessel to Captain Sutherland, 
late of the Mary Ann, as he had been the greatest sufferer by 
the capture of his vessel, and moreover had been 15 days a 
prisoner on board of the Yankee. 

At 11 a. m., having taken the parole of all the white prison- 
ers on board (giving them duplicates) we supplied them with 
every necessary article for their voyage to Sierra Leone and 
gave them all their clothes, baggage, private property etc., 
bade them farewell, sent them on board the schooner, and then 
made sail in company with our prize, standing down the coast. 
Captains Sutherland and Kendall, Mr. O'Connor, and all the 
prisoners, expressed their gratitude and thanks for the kind 
treatment they had received on board the Yankee. Indeed 
they could do no less. For the captains lived in the cabin 
with the officers, the mates in the wardroom, and the sailors 
were well treated by our crew. In fact our instructions re- 
quire that we shall treat our prisoners with kindness and hu- 
manity. N. B. The Supercargo of the Andalusia estimated 
the vessel and cargo at $19,000, but I, am confident they will 
not sell for $9000 in America. The George with her rice might 
be worth $800. Lat. Obs. 5°30' N. 

55th Day Friday 11th Dec. 

Having landed the Africans and dismissed the white pris- 
oners (amounting altogether to 145 persons) we made prepara- 
tions for sending home the Andalusia. Made out commission, 
prize instructions and other documents for Captain Robert 
1 Tompenny, who was appointed Prize-master, together with 

William Child as Mate and 7 seamen to navigate said prize 
to America. Also wrote a letter to the owners giving them an 
abstract account of our cruise up to the present period. At 
4 p. m. gave our prize three cheers, bade them adieu, and made 
all sail, standing down the coast. During the night light winds 
and hazy weather. This morning a great number of canoes 
along side with fish and other articles. Exchanged some 
tobacco, bafts, iron etc. for ivory and fresh provisions. 
John Carter, the Captain of Long Tom, broke his arm on board 
the prize in jumping into the hold. The Surgeon set it. We 

1913.] The Most Successful American Privateer. 


have at present no invalids on board. Two or three of the 
marines are troubled with bad boils but none disabled from 
duty. The Surgeon thought it best to send the poor fellow 
who was blown up on board the Alder to Sierra Leone under 
the care of Captain Sutherland. Lat. Obs. 4°59' N. 

56th Day Saturday 12th Dec. 
At 6 p. m. came to anchor in 15 fathoms of water in a sandy 
bottom, opposite the town of Settakroo (about 60 miles to the 
windward of (Jape Palmas) at the distance of about three 
miles from the shore. ... At daylight piped all hands 
to duty and sent both our boats, with a number of canoes, 
to fill our water. We are told this is the safest place to water 
from Goree to Cape Palmas, as the anchorage is good, the 
landing easy, and the water most excellent. His Majesty 
the King of Settakroo came on board. He is an old man and 
wears a mantle. His subjects are entirely naked. His sou 
called Grand Loo, whom we took out of the Andalusia, has 
been of great assistance to us in our traffic with the natives 
for ivory and fresh stock. There are upwards of a hundred 
canoes alongside, dressed in the robe of Paradise, who talk 
and chatter and scream like a set of monkeys or parrots. 
Lat. Obs. 4°42'. 

57th Day Sunday 13th Dec. 
These 24 hours filled our water, bought two fine bullocks, 
five goats, and a quantity of fowls, yams, plantains etc. At 
7 p. m. unmoored and made sail, standing down the coast. 
. At sunrise calm and no kind in sight. Killed 
one of the bullocks. A number of fishing canoes alongside. 
... . Lat. Obs. 4°42'. 

58th Day Monday 14th Dec. 
. At 5 p. m. hove to off the town of Grand Sisters, 
distant about 3 miles. Sent our barge on shore to land Tom 
Wilson, whom we had taken prisoner on the Mary Arm. This 
fellow, son to the King of Grand Sisters, has been of great 
assistance to us in filling our water, and trading with the na- 
tives for live stock, ivory etc. He speaks good English and is 
an honest, intelligent negro. When our barge landed we ob- 
served a vast collection of the natives on the beach. Grand 
Sisters appears to be a large town, composed of a great number 
of huts, situated in the midst of palm groves and rice fields. 
The adjacent scenery has really a very pleasing and picturesque 
appearance. This town is at war with little Sisters, their 
neighbors and the natives showed great apprehension in com- 
ing off to our vessel. . . . The canoes alongside say no 
vessels have passed here this month. At meridian Cape Palm- 

40 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

as in sight. .. . . This Cape has no distinguishing ap- 
pearance except a small rise in the hind & trees. Watch em- 
ployed in painting the ship. Thermometer 106 in the sun. 
Lat. Obs. 4, 17. 

59th Day Tuesday 15th Dec. 
Killed the other bullock. At meridian sailing 
the Bay of St. Andrews. The land here rises considerably 
and is covered with trees to the very top. No appearance of 
cultivation. Lat. 4, 38. Carter recovers fast; the other 
invalids recovered. 

60th Day Wednesday 16th Dec. 

As you approach the Bay of St. Andrews the land gradually 
rises to a considerable height, and is covered with lofty trees 
to the summit. There are no towns visible. . . . Run- 
ning down the Gold Coast with great velocity in hopes of cap- 
turing several vessels which we understand are trading at 
Cape Lahore. At 8 a. in. a canoe came off from Picininni, 
Cape Lahore, who informed us a brig, mounting 6 guns, and 
a sloop unarmed left Grand Cape Lahore 7 days ago, bound 
down to Cape Corse Castle. This is bad news. These natives 
brought off gold dust and ivory but would receive nothing 
but powder, and iron. Therefore we did not trade with them. 
. . . '. Thermometer 112° Lat. Obs. 4°58' N, . . 
We have now been at sea two months being one third of our 
cruise. During this time we have taken four prizes, 18 car- 
riage guns, 250 stand small arms, 145 prisoners, and property 
to the value of ,$60,000. Our Officers and crew are all healthy 
and in good spirits. And we have water and provisions for 
at least 3 months on board. 

61st Day Thursday 17th Dec. 
At 2 p. m. Antonio, King of Cape Lahore, attended by 13 
of his nobility came off in a war canoe. His Majesty confirmed 
the news we received this morning relative to the brig and 
sloop. These natives are as black as ebony, remarkably 
stout, well made, of a ferocious aspect, and their hair and 
beards platted in the most fantastic style. They wished to 
exchange gold and ivory for powder, rum and muskets, but 
we did not trade with them. After King Antonio had got as 
drunk as David's sow we were obliged to force him and his 
cannibals to go on shore. Cape Lahore has no distinguishing 
mark from the neighboring coast which is flat and sandy. 
Lat. 5°5' N. 

62d Day Friday- 18th Dec. 
. '. . Nothing remarkable. Lat. Obs. 5°5'. 

1913.] The Most Successful American Privateer. 41 

63d Day Saturday 19th Dec. 
At 20 minutes past 9 a. in. Samuel Pickens dis- 

K covered a brig at anchor . . . supposed to be under 

Fort Apollonia . All sails set . . At meridian the Fort 
bore right ahead, distant about six leagues. 

64th Day Sunday 20th Dec. 
Lieut. Barton piped for volunteers to man the barge and 
cut out the brig mentioned in yesterday's journal. Nearly 
the whole crew volunteered. From whom Mr. Barton selected 
21 of the most able and experienced seamen, who were properly 
armed for the purpose. At 4 p. m. piped to quarters and 
cleared for action. It was understood that the Yankee should 
run in under English. colours until she came within half-cannon 
shot of the brig, then send our barge on board the brig with 
the Lieutenant, another officer, and 6 bargemen only visible, 
. the remainder being concealed under the sail. Accordingly 
at % past 4 p. m. we rounded to within musket shot of the 
enemy and sent off the barge. In 6 minutes she had possession 
of the prize and immediately made sail, standing out to sea 
close on a wind. The Yankee did the same, previously firing 
the two shot directly into the Fort; which (strange to tell) 
was not returned. Lieut. Barton mentions that when he 
came alongside, and jumped on board with the whole boat's 
crew completely armed, the Captain instantly surrendered 
himself and his vessel. We find our prize to be the English 
copper-bottomed brig called the Fly of London, late Captain 
Jonathan Tydeman, 91 52/94 tons burthen, mounting 6 car- 
riage-guns, long sixes, with ammunition, small arms etc. and 
nayigated by a Captain and ten seamen beside negroes. The 
Fly was formerly a French privateer, built in the Isle of France, 
and condemned at the ('ape of Good Hope. She is a hand- 
some new vessel, sails remarkably well, and has a valuable 
cargo of gold-dustj ivory, gunpowder and drygoods. She 
captured on the 29th October last a Portuguese sloop called 
the New Constitution, (supposed to be American property) 
with- 8 slaves on board, and sent her to Sierra Leone for trial. 
The invoice of the Fly's cargo at the time she left London 
amounted to £6810, 2s, 5d, but her cargo is not calculated to 
sell in America. The prize and cargo, including the gold-dust, 
may be reasonably estimated at $15,000. Captain Tydeman 
states that altho the Castle at Apollonia mounts 50 heavy 
cannon, yet it has no garrison, but is the residence of several 
factors. Capt. T. says he supposed us to be an English man 
of war and therefore made no preparations for defending his 
vessel. During the night stood out to sea, our prize in com- 
pany. At daylight piped up all hands & made preparations 

42 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

for sending home the prize. Took the paroles of all prisoners, 
giving them duplicates. At 8 a. in. being in sight of land, we 
sent the prisoners on shore (according to their own request) 
in their own long boat — giving them all their clothes, baggage 
and private property besides several presents. Took out of 
our prize some gunpowder, rum, porter, livestock and various 
small articles, supplying her with water and sundries for her 
voyage. Made out Prize Commission, Instructions, wrote 
a letter to the owners and sent Capt. Thomas Milton Prize 
Master of said brig, and at 11 a. m. bade him adieu and made 
sail on our course. Lat. Obs. 4°, 41' N. 

65th Day Monday 21st Dec. 
At 7 p. m. passed our prize, gave them three cheers, and 
finally took leave of them. 6 . . . The Commander 
thinks it advisable to leave the coast as no doubt there are 
men of war in pursuit of us both from the windward and lee- 
ward. Lat. Obs. 4°23'. 

66th Day Tuesday 22d Dec. 
. We are now running for Annabona for the pur- 
pose of watering and then proceeding on our cruise. Andrew 
Holden and several seamen indisposed and on the Surgeon's 
list. Carter gets better fast. Lat. Obs. 3°31' N. 

67th Day Wednesday 23d Dec. 
. . . . Nothing remarkable. . . Lat. Obs. 2°55' N. 

68th Day Thursday 24th Dec. 

.... Nothing remarkable. . . Lat. Obs. 2°18' N. 

69th Day Friday 25th Dec. 
. . . . Killed the fatted calf , or more properly the fatted 
goat, gave the crew a pudding with extra allowance of grog, 
to keep a Merry Christmas. All hands in good health and 
fine spirits. Thermometer 88° in the cabin. No doubt our 
friends in Bristol are now shivering with the cold under the 
y icicles and snow banks of their frozen climate. Lat. Obs. 

1°45' N. Long. Lunar at 9 a. m. 3° E. 

70th Day Saturday 26th Dec. 
. . . , Nothing remarkable. Lat. Obs. 1°25' N. 

71st Day Sunday 27th Dec. 
. . ' . . Nothing remarkable. Lat. Obs. 1°21' N. Lunar 

"This was true in more ways than one as the Fly was recaptured by the British. The 
gold dust she had accumulated reached Bristol in the Yankee. 

1913.] The Most Successful American Privateer. 43 

72d Day Monday 28th Dec. 
At 2 p. m. discovered a sail bearing two points 
on the lee bow. 4 p. m. spoke the Portuguese schooner (or 
boat) 14 or 16 tons burthen, called the Antonia de Santa Rom 
de Lima, Capt. Felix, 5 days out from St. Thomas' bound to 
Princes' Island, with 27 slaves on board. The captain and 
crew, 9 in number, were all black. 7 He said there were no 
vessels of any kind at St. Thomas' and he has seen none since 
he sailed. . . . Lat. Obs. 1°7' N. 

73d Day Tuesday 29th Dec. 
. Nothing remarkable. Lat. Obs. 34' N. Lieut. 
Vinson indisposed. 8 

74th Day Wednesday 30th Dec. 
Surgeon's list. Lieut. Vinson, Mr. Andrew 
Holden, N. A. Slocum, Jus. Holden, John Carter, etc. None 
dangerous. 9 Lat. Obs. 30'N. 

75th Day Thursday 31st Dec. 
As you approach the Island of St. Thomas from the west- 
ward, the land gradually rises from the northern and southern 
extremities till it forms a high mountain in the centre covered 
with clouds. This island appears to be covered with trees 
except on a few level spots where there are green fields. At 
the northeast point there are two hummocks, which on ap- 
proaching you find to be the Island of Anna de Chaves. At 
3^2 after 6 p. m. came to anchor in 20 fathoms of water. [Here 
follow some of the " ranges " taken.] At 8 a. m. the Command- 
er and clerk went on shore, waited upon the Governor and Fis- 
cal; .were received with attention and politeness; obtained 
permission to fill their water, and were promised a supply of 
live-stock, vegetables and fruit. The Governor invited them 
to dine on shore but Capt. W. declined, wishing to return on 
board to expedite the watering. The Governor had no infor- 
mation of the war between England and America. A British 
vessel touched at St. Thomas' lately, who said all differences 
were settled between the governments. He informed us of 
a large English Letter of Marque Ship, mounting 18 guns, 
with 45 men, loading with camwood in Gaboon River. He 
says the Amelia Frigate is expected at the island, and that 
most of the men of war on the coast touch at the island for 
supplies. Both the officers spoke in high terms of America, 

7 The small size of the vessel suggests the Pinta and the Nifta of the fleet of Columbus. 

8 Mr. Vinson's indisposition was probably due to drunkenness, as will appear from sub- 
sequent entries. Uis case was an unusual one for a Privateersman. 

9 Query, Were there others suffering from the Vinsoniun malady? 

44 ; American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

were pleased to find that our governments were still on ami- 
cable terms, and expressed the greatest indignation against 
British Power, Pride, Injustice and Insolence. They were 
rejoiced that we had met with success on our cruise, and ap- 
peared entirely friendly in every respect. Surgeon's List. 
Mr. Holden Lieut. V. and Slocum recovered and struck off the 

76th Day Friday 1st January 1813 

The first part of this day filled our water from a fine clear 
rapid river, situated about 100 yards from the white house 
on the beach, cut as much wood as was necessary. At 4 p. m. 
(Thursday afternoon) an officer came on board with the Gover- 
nor's compliments, and mentioned that he would supply us with 
every article we wanted as soon as possible, and send them on 
board in canoes without obliging us to beat up to the city. 
Sent a note expressive of our thanks on the occasion. At 
9 a. m. the Commander and clerk again visited his Excellency 
Don Raymond da Cunha Matos and were received as yester- 
day with great politeness and civility. It being a great holi- 
day they attended church, (N. B. The priests, monks, and 
whole congregation were mulattoes or blacks) saw a proces- 
sion civil and military composed of the principal inhabitants, 
with two bands of music, and the Virgin Mary, parading the 
streets. Dined with the Governor, had a most excellent din- 
ner, with all kinds of vegetables, fruits, sweetmeats, liquors 
and wines; remained ori shore the rest of the day as it came on 
to rain very heavy. The Governor having sent on board every 
article we wanted, paid him the amount in cloth and gold, bade 
him and the Fiscal adieu, returned on board, and at 11 p. m. 
weighed anchor and stood out to sea with a fair wind. St. 
Thomas' is a beautiful, fertile island, producing coffee in great 
abundance and of a superior quality; also corn, spices, veg- 
etables and fruits of every description, cattle and other live- 
stock, turtle, fish, etc. The town is in the form of a half 
moon, is situated at the head of a fine bay, and may contain 
three hundred houses, interspersed among gardens, plantain 
groves and coffee trees. Most of the buildings are small, 
many of them in ruins, and the remainder by no means elegant. 
The fort, or castle, as you enter the bay on the left hand mounts 
40 pieces of cannon, with a garrison of 100 men. The Governor 
informed us he had information of two small English brigs 
loading in the Gaboon, besides the ship mentioned yesterday, 
which he understood was now at the Cameroons. Upon the 
whole the Commander of the Yankee was much gratified with 
his reception at St. Thomas', and pleased to find these officers 
so favorably disposed toward the American government. 

1913.] The Most Successful American Privateer. 


77th Day Saturday 2d Jan. 
Nothing remarkable. Invalids all recovered. 
Lat. Obs. 16' N. 

78th Day Sunday 3d Jan. 

Nothing remarkable. Lieut. Vinson and Asa 
Switcher incapable of duty. John Carter, James Holden, 
J. C. Lindegard, and several indisposed with slight com- 
plaints. Lat. Obs. 6' South. 

79th Day Monday 4th Jan. 
Nothing remarkable . . Excessively hot, 
Thermometer 90° at midnight, being on the Line. Lat. Obs. 
4' North. 

80th Day Tuesday 5th Jan. 

At 7 p. in. came to anchor at the mouth of the 
Gaboon River in ten fathoms of water. . . immediately 
piped for volunteers to man the barge and explore the river 
to discover any strange sails. Master Snow appointed to 
command the expedition, and 21 brave fellows selected to 
accompany him. They were all completely armed and sup- 
plied with every article necessary for their night campaign. 
At 20 m. past 7 P. M. the barge left the Yankee with the best 
wishes of their remaining companions for their success and 
safe return. During the night calm and intolerably hot. At 
9 a. m. discovered two large boats in shore rowing toward us 
full of men. Piped all hands to Quarters, cleared for action 
and got a spring on the cable. Shortly after two African 
princes came on board, who informed us there was a small 
Portuguese schooner loading with slaves high up the river, 
and that an English Cutter arrived three days ago at King 
Glas' Town, near the mouth of the river. From their descrip- 
tion of the vessel, Captain and cargo we were clearly convinced 
that this Cutter was no other than our prize the Alder, Capt. 
Salsberry. Capt. S. passed as an English vessel and told the 
natives he had been fired at by a Portuguese ship at Rio Pun- 
gus, and that one shot stove his boat; that he had been struck 
by lightning during a tornado, which blew up his quarter deck 
and killed the former captain and five seamen. This ingenious 
deception does much credit to our Prize-Master. These Afri- 
cans further told us that the two brigs we heard of at St. Thom- 
as' suiled with valuable cargoes two weeks ago, and that the 
ship had not arrived. At meridian the barge returned on 
board and Master Snow informed us that they had proceeded 
up the river at least twelve leagues, that they saw no English 
vessels, but heard of the Portuguese schooner; that on their 
return they boarded the cutter mentioned above and found 


American Antiquarian Society. 


her to be really our prize the Alder. Capt. Salisberry staled 
he had met with a great deal of bad weather and lost some 
spars, but saw no enemy. He arrived in the river five days 
since, was making a rapid and profitable trade for ivory, wax, 
skins and wood, and expected to sail in about a week for 
America. Himself and crew were in good health. Surgeon's 
list. Lieut. Vinson, James Holden, J. C. Lindegard recov- 
ered, Carter nearly recovered and Switcher better. Lat. 
Obs. 37' N. 

81st Day . . Wednesday 6th Jan. 
At meridian weighed anchor and stood out of the Gaboon 
River bound down the coast. . . Nothing remarkable. 
Lat. Obs. 18' S. 

82d Day Thursday 7th Jan. 
. Nothing remarkable . . No observation. 

83d Day Friday 8th Jan. 
During these 24 hours (as usual) variable winds, calms, 
squalls, thunder, lightning and heavy rain. All hands em- 
ployed about ship's duty presenting a very busy and amusing 
scene. Lat. Obs. 31' S. 

84th Day Saturday 9th Jan. 
. All sail set, bound to Annabona for supply, and from 
thence to the Island of St. Helena, one of our cruising stations. 
Long, from Lunar Obs. at 3 o'clock p. m. 8° 40'— Lat. Obs. 
1°22' S. 

85th Day Sunday 10th Jan. 

Annabona bearing W. N. W. 3 leagues. At 5 p. m. saw the 
land 2 points on the lee bow. }'i past 5 discovered a sail 4 
points on the weather bow, took in studding-sails and luffed 
up close on a wind in chace. . . . At 10 p. m. discovered 
by the help of our night glasses that the chace was a brig stand- 
ing to the westward. Shortened sail and kept in company 
during the night. At daylight made all sail to come up with 
the chace. Observed she had hove to; hoisted English col- 
ours & showed 7 ports on a side. Piped all hands to quarters 
and cleared for action. At 7 a. m. came alongside and ordered 
her to strike her colours, which she did accordingly. Sent 
the barge on board and found our prize to be the English Brig 
Thames, late Francis Toole Master, 171 tons burthen, mount- 
ing 8 carriage guns (4-12 lbs & 4 long nines) with small arms, 
ammunition, etc. from Mayjumba, coast of Africa, bound to 
London, navigated by 14 persons, with a cargo of camwood, 
some goods and ivory. Took the prisoners on board the 
Yankee, and sent Capt. George Eddy as Prize-Master, with 

1913.] The Most Successful American Privateer. 47 

N. M. Slocun and 8 seamen to navigate said vessel to America. 
Gave said Prize-Master the vessel's papers, his Commission, 
Instructions, Letter to the Owners etc. and then bade him 
farewell. The Thames is copper-bottomed, thoroughly re- 
paired, and carries a large cargo. This vessel and cargo may 
be reasonably estimated at $25,000. 

N. B. On the very day and hour of our capturing the 
Thames our Commander was born — 27 years ago. 

86th Day Monday 11th Jan. 

At 5 p. in. came to anchor on the north side of the Island of 
Annabona in 7 fathoms water, sandy bottom, opposite a small 
village distant about a mile from the shore. . . Soon after 
we came to, the black Governor and his mate came on board. 
We easily obtained permission to water, wood etc. 
Having finished oil]' trade and filled our water at 20 m before 
12 a. m. we got under weigh . . . This island is 7 or 
8 leagues in circumference and is remarkable for a lofty moun- 
tain covered with orange, lime and cocoanut trees. It has 
a fertile and beautiful appearance. 

It is with deep regret that the Commander of the Yankee 
feels it his duty in justice to himself, his Officers and his crew, 
to make the following entry in his Journal, relative to the 
conduct of one of his officers. — My Second Lieutenant John 
II. Vinson, has never, in my opinion, displayed either sea- 
manship, judgment or courage during our cruise. He ap- 
peared to be much intoxicated on the night of the partial 
engagement with His Majesty's Schooner St. J ago, and be- 
haved with great impropriety. During the skirmish with 
the Alder he was particularly negligent in not extinguishing 
the flames when our bulwarks were on fire. And during the 
long engagement with the Andalusia he certainly did not 
manifest either activity or courage. This officer is guilty of 
one offence which would subject him even to capital punish- 
ment — viz — sleeping on his watch. The night alter we cap- 
tured the Fly, when we had a number of prisoners on board, 
and many of our crew had got drunk on board the prize, and 
were extremely riotous, Lieut. Vinson was himself much in- 
toxicated, or to speak plainly dead drunk, and slept in his 
watch in presence of myself, my officers, and the whole crew. 
He was guilty of the same oi'fence on the 5th January when we 
lay at the Gaboon, and also last night when we had 14 prison- 
ers on board, and were anchored on a savage coast. This 
offence of getting drunk and sleeping on a watch is of a very 
serious and alarming nature, endangering both the safety of 
the vessel and the lives of all on board. His conduct subjects 
him to a court martial which will certainly convince him of 
his errors. 

48 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

87th Day Tuesday 12th Jan. 
. At 4 p. m. exercised all hands at quarters; after 
which piped all hands to muster and found our crew now con- 
sisted of 71 men . . . Lat. Obs. 1°25' S. 

88th Day Wednesday 13th Jan. 
John Carter recovered and struck off the Sur- 
geon's list. No invalids. Nothing worthy of remark. Lat. 
Obs. 1°53' S. 

89th Day Thursday 14th Jan. 
. . . . Nothing remarkable . . Lat. Obs. 2°39' 
S. No invalids. 

90th Day Friday 14th Jan. 
Lat. Obs. 3° 16' S. . . We have now been at 
sea 3 months, one half of our cruise, and 97 days from Bristol 
where our cruise commenced. During this time we have 
taken 6 prizes, measuring 685 tons, mounting 34 carriage 
guns, 525 stand of arms, and 150 prisoners. 

91st Day Saturday 16th Jan. 
. . . . Nothing remarkable.— Lat. Obs. 4°23'. 
92d Day Sunday 17th Jan. • 
. All hands in excellent health. Being Saturday 
(Sunday) night all hands enjoyed the jubilee and drank to their 
sweethearts and wives. Our prisoners are mostly Irishmen 
and seem to be quiet and well disposed. Lat. Obs. 5°55'. 

93d Day Monday 18th Jan. 
.... Nothing remarkable. Lat. Obs. 6°33'S. 

94th Day Tuesday 19th Jan. 
.... Nothing remarkable. Lat. Obs. 7°13' S. 

95th Day Wednesday 20th Jim. 
. . . . Nothing remarkable. Lat. Obs. 7°53' S. 

96th Day Thursday 21st Jan. 
At % past 5 p. m. came to anchor off the N. W. end of Ascen- 
sion Island. . . . Sent the barge on shore for the pur- 
pose of taking turtle during the night. . ■ . At 8 a. m. the 
barge returned on board with a fine large turtle, weighing at 
least 400 lbs., and containing several thousand eggs— the only 
one seen on the beach during the night. At 9 a. m. again 
dispatched the barge and Capt. Wilson went on shore in 
the jolly-boat, to endeavor to procure more turtle. Wrote 
a letter, or memorandum, mentioning the arrival of the Pri- 
vateer Yankee at this island; her successful cruise, number of 

1913.] The Most Successful American Privateer. 49 

captures, guns, prisoners, value, etc.; also the declaration of 
war against England, and its principal events; — which hitter 
we directed to any American captains who might hereafter 
touch at this island. This letter was deposited among the 
rocks, being anchored in a bottle, where we observed a number 
of names engraved, particularly the following "Young Dick- 
enson, J. W. Costa, 1813," and "The Crescent Leach, 1812." 
Yi past 11 a. m. the boats returned on board without any 
success. The officers and seamen caught a great number of 
fish, and killed a quantity of birds — neither fit to eat. The 
Island of Ascension is 3 leagues in length and 2 in breadth. 
It is composed of several hills or hummocks covered with a 
reddish earth, and has a very rugged and craggy appearance. 
It was evidently thrown up by some convulsion of nature. 
It is not inhabited and produces neither tree, fruit or vegetable 
— nay not even fresh water. There are some miserable lean 
wild goats and innumerable ship rats. The island is princi- 
pally remarkable for the vast quantity of turtle which resort 
hereto deposit their eggs during certain months of the year. 
These turtle are easily taken during the night by concealing 
yourself on the beach, rushing suddenly upon them when they 
come on shore, and capsizing them. They are said to be of 
the finest and most delicious kind. Joseph Anthony, cox- 
swain of the barge, was very badly bruised when she capsized 
in the surf, and Zep. Andrews cut his hand very severely in 
butchering the turtle. It is singular that our crew receive 
more wounds from their own negligence than the shot of the 
enemy. Ascension— 7°5G / South Lat. 13°54' West Long. 10 

97th Day Friday 22d Jan. 

The officers and company feasted most luxuriously on the 
fine turtle they caught the preceding night. . . . Caught 
another large turtle during the night. At 7 a. m. got in the 
barge, weighed anchor, and stood out to sea. . . Anthony 
and Andrews much better. Lat. Obs. 7°53'. Variation by 
a correct Amplitude taken while at anchor in Ascension Roads 
15°12' W. 

98th Day Saturday 23d Jan. 

. The Surgeon performed a surgical operation on 
James Anthony, by cutting out a wen or protuberance on his 
right cheek. Dr. Miller seems to be quite a proficient in the 
use of the knife and lancet. Lat. Obs. 8° S. 

10 The two islands, Ascension and Saint Helena, which was later to become famous 
as the prison of Napoleon Bonaparte, were both made "Ports of Call" for the Yaukte. 

50 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

99th Day Sunday 24th Jan. 
Killed our large turtle and all hands had a Sun- 
day feast. It was superexcellent. No invalids. Lat. Obs. 

100th Day Monday 25th Jan. 
. , . . Nothing remarkable. Lat. Obs. 8°15' S. 

101st Day Tuesday 26th Jan. 
At 9 a. m. piped all hands to Vendue and sold a quantity 
of prize goods, viz, shirts, cloth, linen, razors, knives, cloaks, 
flannel, etc. etc. to the officers and crew to furnish them with 
clothes for their cruise and when they arrive on a winter's 
coast. Lat. 8°6' S. 

102d Day Wednesday 27th Jan. 
. . . . Nothing worthy of remark. Lat. Obs. 7°53 / S. 
Long. Lunar 29°35' W. 

103d Day Thursday 28th Jan. 
. . . . Lat. Obs. 7°52' S. Lunar Obs. 32°7' W. 

104th Day Friday 29th Jan. 
.... Nothing remarkable. Lat. Obs. 8°8'. 

105th Day Saturday 30th Jan. 
7 a. m. saw several small Portuguese fishing 
boats, called Jangars. l /z P&st 7 a. in. made the land bearing 
right ahead, distant 7 or 8 leagues. The land appeared low, 
with a number of towers or churches on the coast, and the 
town of Olinde situated on the side of a hill, making a beautiful 
appearance. 9 a. m. discovered several large vessels at anchor 
in the harbour of Pernambuco. 11 a. m. spoke a Portuguese 
schooner just out of Pernambuco, bound to windward; in- 
formed us there were no English men of war on the coast — 
that there were three large British ships in harbour, loading, 
and two American schooners laid up without cargoes. They 
had heard of no American privateers on this station. 11a. m. 
jibed ship in chace of a sail distant 4 or 5 miles. 
Lat. Obs. 8°12'. 

106th Day Sunday 31st Jan. 

Pernambuco bearing N. W. distant 8 or 10 leagues. At 
1 p. m. piped all hands to quarters, ran down under the lee of 
a large armed English Brig, pierced for 16 guns, and mounting 
8. When within pistol shot ordered her to strike her colours — 
the reply was "We are all ready" — and hesitated. Capt. 
Wilson again ordered him to lower his flag and quit the deck 
or he would fire into him. The reply was "Surely you are 

1913.] The Most Successful American Privateer. 


joking." Our Commander still ordered his men not to fire, 
and a third time ordered him to strike instantly, which he 
did with great reluctance. Sent our boat on board and found 
our prize to be the large armed English Brig called the Harriott 
and Matilda of Mayport, Captain John Inman, burthen 202 
tons, copper-bottomed, mounting 8 carriage guns — (5 twelve 
and 2 eighteen pound cannonades, from Cork bound to Per- 
nambuco, with a cargo of salt, porter, iron, drygoods, earthen- 
ware, butter, cheese, potatoes etc. etc. The Harriott arid 
Matilda was captured from the Danes in 1808, sails well, and 
is a fine vessel. The vessel and cargo may be reasonably 
valued at $27,000. Took the prisoners on board and beat 
off the land during the night. At 7 p. m. sent 18 prisoners 
ashore in our barge, which we gave them, with all their clothes, 
baggage, a compass, water, provisions etc. being at this time 
within 7 leagues of Pernambuco. During the latter part of 
these 24 hours all hands employed in taking out the following 
articles from the prize, viz — 10 hampers cheese, 56 do Irish 
potatoes, 20 kegs of butter, 6 casks bottled porter, 20 gallons 
Rum, and 31 bales of fine merchandise. The Harriott and 
Matilda sailed from Cork under convoy of the Frolic (Cherub?) 
sloop of war, and parted from him three days before. The 
convoy consisted of 6 East Indiamen, and several others bound 
to Rio Janeiro. It is worthy of remark that the Yankee ran 
from Ascension to Cape St. Augustine, a distance of 1200 
miles, in 7H days — fresh trades, pleasant weather, a smooth 
sea, and all sails set, scarcely ever moving tack or sheet. Lat. 
Obs. 8°29'. 

107th Day Monday 1st Feb. 
All hands employed in sending away the prize. Made out 
Commission, Letter of Instructions, wrote a letter to the 
owners, and gave the ship's papers to the Prize-Master, Rich- 
ard M. Coit, with a crew of 12 men. At 4 p. m. gave our prize 
three cheers and bade her adieu. At 9 a. m. having taken the 
paroles of all the prisoners, we gave Capts. Toole and Inman 
the long boat of the prize, supplied them with every necessary 
article, and being within (3 leagues of Pernambuco, they went 
on shore. Capt. Toole had been 21 days a prisoner and be- 
haved very well during the whole time. 10 a. m. saw a sail 
bearing S. E. at a great distance. Lat. Obs. 8°4' S. 

108th Day Tuesday 2d Feb. 
At 1 p. m. discovered a sail on the lee bow at a great distance. 
At 3 p. m. having approached within 2 x /i miles of the sail 
mentioned in yesterday's journal made her out to be an Eng- 
lish sloop of war in disguise. Immediately up helm, set stay- 
sails, and bore away N. b E. The enemy did the same and 

52 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

set all sail, showing a cloud of canvas. We were glad to ob- 
serve that we soon altered his bearings, & at sundown left him 
astern, distant about 3 or 4 leagues. . . . On mustering 
the crew find we have 62 persons on board, including boys and 
negroes, also 3 prisoners. Lat. Obs. 8°14' S. 

109th Day Wednesday 3d Feb. 
Y after 5 p. m. saw several sails, made all sail 
in chace, but soon discovered them to be Jangars, or fishing 
boats'. Lat. 7°53'. 

110th Day Thursday 4th Feb. 
At 3 p. m. having run down opposite Pernambuco 
hoisted the American pendant and colours, and hauled up 
close on the wind, bound to Fernando Noronha for a supply 
of water. Lat. Obs. 9°17' S. 

1 llth Day Friday 5th Feb. 
.... Lat. Obs. 7° 29' S. 

112th Day Saturday 6th Feb. , 

.... Lat. Obs. 5°56'.— Long. Lunar 33°50'. 

113th Day Sunday 7th Feb. 
At Y past 5 a. m. the Island of Fernando Noronha — Y past 
7 saw a sail 2 points under the lee bow. Made all sail in chace. 
At Yl P as t 10 a. m. came up with the chace and found her to 
be our prize the Alder, Salisberry Master, being the second 
time we have spoken him. Sent for Capt. Salisberry on board, 
who informed us that he left the Gaboon on the llth ult. — 
that he has seen no sail, that his schooner sailed well and was 
in good order, that his crew were all healthy except James 
Thomas — whom we took on board, and sent one of our pris- 
oners in his stead, — and that he had a full cargo of the follow- 
ing articles; viz. 50 oz gold dust, 45 tons red-wood, 1 do ivory, 
Y do bees wax, 700 lbs gum copal. Took the gold on board, 
supplied Capt. S. with some bread, rice, cheese, butter, porter, 
etc. and at meridian gave him three cheers and bade him adieu. 
Lat. Obs. 3°43'. 

114th Day Monday 8th Feb. 

.-'■'. . . Yz past 7 a. m. came to anchor in 13 fathoms 
water, hard bottom, in a convenient harbour at the N. W. 
end of Fernando Noronha, distant about % of a mile from the 
shore. The Commander sent Lieut. Barton to ask permis^" n 
of the Governor to obtain wood and water. He was recer d 
in the most friendly manner and the petition was at oi e 
granted. The Governor informed Lieut. B. that the Morjia a 
and Acasta, British Frigates, touched at this island last De- 

1913.] The Most Successful American Privateer. 


cember, bound to India; and that the American ship John 
of Salem, also touched here on the 14th Jan. 1813. 11 a, m. 
sent the boat to fill water, which is very difficult to obtain. 

115th Day Tuesday 9th Feb. 

At 5 p. m. got up the anchor and dropped down nearer the 
watering place. . . Both boats employed in getting off 
wood and water. Owing to the heavy surf which breaks over 
the rocks find it very difficult to take off the water. However 
got 9 casks on board and two boat loads of wood. Master 
Snow and Lieut. Barton on shore finishing our affairs, i. e. 
filling the rest of the water, buying fresh stock, etc. etc. All 
hands busy, some in the boats, others in the hold, many over- 
hauling the rigging, slushing the masts, etc. no idlers, every- 
one anxious to leave the famous (or perhaps infamous) island 
of Fernando Noronha. 11 James Thomas, the seaman we took 
out of the Alder, is dangerously sick of a fever he caught in 
the Gaboon. 

116th Day Wednesday 10 Feb. 

Messrs. Snow, Barton and Miller dined on shore with the 
Governor. They were treated with great civility and polite- 
ness. The Governor expressed his satisfaction at our having 
captured 14 English vessels, and mentioned that an American 
Consul touched at this island on the 13th Dec. last, on his 
way to Pernambuco. Having got all wood and water on 
board, and also a fine bullock, at 4 p. m. weighed anchor and 
stood out to sea, with fresh trades and fine weather — course 
N. N. W. bound towards HOME. . . . Thomas is 
something better but still dangerous. Lat. Obs. 1°33' S. 

117th Day Thursday 11th Feb. 
Nothing worth noting. Lat. Obs. 


118th Day Friday 12th Feb. 
. At 3 p. m. being Lieut. Vinson's watch, a squall 
struck us with all sail standing, and had nearly capsized the 
ship. Instantly the other officers ran upon deck and let fly 
halyards and sheets and kept her before it. As soon as the 
squall was over Captain Wilson put Lieut. Vinson under arrest 
for this and various other offences during the cruise (See ante). 
Afterwards on his acknowledging his errors and promising 
to reform Captain Wilson reinstated him in his command. 
. . . No Obs. 

119th Day Saturday 13th Feb. 
. ;':-■ . Thomas is better. Lat. Obs. 4°16 / N. 

11 The island ia used by the government of Brazil as a penal settlement. 


American Antiquarian Society. 


120th Day Sunday 14th Feb. 
. . . [Nothing worth noting.] Lat. Obs. 6°22'. 

121st Day Monday 15th Feb. 
. . . [Nothing worth noting.] Lat. Obs. 8°35'. 

122d Day Tuesday 16th Feb. 
. . . [Nothing worth noting.] Lat. Obs. 11°2'. 

123 Day Wednesday 17th Feb. 
. . . Thomas is out of danger. Lat. Obs. 13°30' N- 

124th Day Thursday 18th Feb. 
. . . Thomas is much better. Lat. Obs. 15°37' N. 
125th Day Friday 19th Feb. 
. . . Distance 203 miles— Lat. Obs. 18°13' N. 

126th Day Saturday 20th Feb. 
. . . Thomas is not so well. Lat. Obs. 20°52' N. 

127th Day Sunday 21st Feb. 
. . . [Nothing remarkable.] Lat. Obs. 23°14 / N. 
Long. Lunar Obs. at 9 a. m. 52°12 / W. 

128th Day Monday 22d Feb. 

At 6 a. m. discovered a sail one point on the lee bow. — At 
8 discovered the sail to be a brig. . . At 10 made sail in 
chace of the ship . . . distant about 3 leagues. Lat. 
Obs. 25°14'. 

129th Day Tuesday 23d Feb. 

Continued in chace of the sail ahead. At 2 p.'m. fired a gun 
and hoisted the American flag, upon which the chace showed 
Portuguese colours and hove to. At 4 p. m. sent the boat on 
board and found her to be the Portuguese ship Amazon, 
Captain Francis Antonia, 24 days out from Lisbon, bound to 
Boston with a cargo of salt. Capt. A. informed us that on 
the 15th inst. he saw a sail ahead but did not speak her — that 
there were a great number of Americans at Lisbon and Cadiz, 
who were bound home under neutral colours. Lord Welling- 
ton had visited Lisbon and Cadiz for a few days and returned 
to his army. The English told Capt. A. that their fleets had 
burnt and destroyed Charleston and Philadelphia (This is 
very improbable) 11 ' At 5 p. m. made sail on our course. Lat. 
Obs. 26°16 / N.—Long. Lunar Obs. 10 a. m. 55°27' W. Var. 
Ev. Amp. 5°20' W. Thomas is much better. 

12 The burning of Washington was yet to come. 

1913.] The Most Successful American Privateer. 55 

130 Day Wednesday 24th Feb. 
. At 11 a. m. discovered a sail on the lee bow, 
apparently a brig standing close hauled to the eastward under 
royals with his course hauled up. Observed the sail imme- 
diately to bear away in chace of us. Tacked ship and made 
all sail to avoid the chace, or at least to discover how she sailed. 
Gentle breezes, a smooth and pleasant weather. 11-40 a. m. 
finding we dropped the chace very fast again tacked ship. 
At meridian the sail bears 2 points on the lee bow, dis- 
tant 12 or 14 miles. Lat. Obs. 27°3 / N.— Long. Lunar 56° 
42' W. 

131st Day Thursday 25th Feb. 
Made all sail in chace. At 3 p. in. fired a gun, upon which 
the chace showed English colours. % past 3 she hove to with 
her maintopsail aback. Piped all hands to quarters and 
cleared for action. 34 before 4 the enemy got under weigh 
to engage us. At 4 p. m. being within good gun shot com- 
menced a brisk cannonade on the starboard side which the 
enemy returned. 10 minutes past 4 p. m. she wore ship and 
struck her colours. Gave three cheers. Sent the barge on 
board and found our prize to be the English Brig called the 
Shannon, Captain Robert Kendall, of Workington, 25 days 
out from Maranham, bound to Liverpool, 210 tons burthen, 
with a full cargo of cotton (100 bales) navigated by 15 men, 
- mounting 10 carriage guns, sixes and nines, a fine vessel and 
sails well. The Mate was severely wounded in the foot. 
Took out the prisoners, made out Prize Commission for Sam- 
uel Barton, Letter of Instructions, gave him ship's papers, 
and at Y2 P as ^ 5 p. m. gave our prize three cheers and bade her 
adieu. Thus in one hour and a half we took a valuable prize, 
manned her and ordered her home. This prize may be esti- 
mated at $45,000^ 

Long. Lunar at 9 a. m. 58°6' W— Lat. Obs. 27°37 / N. 

132 Day Friday 26th Feb. 

At 5 p. in. saw a sail 1J/2 points on the lee bow, apparently 
a brig standing to the southward. . . At daylight no 

15 Before the Shannon was captured, Mr. Jones' bad made out his "List of Prizes, " 
and had also written the " Route of the Yankee" which is printed at the end of this Jour- 
nal. It is possible that he may not have protested very strongly at the additional entries 
he was compelled to make. The Shannon, with her cargo, actually netted $G7,521. The 
erroneous estimate may be excused in view of the exceedingly short time allowed for its 
making. When the cargo of the Shannon was sold, Mr. De Wolf found that he had been 
remunerated for all his losses suffered at the hands of the British cruisers. He therefore 
renamed her the Balance. Bearing that name she sailed from Bristol for years thereafter . 
The next prize was renamed the Prize, and the next the Remittance. The San Jose In- 
diano of the 5th cruise became the General Jackson. 

56 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

appearance of the sail we discovered last night 

Long. Lun. at 11 a. in. 59°44' W.— Lat. Obs. 28°20' N. 

133d Day Saturday 27th Feb. 

At 3 p. m. discovered a sail two points on the lee beam; 
believed her to be an armed vessel in chace of us. Continued 
our course with all our canvass spread. Yi past 4 lost sight 
of the sail astern. During the night frequent squalls of wind 
and rain. At 4 p. m. being very dark and squally found our- 
selves suddenly in the midst of a fleet of ships. Instantly 
called all hands and tacked ship to the S. E. At daybreak 
discovered two large ships and a brig standing to the E. 
Tacked ship again to the N. N. W. The nearest sail bore two 
points on the lee beam distant about 2\^ leagues. At 7 a. m. 
lost sight of all the sails and continued on our course. Strong 
breezes, flying clouds and a heavy sea. Rook two reefs in 
topsail and mainsail, got six of our cannon below, with all the 
shot boxes, secured Long Tom with strong lashings, housed 
the lee guns, and got everything ready for the stormy weather 
which we may expect to encounter as we approach our coast. 
. . . Thomas is nearly recovered. The wounded prisoner 
is comfortable and the Surgeon thinks he will do well. Lat. 

Obs. 3o°27' N. 

134th Day Sunday 28th Feb. 

(Begins with heavy weather) 9 a. m. saw a sail 3 points on 
the weather bow. Yi P&st 10 spoke the Swedish (American) 
Hermaphrodite Brig Augustus from Boston, bound to St. 
Bartholomew's — with liberty to touch at Bermuda — with 
cargo of American produce, 15 days out. The Captain and 
passengers informed us that Commodore Decatur had cap- 
tured the British Frigate Macedonian after an engagement of 
17 minutes; that none of our vessels of war have been taken; 
that Admiral Warren's squadron were blockading the Chesa- 
peake with two Seventy fours and five Frigates, and that there 
were not many cruisers on the coast. We obtained from him 
several newspapers up to the 13th Feb., from which it appears 
that no important battles had taken place on the Frontier, 
but several skirmishes with the Indians; that the foreign news 
was no later than our English papers — Bonaparte having 
retired into winter quarters at Smolenski, and Lord Welling- 
ton on the borders of Portugal; that the coasting trade is still 
continued; that a great trade was carried on under neutral 
flags and many vessels dispatched to Lisbon, Cadiz and France; 
that there were numerous arrivals from foreign ports but not 
many prizes, and that live frigates had sailed from France 
bound to America. Congress had passed a loan bill for 22 

1913.] The Most Successful American Privateer. 57 

millions and raised another army of 20000 men, besides build- 
ing several sloops of war. Permitted the Augustas to pro- 
ceed.— Lat. Obs. 31°33': 

135th Day Monday 1st March 
Distance 212 miles. Invalids recover fast. 
Lat. Obs. 34°23' Thermometer 71°. 

136th Day Tuesday 2d March 
(Commences with strong breezes and pleasant weather — 
then comes a tremendous gale with very high seas.) 11 a. m. 
the stern boat being stove in the bows cut it adrift. 3^2 P&st 
11 a. m. came on a very heavy squall of rain and hail and hove 
the ship down nearly on her beam ends; instantly cut away 
the fore and trysail halyards, got the helm up and kept her 
before it, threw four of our cannon overboard, got two below, 
sent down main topmast; vessel labored excessively, the sea 
making a fair breach over her. Continual squalls of wind, 
rain, hail and snow, with thunder and lightning and a very 
dangerous sea. Finding it unsafe to lay the ship to while the 
squalls continued sent her before it under a foretopmast 
staysail; ship perfectly tight and making no water. Lat. Obs. 
37°11' N. 

137th Day Wednesday 3d March 

The storm continues with frequent and heavy squalls. 
At 12 midnight the squalls become less frequent — 
the wind more moderate and steady and the sea less danger- 
ous. Hove to under trysail with her head to the westward, 
rode easy and shipped no seas. 8 a. m. the wind died away 
— nearly a calm— latterly an entire calm. Vessel labors con- 
siderably owing to the heavy sea. Thomas is almost well; 
the wounded Mate is in a fair way to recover; the Armourer 
received a bad contusion in the side by a fall. Ther. 63° Lat. 
36°23' N. 

138 Day Thursday 4th March 
(More very nasty weather). Conclude with strong gales 
and flying clouds with a bad sea. Invalids not so well. Lat. 
Obs. 37°30' N. 

139th Day Friday 5th March 
(Variable weather. Two sails sighted at a distance.) Mr. 
Jackson, the wounded mate, is dangerously ill. Lat. Obs. 

140th Day Saturday 6th March 
(More squally weather with dangerous seas.) Thermo- 
meter 45°. Lat. 37°28'. 

58 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

141st Day Sunday 7th March 
(The gale gradually dies away). Dark cloudy weather and 
excessively cold. Mr. Jackson is dangerously sick — having 
symptoms of the lock-jaw. The Armourer recovered. Lat. 
Obs. 37°5' N. 

142d Day Monday 8th March 
(Again heavy weather and high seas.) Mr. Jackson is 
(we fear) f)ast recovery, having frequent spasms and con- 
firmed lockjaw. James Thomas no better, the Armourer 
better. No Obs. Lat. D. R. 39°37' N. Long. D. It. 69°55'. 

143d Day Tuesday 9th March 

8 a. m. discovered a sail on the weather bow, Y 
past 8 made out the sail to be a pilot-boat-built schooner under 
reefs standing towards us. 9 a. m. the sail showed a red and 
white signal and bore away S. E. Believed her to be an Am- 
erican Privateer. Yi P a «t 9 more ships heading W. N. W. 

Tis exactly five months today since we left 
Bristol. Mr. Jackson no better. Lat. Polar Star at 4 a. in. 
39°3G' No Obs. 

144th Day Wednesday 10th March 
(Preparations for port). This morning the sun was fair 
and serene, the air was clear and bracing, the sea smooth, and 
a fair wind from the S. W. Sent up topmasts and yards and 
set all sail below and aloft. Cou. N. N. E. 8 knots. Got up 
all the wet sails, colours and clothes and aired them. Bent 
the cables. Lat. Polar star at 7 p. m. 39°20' N. Lat. Obs. 
40°14'. Long. Lunar at 4 p. m. 72°54' W. Soundings at 
meridian 55 fathoms. Block Island bears N. N. E. distant 
about 65 miles. Jackson is better. 

145th Day Thursday 11th March 
. At Yi past 4 p. m. the man at mast head called 
out LAND HO! Joyful sound to persons five months at sea 
on a long and dangerous cruise. Suppose the land to be Long 
Island. At sundown running down the land on the larboard 
hand 7 p. m. cloudy with rain. Shortened sail. 8 p. m. 
being very dark and hazy and not being able to see the light 
hove to under reefed topsail and stood off and on 3. a m. died 
away a calm and we suddenly lessened our soundings to 6 
fathoms. Immediately took in sail and let go our small 
anchor. Found she rode with her head to the S. W. current 
setting to the N. E. At daylight being dark and foggy with 
rain, and no land in sight, fired several guns for a pilot. 8 a. 
m. it became more clear and we discovered the land and break- 
ers close aboard bearing E. b N. We instantly knew this land 

1913.] The Most Successful American Privateer. 59 

to be Nantucket and that we were mistaken in supposing it 
to be Long Island. This mistake might have proved fatal and 
had it commenced blowing heavy from the S. W. we must 
inevitably have been shipwrecked on these dangerous shoals. 
Weighed anchor and made all sail to the S. Soon deepened 
our soundings to 17 fathoms. . . . No Obs. 

146th Day Friday 12th March 

At Yi past 1 p. m. the fog cleared away and we plainly dis- 
covered No Man's Land, Gay Head and Block Island all in 
view. . . . Observe the land to be covered with snow 
and a brig and schooner in shore. Cloudy and very cold with 
a smooth sea, a fair wind and all sail set. At 3-13 p. m. saw 
Rhode Island Light right ahead. — 6 p. m. came on a very 
thick fog with a heavy swell. Spoke a schooner from New 
York bound in to Newport who informed us he left Rhode 
Island Light about 30 minutes ago and that it bore N. N. W. 
distant about 3 miles. He further mentioned that there were 
no British cruisers in the Bay, but had heard of several off 
Sandy Hook. Made sail for the Light. Yi past 6 p. m. it 
being very dark and foggy, not being able to see the Light, 
came to anchor in 17 fathoms, soft bottom. During the night 
foggy with heavy rain and extremely cold. 12 midnight dis- 
covered the Light bearing N. N. W. V± N. distant about 1Y 
miles. At daylight made sail and weighed anchor, standing 
in for Newport harbour. It is with deep regret we mention 
the death of Mr. Jackson, late first Mate of the English Brig 
Shannon, who died at Yi past 12 midnight in great agony. 
Mr. Jackson, as before stated, was severely wounded by a 
cannon ball in the foot during the skirmish between the Yan- 
kee and the Shannon on the 24th ult. Notwithstanding every 
medical assistance, and all possible attention his wound ter- 
minated in the lockjaw, spasms and death. Air. Jackson 
belonged to Workington, was 23 years old, very much beloved 
by his captain and crew, and appeared to be a most excellent 
young man. 

At V-2 past 7 a. m. passed Rhode Island Light; Jo past S 
a. m. fired a salute of three guns as we passed Fori Wolcott. 
9 a. in. came to anchor in Newport harbour. Thui after an 
absence of 14o days the Fante has arrived safe, having cap- 
tured during the cruise S valuable prizes, 52 cannons, 196 
prisoners. 401 stand of small arms, and property to the amount 
of 296.000 dollars. She is ballasted with gold-dust, ivory and 
fine goods. She has. not lost a man during the cruise either 
by sickness or the enemy, and has returned with 52 persons 
on board including boys. It is worthy of remark that the 
Yankee neither saw nor was chased by any of his Majesty's 

60 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

war dogs during the cruise except the little schooner St. Jago. 
She has encountered as before mentioned a great deal of tem- 
pestuous weather on the coast but has received no material 
injury, except the loss of 4 cannon thrown overboard on the 
2d of March. 


" Honor and shame from no condition rise, 
Act well your part, there all the Honor lies." 

District and Port of Newport, March 12th, 1813. 

I, Oliver Wilson, Commander of the private armed brig called the Yankee, do swear 
that what is contained in the foregoing Journal, consisting of one hundred and fifty pages, 
is just and true in all its parts. So help me God. 

Oliver Wilson. 
Collector's Office, Port of Newport 
Sworn to the day and year above mentioned, 
William Elleky, Collector. 




No. 1. Sloop Mary Ann of London, Captain Stewart Suther- 
land, copper-bottomed, mounting 4 carriage guris and navi- 
gated by 11 men, with a cargo of gold-dust, ivory, drygoods, 
and camwood. Took out the cargo, stripped the vessel and 
set her on fire. 27th Nov. 1812— Lat. Obs. 7°29' N.— off 
Sierra Leone. 
Vessel and cargo valued at $16,000 

No. 2 Letter of Marque Schooner Alder, of Liverpool, late 
Captain Edward Crowley, mounting 6 carriage guns (9 
pounders), coppered, formerly a French Privateer, with 21 
men and a cargo of gun powder (400 casks) muskets, iron, 
lead, flints, drygoods, etc. Ordered home. The Alder 
was captured on the 3d of Dec. 1812 in Lat. G°53' N, off 
Cape Saint Anna, after a skirmish of 20 minutes. The 
Aider blew up. 
Vessel and cargo valued at $10,000 

No. 3 Letter of Marque Brig Andalusia, Anthony Yates Ken- 
dall, Master of and from Gibraltar, bound to the coast on 
a trading voyage, 210 tons burthen, mounting 10 carriage 
guns (4 long French nines and G twelve pound cannonades) 
with small arms, ammunition etc. and a crew of, 100 men 
including SI Free Africans who served as marines. The 
Andalusia was captured on the 10th of Dec. 1812, in Lat. 
5°35' N, after a running fight of three hours and a close en- 
gagement of 45 minutes." 
Vessel and cargo valued at $17,000 

1913.] The Most Successful American Privateer. 


No. 4 Pilot boat Schooner George. Cut out by the Yankee's 

boat. Deserted by the captain and crew. Cargo Rice. 
Given to prisoners. 

Vessel and cargo valued at SI, 000 

No. 5 Brig Thames of Liverpool, Francis Toole, Master; 8 
carriage guns (nines and twelves), 14 men, cargo ivory, 
drygoods and camwood (240 tons) — captured 10th Jan. 
1813 off Annabona. 
Vessel and cargo valued at $25,000 

No. 6 Brig Fly of London, Captain Tydeman, 6 carriage 
guns (nines) 14 men, formerly a French privateer, a new and 
handsome vessel and sails well, cargo gold-dust, ivory, 
gun powder, drygoods and sundries. The Fly was cut 
out from under the guns of Fort Apollonia, mounting 50 
pieces of artillery, at 1 p. m. on the 20th Dec. 1812. 
Vessel and cargo valued at (Besides the gold) $26,000 

No. 7 Armed Brig Harriott and Matilda, of Maryport, Cap- 
tain John Inman, from Cork bound to Pernambuco, mount- 
ing 8 carriage guns, eighteens and twelves, 14 men, cop- 
pered, 202 tons, sails well, with a valuable cargo of drygoods, 
iron, porter, salt etc. 
Vessel and cargo valued at $27,000 

No. 8 Brig Shannon, Captain Robert Kendall, of Working- 
ton, from Maranham, bound to Liverpool, mounting 10 
carriage guns (nines and sixes), 15 men, 210 tons burthen, 
with a full cargo of cotton (100 tons). The Shannon was 
captured on the 24th Feb. in Lat. 27°3' N. and Long. Lunar 
56°42' °W, Bermudas bearing N. W., after an action of 
10 minutes in which the Mate of the Shannon was severely 

Vessel and cargo valued at ' $45,000 

Property on board the Yankee in gold, ivory, 

fine goods etc. $45,000 





Men £ 


is Value 

Mary Ann 




















14 - 








62 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Names Guns 


Small Arms 


Harriott & Matilda 8 



$ 27,000 

Shannon 10 




52 196 461 $167,000 

Value on board the Yankee 45,000 



Oliver Wilson, Commander 

Seth Barton, First Lieutenant 

John H. Vinson, Second Lieutennant 

Thomas Jones, Third Lieutenant 
Elisha Snow, Master 
Caleb Miller, Surgeon* 

Noah Jones, Capt. of Marines & Captain's Clerk 
Andrew H olden, First Mate 

Joseph Meades, Second Mate 

Thomas Pitts, Third Mate 
Seven Prize-Masters 

Six Quarter-Masters 
One hundred men 


Touched at St. Jago, Cape de Verds, on the 27th day of her 
cruise for wood and water. Engaged one of his Britannic 
Majesty's Schooners on the night of the 23d of November. 
Cruised between Cape Verde and Cape Lopez from the 22d 
of November 1812 to the 6th of January 1813, looking in at 
every port, harbour, river, factory, town etc on that coast, 
and capturing five valuable prizes, loaded with gold dust, 
ivory, dyewoods etc. Touched at the islands of St. Thomas, 
Annabona, Ascension, and Fernando Noronha, at various 
times during her cruise, for wood, water and fresh stock. 
Then cruised off the coast of Brazil, and captured two large 
brigs with cargoes of fine goods and sundries. Fought four 
battles, crossed the Equinoctial Line six times, and returned 
safe into port, having been frequently chased by the enemy, 
after an absence of 146 days without the loss of a man. 14 

(Noah Jones, Captain's Clerk) 

u The Shannon had not been taken when this "Route" was written. 

1913.] Wisdom of the North American Indian. 63 



The cardinal doctrine of anthropology today, — the 
essential unity of all the races of man, — is susceptible 
of proof in several ways, but in no fashion more thorough- 
ly, or more satisfactorily, than by reference to the reac- 
tions of all tribes and peoples, individually and collective- 
ly, to what may be termed the generic human situations 
and circumstances. There is a certain sort and bulk 
of wisdom that seems to be independent of race, color, 
or any other specific limiting characteristic. All over 
the world, men and women of the most diverse physical 
constitution are found to think or to do in the generically 
human situations what is practically the human thing 
there to think or to do. Some philosophic students of 
mankind would have us believe that these " generically 
human" situations, or sets of circumstances, to which 
it is possible to react in the manner indicated, are few 
in number, — as few, perhaps, as the seven dramatic 
situations, to which every successful play must, it is 
said, closely or remotely approach; or the equally small 
number (estimates vary from three to ten) of jokes, 
within whose limits are included all effective wit and 
humor. Be this as it may, there exists no race of man, 
that has not contributed, or could not contribute to the 
general stock some of -the generic wisdom in question 
here; and certainly the American Indian is one of the 
world's peoples, whose wisdom, at so many points, 
belongs quite in the same class with our own. The 
intention of the present writer is to cite and discuss 
briefly such "wise words" of the Red race, as might, 

64 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

had they been spoken by a white man, have rightly been 
recorded in such a work as Bartlett's Familiar Quotations 
or Bent's Familiar Short Sayings of Great Men. 

The material here offered, collected from many sourc- 
es, may be arranged roughly under the following general 
heads: (1) Speeches and Sayings of Celebrated Indians 
of a brief sort; (2) The Indian on the Frailties and 
Foibles of Men and Women; (3) Indian Words of Aspir- 
ation, Faith, Devotion, etc.; (4) Indian Words about the 
Family, Home, Love, Childhood, etc. 

The discussion of another topic, "The Indian on the 
Race-Question" is reserved for a future occasion. 

/. Speeches and Sayings of Celebrated Indians. 

1. American Horse (Sioux chief, 1890). 
We were made many promises, but have never heard from them since. 

2. Appanoose (a chief of the Sauks). 
I am happy that two great men meet and shake hands with each other 
(said to Gov. Everett, in 1837, at Boston). 

3. Black Hawk (the famous chief of the Sauks and Foxes). 

(a) The Great Spirit punishes those who deceive us, and my faith is 
now pledged (said to Col. Eustis, in 1833). 

(b) I am a man and you are another (said to President Jackson, at 
Washington, in 1833). 

4. Joseph Brant, or Thayendinaga (a chief of the Mohawks). 

(a) If your purpose is war, I am ready for you (said to Gen. Herkimer, 
in 1777). 

(b) What! Kill a woman and child! No! That child is not an 
enemy to the King, not a friend to the Congress. Long before he will be 
big enough to do any mischief, the dispute will be settled (said to Col. 
Butler, at Wyoming, in 1778). 

5. Canonicus (a sachem of the Narragansetts). 
I have never suffered any wrong to be done to the English, since they 
landed, nor ever will (said to Roger Williams). 

6. Garangula, or Grangula (an orator of the Onondagas, 1684). 
We are born free. We depend neither on Yonondio (France) nor on 
Corlaer (England). 

7. Honayawus, or Farmer's Brother (famous chief of the Senecas). 
The Great Spirit spoke to the whirlwind and it was still (said, in 1798, 
of the war of the Revolution and its close). 

1913.] Wisdom of the North American Indian. 65 

8. Keokuk (famous chief of the Sauks). 

(a) The Great Spirit has sent our brother back. Let us shake hands 
in friendship (said, on return of Black Hawk from captivity, in 1833). 

(b) The Great Spirit, as you have said, made us the same; we only 
speak different languages (said to Gov. Everett, at Boston, in 1837). 

(c) The heart of our great father was good; he spoke like the father of 
children. The Great Spirit made his heart big in council (said, at Fort 
Armstrong, Illinois, in 1833, on the release of Black Hawk). 

9. Little Black (a chief of the Winnebagos). 
My father, I ask nothing but a clear sky above our heads, which have 
been hanging down lately, and the sky has been dark, and the wind has 
been blowing continually and trying to blow lies in our ears, but we turn 
our ears from it. But when we look toward you, the weather is clear and 
the wind does not blow (said to Mr. Gratiot, in 1832). 

10. Little Turtle, or Mibhikinakwa (a chief of the Miamis). 

(a) We have beaten the enemy twice under separate commanders. 
We cannot expect the same good fortune always to attend us. The 
Americans are now led by a chief who never sleeps; the day and the night 
are alike to him. And, during all the time that he has been marching 
upon our villages, notwithstanding the watchfulness of our young men, 
we have never been able to surprise him. Think well of it. There is 
something whispers me, it would be prudent to listen to his offers of peace 
(said in council, before the battle of Presqu' Isle, in 1793). 

(b) Why should not these Tartars, who resemble us, have come from 
America? Are there any reasons to the contrary? Or why should we 
not have both been born in our own country? (said to Volney, the traveler, 
who met him at Philadelphia, in 1797). 

(c) He mistakes. I was just thinking of proposing to this man to paint 
us both on one board, and there I would stand face to face with him, and 
blackguard him to all eternity (said, while having his picture painted, of 
an Irishman with whom he had several jesting-bouts; the latter had begun 
to boast of victory). 

See Drake, Abor. Races of N. Amer., 15th ed. (N. Y., 
1882), pp. 72-75. 

11. Logan, or Tabgayeeta (famous chief of the Cayugas). 

[Concerning the famous "speech of Logan," Dr. Cyrus Thomas says: 

"This supposed speech was probably only a memorandum written down 

from his statement and afterwards read before the treaty meeting at 

Chillicothe, at which Logan was not present." (Handb. of Amer. Inds. 

North of Mexico, vol. I, 1907, p. 772).] 

The most remarkable passage of this "speech" is as follows: 

m "I appeal to any white man to say if he entered Logan's cabin hungry 

and he gave him not meat. If he ever came cold and naked and he 

clothed him not. During the course of the last long and bloody war, 

Logan remained idle in his cabin, an advocate for peace. Such was my 

66 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

love for the whites, that my countrymen pointed as they passed, and 
said, 'Logan is the friend of the white man. ' I had even thought to have 
lived among you hut for the injuries of one man, Col. Cresap, the last 
spring, in cold blood and unprovoked, murdered all the relations of Logan, 
not sparing even my women and children. There runs not a drop of 
my blood in the veins of any living creature. Thitf called on me for re- 
venge. I have sought it. I killed many. I have fully glutted my 
vengeance. For my country I rejoice at the beams of peace. But do 
not harbor a thought that mine is the joy of fear. Logan never felt fear. 
He will not turn on his heel to save his life. Who is there to mourn for 
Logan? Not one." 

See Drake, Op. cit., p. 42); Yawger, The Indian and the 

Pioneer (Syracuse, 1893), Vol. I, p. 89; Jefferson, 

Notes on Virginia, etc. 

12. Mackatanamakee, or Black Thunder (a chief of the Foxes). 

(a) If this be the conduct of an enemy, I shall never be your friend 
(said at Portage, in 1815, to the American commissioner). 

(b) Again, I call heaven and earth to witness, and I smoke this pipe in 
evidence of my sincerity. My only desire is that we should smoke it 
together, — that I should grasp your sacred hand, and I claim for myself 
and my tribe the protection of your country. When this pipe touches 
your lip, may it operate as a blessing upon all my tribe. May the smoke 
rise like a cloud, and carry away with it all the animosities which have 
arisen between us (said on the same occasion as above). 

See Drake, Op. cit., p. G32; Yawger, Op. cit., pp. 82-84. 

13. Madokawando (a sachem of the Penobscots). 

We have waited a great while already, and now we expect you will say 
"Yes" or "No" (said to the English, in 1675). 

14. Mahaskah (a chief of the western Indians). 

(a) I have not avenged the death of my father. My heart is at rest. 
I will go to war no more. I told General Clark, when I was last at St. 
Louis, that I would take this peace talk. My word is out. I will fight 
no more. 

(b) Yes, you are my wife. I am your husband; I have been a loDg 
time from you. I am glad to see you; you are my pretty wife, and a 
brave man always loves a pretty woman (said, in 1824, after having been 
away from his wife on the road to Washington). 

(c) I have buried the tomahawk. I am now a man of peace (said, in 
1833, to a war-party of Iowa Indians). 

15. Massasoit (sachem of the Wampanoags). 
'Am I not Massasoit, commander of the country about us? Are not 
such and such places mine, and the people of them? They shall take their 
furs to the English (said, at Pokanoket, in 1623). 

1913.] Wisdom of the North American Indian. 


16. Metakoosega (a chief of the western Ojibwa). 
Am I a dog, that I should lie? (said, in 1826, when Gov. Cass suggested 
that he should bind himself by an oath). 

17. Miantunnumoh (a sachem of the Narragansetts). 

(a) When your people come to me, they are permitted to use their own 
fashions, and I expect the same liberty when I come to you (said to Gov. 
Dudley, in 1640). 

(b) Brothers, we must be one, as the English are, or we shall soon all 
be destroyed (said about 1642). 

18. Moanahoncia (an Iowa Indian), 
(a) I am ashamed to look upon the sun. I have insulted the Great 
Spirit by selling the bones of my fathers. It is right that 1 should mouni 
(he wore a blacked face to the day of his death). 

(6) I'll go with you. A brave man dies but once. Cowards are always 
dying (said when surrendering to the whites). 

See MeKenney, Op. cit., p. 181 and p. 182. 

19. Neapope (a chief of the Sauk Indians). 
Make me so, and show me to the great father (said, as he lifted the ball 
and chain fastened to his leg, to Catlin, the artist, who was about to paint 
a picture of him). 

20. Ninigret (a sachem of the Narragansetts). 

(a) For what are the Narragansetts to pay so much wampum? I 
know not that they are indebted to the English (said, at Boston, in 1647). 

(b) My tongue shall not belie my heart. Whether the debt be paid or 
not, I intended it as a present to the governor (said on the same occasion, 
when doubt arose as to the nature of an envoy of wampum). 

21. Ongpatonga, or Big Elk (a chief of the Omahas). 
Do not grieve. Misfortunes will happen to the wisest and best men. 
Death will come, and always comes out of season. It is the command 
of the Great Spirit, and all nations must obey. What is past and cannot 
be prevented should not be grieved for (said, in an oration at the burial 
of a Sioux chief, in 1811). 

22. Osceola (a chief of the Seminoles). 
The sun is so high! I shall remember the hour! The agent has his 
day, — I will have mine (said, when arrested and taken to prison, in 1837). 

23. Pezhekezhikquashkum (head-chief of the Ojibwa of Walpole Id:) 

How can I, who have grown old in sins and in drunkenness, break off 

from' these things, when the white people are as bad and wicked as the 

Indians? (said, in answer to Rev. Peter Jones, the Indian missionary). 

24. Philip, or "King Philip" (a sachem of the Wampanoags). 
Your governor is but a subject of King Charles of England. I shall not 
treat with a subject. I shall treat of peace only with the king, my broth- 


68 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

er. When he comes, I am ready (said, shortly before the war of 1G75, to 
the ambassador of the governor of Massachusetts). 

25. Pontiac (the famous Ottawa chief). 

(a) I stand in the path (said, when he was told that the English were 
coming to seize the abandoned French posts). 

(b) He cannot take my life; I have saved his (said of Capt. Rogers, 
whose life Pontiac had saved.) 

26. Pushmataha (a chief of the Choctaws). 

(a) Is that all? Many good warriors get drunk (said on releasing a 
drunken soldier). 

(b) I shall die, but you will return to our brethren. As you go along 
the paths, you will see the flowers and hear the birds sing, but Pushmataha 
will see them and hear them no more. When you shall come to your 
home, they will ask you, "Where is Pushmataha?" and you will say to 
them "Pie is no more." They will hear the tidings like the sound of the 
fall of a mighty oak in the stillness of the woods (said, to some Indian 
friends, shortly before his death, in 1824). 

(c) Father. When in my own country, I often looked towards this 
Council-house, and wanted to come here. I am in trouble, I will tell 
my distresses. I feel like a small child, not half as high as its father, who 
comes up to look in his father's face, hanging in the bend of his arm, to 
tell him his troubles. So, Father, I hang in the bend of your arm, and 
look in your face, and now hear me speak (said, to the Secretary of War, 
at Washington, in 1824). 

(d) I can boast and say, and tell the truth, that none of my fathers, or 
grandfathers, nor any Choctaw ever drew bow against the United States. 
They have always been friendly. We have held the hands of the United 
States so long, that our nails are long like birds' claws; and there is no 
danger of their slipping out (said on the same occasion as above). 

See McKenney, Hist, of the Ind. Tribes of N. America 
(Phila., 1872), vol. I, pp. 189-192. 

27. Red Jacket, or Sagoweyatha (famous orator ancj statesman of 

the Senecas). 

(a) A warrior! Sir, I am an orator! I was born an orator! (said 
when a white man flatteringly addressed him as a warrior). 

(b) I have been playing Logan (said, when, as a boy, he used to absent 
himself from the house, he had taken Logan as his model). 

(c) Ugh! She inspired, she Jesus Christ! And not know Indian? 
(said of Jemima Wilkenson, who sought to convert the Indians to her 

(d) Brother, if you white men murdered the Son of the Great Spirit, 
we Indians had nothing to do with it, and it is none of our affair. If he 
had come among us, we would not have killed him; we would have treated 
him well. You must make amends for that crime yourselves (said to 
Rev. Mr. Brack enridge). 

1913.] Wisdom of the North American Indian. 69 

(e) Tell the young man that, if he wishes to see the old chief, he may find 
him with his nation, where other strangers pay their respects to him; 
and Red Jacket will be glad to see him (said, in 1820, when a young 
French nobleman asked him to come to Buffalo to see him). 

(/) I, myself, am the man; the decided enemy of the Americans, so long 
as the hope of opposing them successfully remained, but now their true 
and faithful ally until death (said, to Gen. Lafayette, at a meeting of 
chiefs, when he asked about the youth who once so fiercely opposed the 

(g) If the British succeed, they will take our country from us; if the 
Americans drive them back, they will claim our land by right of conquest 
(said during the war of 1812). 

(h) Brother, I hear you are going to a place called Governor's Island. 
I hope you will be a governor yourself. I understand that you white 
people think children a blessing. I hope you may have a thousand. 
And, above all, I hope, wherever you go, you may never find whiskey 
more than two shillings a quart (said to Col. Snelling). 

(i) Yes! Much more than the white men, if we arc to judge by their 
actions (said when asked if he believed in future rewards and punishments 
and the existence of God). 

(J) The paper then tells a lie. I have it written here (placing his hand, 
with great dignity, upon his brow). You Yankees are born with a feather 
between your fingers; but your paper does not speak the truth. The 
Indian keeps his knowledge here, — this is the book the Great Spirit gave 
us, — it does not lie! (said, when putting forward his memory against an 
alleged written statement of the whites). 

See McKenney, Op. tit., pp. 17-18, p. 21, p. 22; Drake, 
Op. cit., pp. 595-601; Yawger, Op. cit., p. 37. 

28. Samoset (an Indian of Massachusetts). 

Welcome Englishmen! Welcome Englishmen! (said, in 1621, to the 
Pilgrims, who landed at Cape Cod). 

29. Sitting Bull (a medicine-man and chief of the Sioux). 
Indians! There are no Indians left now but me! (said in 1889). 

30. Skenando (a chief of the Oneidas). 

I am an aged hemlock. The winds of a hundred winters have whistled 
through my branches. I am dead at the top. The generation to which 
I belonged has run away and left me (said shortly before his death, in 

31. Smoiialla (a "prophet" of the Wanapum Indians, 18S4). 

(a) You ask me to plough the ground! Shall I take a knife and tear 
my mother's bosom? Then, when I die, she will not take me to her 
bosom to rest. You ask me to dig for stone! Shall I dig imder her skin 
for her bones? Then, when I die, I cannot enter her body to be born 

70 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

again. You ask me to cut grass and make hay, and sell it, and be rich 
like white men! But how dare I cut my mother's hair? 

(b) My young men shall never work. "Men who work cannot dream, 
and wisdom comes in dreams. 

(c) Do the white teachers believe all they teach? 

(d) Each one must learn for himself the highest wisdom. It cannot 
be taught. You have the wisdom of your race. Be content. 

See James Mooney, in the Fourteenth Ann. Rep. Bur. 
Amer. Elhnol. (Washington), pp. 708-711. 

32. Tecumseii (the famous Shawnee chief). 

(a) The President may sit still in his town, and drink his wine, while 
you and I will have to fight it out (said, to Gen. Harrison, in 1812.) 

(b) These lands are ours. No one has a right to remove us, because 
we were the first owners. The Great Spirit above has appointed this 
place for us, on which to light our fires, and here we will remain. As to 
boundaries, the Great Spirit knows no boundaries, nor will his red chil- 
dren acknowledge any (said, in 1810, to the messenger of the President 
of the United States). 

(c) It (i. e. war) is my determination; nor will I give rest to my feet, 
until I have united all the red men in the like resolution (said in 1810). 

(d) My father? The sun is my father, and the earth is my mother; 
and on her bosom I will repose (said, indignantly, at Vincennes, in 1810, 
when told, "Your father requests you tQ take a chair. " Tecumseh, in 
Indian fashion, sat on the ground). 

(e) Sell a country! Why not sell the air, the clouds and the great sea, 
as well as the earth? Did not the Great Spirit make them all for the use 
of his children? 

(/) Part do not know how to sell. It requires all to make a bargain for 
all (said, in council, in 1810). 

See Drake, Op. cit., pp. 017-620; Mooney, Op. cit., pp. 

33. Teyoninhokerawen, or John Norton (an educated Mohawk chief). 

Sir, I shall not experience so great a change in my society, as you imag- 
ine, for I find there are savages in this country also (said, while in England 
in 1804-1805, to one who asked him how he liked returning to savagery). 

34. Tomocomo, or Uttamatomakin (one of the council of Powhatan, 

who was sent to England). 
Count the stars in the sky, the leaves on the trees, and the sand upon 
the sea-shore, — for such is the number of the people of England. 

35. Toohuliiulsoote (a "priest" of the Nez Perc6 Indians). 
We never made any trade. Part of the Indians gave up their land. 
I never did. The earth is part of my body, and I never gave up the earth. 
So long as the earth keeps me, I want to be let alone (said, in 1877, to 
Gen. Howard). 

1913.] Wisdom of the North American Indian. 71 

36. Wakaun Haka (a chief of the Winnebagos) . 
(a) The Great Spirit has made the skin of the Indian red, and soap and 
water can not make it white. 

(6) The children of the Indians are asleep, and can not be waked up 
(said, when asked to urge the attendance of the children of the tribe at 
the government schools). 

See MeKenney, Op. cit., p. 431. 

37. Wapella (a chief of the Foxes). 
I am not in the habit of talking. I think. I have been thinking ail 
day (said in 1833, when Black Hawk was liberated and returned home). 

38. Waub-Ojeeq (a chief of the Ojibwa of Sault Ste. Marie). 

Father, I have not the eyes I once had. I now am old. I think soon 
this great world will be hid from me. But the Great Spirit is good. I 
want you, father, to hear me. This young man is eyes to me, and hands, 
too. Will you not be good to him? (said, in his old age, when he had a 
young Indian attendant, and was threatened with blindness). 

39. Weatheuford (a chief of the Creeks). 
I am in your power; do with me as you please. I am a warrior. I have 
done the white people all the harm I could; I have fought them, and 
fought them bravely; if I had any warriors left, I would still fight, and 
contend to the last. But I have none; my people are all gone; and now 
I can only mourn over the misfortunes of my nation (said, to Gen. Jack- 
son, at Fort Minims). 

See MeKenney, Op. Cit., p. 210. 

40. Wittuwamat (a sachem of the Wampanoags). 

I have another at home, wherewith I have killed both French and Eng- 
lish, and that hath a man's face on it; and by and by these two must 
marry. By and by it shall see, and by and by it shall eat, but not speak 
(said, in 1623, while praising his knife, on the handle of which was painted 
a woman's face). 

41. Miscellaneous., 

(a) The English claim all on one side of the river, the French claim all 
on the other. Where is the land of the Indians? (Delaware chiefs to 
British agent in 1752). 

(6) We will make straight paths; but let us make peace among our 
neighboring tribes first, before we make this path to those afar off (Shaw- 
nee chief, at Johnson Hall conference, in 1768). 

(c) Well, I don't want to be 'rude, but it does seem to me that you, my 
white brother, have been a long time in coming with that great Book and 
its wonderful story, to tell it to your red brothers in the woods (Cree 
Indian to Rev. E. R. Young). 

(d) We don't know, but it must have been some very rich man (a hea- 
then Eskimo, in reply to the question, "Who made the world?"). 

72 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

(e) No! You say whiskey bad. Bad one time, bad all time (Kootenay 
Indian, in 1891, to priest, who tried to get him to take some whiskey when 

(/) This is our land, and not yours (confederated tribes to the English 
in 1752). 

(g) You have once given me life, and now I give it to you. Let me 
meet you no more, for I have paid the debt I owed you (Iroquois chief, 
fighting for the English, to his father, whom he met fighting on the side 
of the French). 

(h) It must be made of hearts and tongues. For, when I have drunken 
plenty of it, my heart is a thousand strong, and I can talk, too, with as- 
tonishing freedom and rapidity (Ottawa chief, to Count Frontenac, when 
asked what he thought brandy was made of). 

(i) I will not bid you go, neither will I bid you stay, but you may use 
your own discretion (a chief of the Indians of Maryland, in 1634, when 
asked if he was willing to have the English settle in his country). 

That the American Indian knows the brevity that is 
the soul of wit, and is capable of the cleverest sort of 
repartee is apparent from the anecdotes, from all kinds 
of sources, that are on record. A Canadian Indian, some 
time after the foundation of Montreal, had imbibed too 
much lire-water and was discovered, aimlessly wandering 
about, by a white man, who inquired, " Indian lost?" 
and received the answer, "No! Indian not lost, wigwam 
lost." In one of our newspapers, not so very long ago 
appeared the story of a child found crying in the city 
streets, who, when asked if he was lost, replied, -"No! 
I'm not lost, my house is lost." Here, both the savage 
and the child are one in thought. One of the tritest of 
all repartees is ascribed to a Sioux Indian maiden. 
This young woman happened to be in the hall of some 
educational or public institution, during an exhibition 
of Indian products, etc., when a lady of the typically 
(Boston) intellectual sort approached and said, "Are 
you civilized?" to which the Indian maiden replied, as 
sweetly as may be, "No I are you?" What could exceed 
in dignified laconicism the remark made by Black Hawk, 
chief of the Sauks and Foxes, to President Jackson, at 
Washington, in 1833? — "I am a man, and you are an- 
other." Brief, and pointed also, are the words of the 
Sioux chief, American Horse, in 1890: "We were made 


1913.] Wisdom of the North American Indian. 73 

many promises, but have never heard from them since"; 
of the Onondaga Garangula, in 1684: "We are born 
free; we depend neither on France, nor on England"; 
of Mackatananamikee, chief of the Foxes, in 1815: 
"If this be the conduct of an enemy, I shall never be 
your friend"; of Madokawando, the Penobscot sachem, 
in 1675: "We have waited a great while already, and 
now we expect you will sa}^ 'Yes' or 'No'"; of Mian- 
tunnumoh, the Narragansett sachem, in 1642: "Broth- 
ers, we must be one, as the English are, or we shall 
soon all be destroyed"; of Moanahonga, an Iowa In- 
dian: "I'll go with you. A brave man dies but once. 
Cowards are always dying"; of Pontiac in regard to 
Captain Rogers: "He cannot take my life; I have saved 
his"; of Red Jacket, who said indignantly to the white 
man who had sought to flatter him by calling him a 
warrior : "A warrior ! Sir, I am an orator ! I was born 
an orator!" of the Sioux, Sitting Bull in 1889: "In- 
dians! There are no Indians left but me!" 

Some of the other sayings on record, for apt seizing of 
the situation and witty or sarcastic setting forth of it, 
belong with many of the wise and clever sayings of our 
own race. Little Turtle, a Miami chief of the latter 
part of the 18th century, while having his picture painted, 
said concerning an Irishman, with whom he had had 
several jesting-bouts, and who had begun to boast of 
victory over his Indian competitor: "He mistakes. 
I was just thinking of proposing to this man to paint us 
both on one board, and there I would stand face to face 
with him, and blackguard him to all eternity. ' ' Worthy 
to rank with Cromwell's famous observation to his por- 
trait-painter are the words of Neapope, a chief of the 
Sauks, spoken to Catlin the artist, who was about to 
make a picture of him: "Make me so, and show me to 
the Great Father," — and he lifted the ball and chain 
fastened to his leg. Unexpectedly soft and affectionate, 
— to those who have not known the Indian well, is the 
remark of Mahaska, a chief of the Western Indians, in 
1824 (he had just returned from Washington): "Yes, 

74 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

you are my wife. I am your husband; I have been a 
long time from you. I am glad to see you; you are my 
pretty wife, and a man always loves a pretty woman." 
Such chivalrous touches as this are to be met with again 
and again in the domestic life of the Indian, — and yet 
some, like Mr. Fink, in his book on Romantic Love and 
Personal Beauty, would deny altogether to the Red Men 
the possession of (or the instinct of) " romantic love. " 

That the familiar proverb, "Do at Rome, as the 
Romans do/' does not exhaust the possibilities of 
human appearances is made clear by the statement 
of Miantunnumoh, the Narragansett sachem, to Gover- 
nor Dudley in 1640: "When your people come to me, 
they are permitted to use their own fashions, and I 
expect the same liberty, when I come to you. " Among 
the sayings of Red Jacket, the Seneca orator and 
statesman is this, uttered in 1820, when a young 
French nobleman asked him to come to Buffalo to 
see him: "Tell the young man that, if he wishes to 
see the old chief, he may find him with his nation, where 
other strangers pay their respects to him ; and Red Jack- 
et will be glad to see him." More significant even, is 
the reply of Teyoninhoketawen (or John Norton), an 
educated Indian of the Mohawk tribe, made in 1805, 
while in England, to one who asked him how he liked 
returning to savagery: "Sir, I shall not experience so 
great a change in my society as you imagine, for I find 
there are savages in this country also." As an example 
of indignant remonstrance, the observation of Meta- 
koosega, a chief of the Western Ojibwa, in 1826, when 
Governor Cass suggested that he should make oath to 
his statements, could hardly be exceeded: "Am I a 
dog, that I should lie?" As short and pithy is the ques- 
tion of Smohalla, the " prophet" of the Wanapum Indians, 
asked in 1884, of a white man who had inquired of him 
if he believed all the things he taught: "Do the white 
teachers believe all they teach?" There is wise rebuke, 
too, in the saying of the Fox chief Wapella (in 1833) : 
"I am not in the habit of talking. I think." 

1913.] Wisdom of the North American Indian. 75 

Of comments on the coming of the missionaries and 
their teachings we have the inquiry of Pezhekezhikquash- 
kum, an Ojibwa chief, made to the Rev. Peter Jones, in the 
early part of the nineteenth century: "How can 1, who 
have grown old in sins and in drunkenness, break off 
from these things, when the white people are as bad and 
as wicked as the Indians?" and the observation of the 
bred Indian to Rev. E. R. Young: "Well, I don't 
want to be rude, but it does seem to me that you, my 
white brother, have been a long time in coming with 
that great Book and its wonderful story, to tell it to 
your red brothers in the woods." As a contribution to 
the literature of the "combat of father and son" motif, 
well-known in the Oriental folk-lore, may be cited the 
words of the Iroquois chief, fighting for the English, to 
his own father, whom he met on the side of the French 
in battle: "You have once given me life, and now I 
give it to you. Let me meet you no more, for I have 
paid the debt I owed you." Concerning whiskey, a 
number of interesting remarks have been made by 
Indians, beginning with the reply of the Ottawa chief 
to Count Frontenac, who had asked him what he thought 
brandy was made of: "It must be made of hearts and 
tongues. For, when I have drunken plenty of it, me 
heart is a thousand strong, and I can talk, too, with 
astonishing freedom and rapidity. " Pushmataha, a chief 
of the Choc taws, in the first quarter of the 19 th century, 
said, when told about a drunken soldier: "Is that all? 
Many good warriors get drunk!" Red Jacket's fare- 
well remarks to Colonel Snelling deserve notice here: 
"Brother, I hear you are going to a place called Gover- 
nor's Island. I hope you will be a governor yourself. 
I understand that you white people think children a 
blessing. I hope you may have a thousand! And, 
above all, I hope, wherever you go, you may never find 
whiskey more than two shillings a quart." We might, 
perhaps, class Red Jacket among the early "anti race- 
suicide" advocates! The Single-Taxers find companion- 
ship in Tecumseh, who declared: "Sell a country! 

76 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Why not sell the air, the clouds and the great sea, as 
well as the earth? Did not the Great Spirit make them 
all for the use of His children?" And no one has seen the 
limitations of new religions and the pretended renais- 
sances of older prophets and deities more than Red Jacket, 
who said, in reference to Jemima Wilkenson, who sought 
to convert the Indians to her doctrines: "Ugh I she 
inspired, she Jesus Christ! And not know Indian!" 

Examples of figures of speech occurring in the utter- 
ances of Indians are the following. In 1798, Honayawus, 
or Farmer's Brother, a Seneca chief, said of the war of 
the Revolution and its close: "The Great Spirit spoke 
to the whirlwind and it was still" ; Little Black, a Winne- 
bago chief, said to Mr. Gratiot in 1832: "My father, 
I ask nothing but a clear sky above our heads, which 
have been hanging down lately, and the sky has been 
dark, and the wind has been blowing continually and 
trying to blow lies in our ears, but we turn our ears from 
it. But when we look toward you, 'the weather is clear, 
and the wind does not blow" ; in the course of his remarks 
to the American commissioner, at Portage, in 1815, 
Mackateananamikee, a chief of the Foxes, said: "May 
the smoke [of this pipe] rise like a cloud, and carry away 
with it all the animosities which have arisen between 
us"; Pushmataha, the Choctaw chief, said in reference to 
his approaching death: "They will hear the tidings like 
the sound of the fall of a mighty oak in the stillness of 
the woods"; Skenando, an Oneida chief, said, in 1816: 
"I am an aged hemlock. The winds of a hundred win- 
ters have whistled through my branches. I am dead at 
the top. The generation to which I belonged has gone 
away and left me"; Wakaunhaka, a chief of the Winne- 
bagos, said, when asked to urge the attendance of the 
children of his tribe at the government schools: "The 
children of the Indians are asleep, and can not be waked 
up." Specially worthy of note are the words of the 
Choctaw chief Pushmataha to the Secretary of War, 
at Washington, in 1824: "I can boast and say, and tell 
the truth, that none of my fathers, or grandfathers, nor 

1913.] Wisdom of the North American Indian. 77 

any Choctaw, ever drew bow against the United States. 
They have always been friendly. We have held the 
hands of the United States so long, that our nails are 
long like birds' claws, and there is no danger of their 
slipping out." This is a figure, the direct opposite of 
"hands across the sea." A figure of an entirely dif- 
ferent sort occurs in another speech of this same chief: 
"I feel like a small child, not half as high as its father, 
who comes to look in his father's face, hanging in the 
bend of his arm, to tell him his troubles. So, Father 
[the Secretary of War], I hang in the bend of your arm, 
and look in your face, and now, hear me speak." 

Doubtless, if we had more complete records of the 
speeches of the orators of various Indian tribes, we should 
meet with many more of these interesting figures. But 
of the longer speeches, such, e. g., as the famous one of 
Logan, we have at best only a white man's recollection 
(or perhaps redaction), and not a true text with all its 
native stylistic peculiarities. We have, however, just 
as much as we have of some of the sayings of the great 
ones of classic antiquity. 

77. The Indian on the Frailties and Foibles of Men 
and Women. 

In the legends, myths and stories of the North Ameri- 
can Indians we meet with many items that can be classed 
appropriately under this rubric. The creation-legends, 
in particular, furnish us with many examples ; also fire- 
side tales, etc. That the Indian has seized upon the 
chief " human" situations, and treated them essentially 
as we do, with the addition, perhaps, of a little more 
"poetic justice," will be evident from the material cited 

1. The Descent of Man. In a creation-legend of the 
Miwok Indians of Calif ornia, reported by the late Stephen 
Powers, we have a good example of what happened 
when each one of the animals sought to create man in 
his own image, but all were outwitted by the cunning 
coyote. This legend suggests comparison in some re- 

78 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

spects with the Bestiaria of the Middle Ages in Europe, 
the Parliament of Fowls, and the like. The story might 
almost pass for a satire on the importance of the indi- 
vidual. The legend is as follows: 

After the Coyote (mountain-wolf) had finished all the work of the world 
and the inferior creatures, he called a council of them to deliberate on the 
creation of man. They sat down in an open space in the forest, all in a 
circle with the Mountain-Lion at the head. On his right sat the Grizzly 
Bear, next the Cinnamon Bear, and so on around, according to the rank, 
ending with the little Mouse, which sat at the Lion's left. 

The Lion was the first to speak, and he declared he should like to see 
Man created with a mighty voice like himself, wherewith he could frighten 
all animals. For the rest, he would have him well-covered with hair, 
terrible fangs in his jaws, strong talons, etc. 

The Grizzly Bear said it was ridiculous to have such a voice as his 
neighbor, for he was always roaring with it, and scared away the very 
prey he wished to capture. He said the Man ought to have prodigious 
strength, and move about silently but very swiftly, if necessary, and be 
able to grip his prey without making a noise. 

The Buck said that the Man would look very foolish, in his way of 
thinking, unless he had a magnificent pair of antlers on his head to fight 
with. He also thought it was very absurd to roar so loudly, and he would 
pay less attention to the Man's throat than he would to his ears and eyes, 
for he would have the first like a spider's web and the second like fire. 

The Mountain-Sheep protested he never could see what sense there 
was in such antlers, branching every way, only to get caught in the thick- 
ets. If the Man had horns, mostly rolled up, they would be like a stone 
on each side of his head, giving it weight, and enabling him to butt a great 
deal harder. 

When it came to the Coyote's turn to speak, he declared all these were 
the stupidest speeches he ever heard, and that he could hardly keep awake 
while listening to such a pack of noodles and nincompoops. Every one 
of them wanted to make the Man like himself. They might just as w r ell 
take one of their own cubs and call it a man. As for himself, he was not 
the best animal that could be made, and he could make one better than 
himself or any other. Of course, the man would have to be like himself 
in having four legs, five fingers, etc. It was well enough to have a voice 
like the Lion, only the man need not roar all the while with it. The Griz- 
zly IJear had also some good points, one of which was the shape of his 
feet, which enabled him easily to stand erect; and he was in favor, there- 
fore, of making the Man's feet nearly like the Grizzly's. The Grizzly 
was also happy in having no tail, for he had learned from his own experi- 
ence that that organ was only a harbor for fleas. The Buck's eyes and 
ears were pretty good, perhaps better than his own. Then there was 
the Fish, which was naked, and which he envied, because hair was a bur- 

1913.] Wisdom of the North American Indian. 79 

den most of the year; and he, therefore, favored a Man without hair. 
His claws ought to be as long as the Eagle's so that he could hold things 
in them. But, after all, with all their separate gifts, they must acknowl- 
edge that there was no animal besides himself that had wit enough to 
supply the Man; and he should be obliged, therefore, to make him like 
himself in that respect also, — cunning and crafty. 

After the Coyote had made an end, the Beaver said he never heard such 
twaddle and nonsense in his life. No tail, indeed ! He would make a Man 
with a broad flat tail so that he could haul mud and sand on it. The Owl 
said all the animals seemed to have lost their senses; none of them wanted 
to give the Man wings. For himself, he could not see of what use anything 
on earth could be to himself without wings. 

The Mole said it was perfect folly to talk about wings, for with them 
the Man would be certain to bump his head against the sky. Besides 
that, if he had eyes and wings both, he would get his eyes burnt out by 
flying too near the sun; but, without eyes, he could burrow in the cool 
soft earth, and be happy. 

Last of all, the little Mouse squeaked out that he would make a Man 
with eyes, of course, so he could see what he was eating; and, as for bur- 
rowing in the ground, that was absurd. 

So the animals disagreed among themselves, and the council broke up 
in a row. The Coyote flew at the Beaver and nipped a piece out of his 
cheek; the Owl jumped on top of the Coyote's head, and commenced 
lifting his scalp, and there was a high time. 

Every animal set to work to make a Man according to his own ideas; 
and, taking a lump of earth, each one commenced moulding it like him- 
self; but the Coyote began to make one like that he had described in the 

It was so late before they fell to work, that night-fall came on before 
anyone had finished his model, and they all lay down and fell asleep. 
But the cunning Coyote staid awake and worked hard on his model all 
night. When all the other animals were sound asleep, he went around and 
discharged water on their models, and so spoiled them. In the morning, 
early, he finished his model and gave it life long before the others could 
make new models; and thus it was that Man was made by the Coyote. 
See S. Powers, in Contrib. to N. Amcri. E thiol., vol. Ill 
(Washington, 1877), pp. 358-360. 

2. The Social Compact. Father De Smet, under date 
of October 30, 1845, records a most interesting legend of 
the Blackfoot Indians concerning the relations of men 
and women, which belongs to the literature of "femin- 
ism." The concluding paragraph testifies amply to the 
existence of "suffragettes" among these Indians of the 
Plains. The story runs thus: 

80 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

I encamped on the banks of two lakes to the east of the Rocky Moun- 
tains, which the Blackfeet call the lake of men and the lake of women. 
According to their traditions, from the first of these issued a band of 
young men, handsome and vigorous, but poor and naked. From the 
second an equal number of ingenious and industrious young women, who 
constructed houses and made themselves clothing. They lived a long 
time separate and unknown to each other, until the great Manitou, Wiz- 
ak^schak (Wisaketchak), or Old Man (still invoked by the Blackfeet) 
visited them. He taught them to slay animals in the chase, but they 
were yet ignorant of the art of dressing skins. 

Wizcikdschak conducted them to the dwelling of the young women, 
who received their guests with dances and cries of joy. Shoes, leggings, 
shirts, and robes, garnished with porcupine quills, were presented them. 
Each young woman selected her guest, and presented him with a dish of 
seeds and roots; the men, desiring to contribute to the entertainment, 
sought the chase, and returned loaded with game. 

The women liked the meat, and admired the strength, skill and bravery 
of the hunters. The men were equally delighted with the beauty of their 
trappings, and admired the industry of the women. Both parties began 
to think they were necessary to each other, and Wizakeschak presided 
at the solemn compact in which it was agreed that the men should become 
the protectors of the women, and provide all necessaries for their support; 
whilst all other family cares would devolve on the women. 

The Blackfeet squaws often bitterly complain of the astonishing fully 
of their mothers in accepting such a proposition, declaring, if the compact 
were yet to be made, they would arrange it in a very different manner. 
See Chittenden and Richardson's Life, Letters, and Trav- 
els of Father Pierre-Jean De Smet, S. J., 1801-1872 
(N. Y. 1905), vol. II, pp. 525-526. Also Father 
De Smet's Letters, etc. 

It is easy to see that the Blackfeet are thoroughly 
human on the most human of all subjects. The theory 
of the utter helplessness of the original males, might be 
set off against Kipling's view that "the female of the 
species is more deadly than the male." 

3. "It is not good that man should be alone." In our 
own Bible, inherited from the wisdom of the Semitic 
peoples of Asia Minor, we read the word of the Lord: 
"It is not good that the man should be alone." Not a 
few Indian legends state the same thing. In a legend of 
the Pawnee Indians occurs the following: 

Then he (Atius, the creator) made one man like the men of to-day. 
When this man had been created, he said to himself, "How is it now? 


1913.] Wisdom of the North American Indian. 81 

There is still something that does not quite please me." Then Atius 
made a woman, and set her by the man, and the man said, "You knew 
why I was not pleased. You knew what I wanted. Now I can walk 
the earth in gladness." 

See George B. Grinnell, in Journal of American Folk- 
Lore, vol. VI, p. 123. 

4. "It is not good that the woman should be alone. ,; 
These same Pawnee Indians, however, are rather open- 
minded, for in another creation-legend, it is a woman, who 
is created first, and to whom the primal loneliness is 
attributed. Part of a myth of the Pawnees of Okla- 
homa runs thus: 

After Tirawa had created the sun, moon, stars, the heavens, the earth 
and all things upon the earth, he spoke, and, at the sound of his voice, 
a woman appeared upon the earth. Tirawa spoke to the gods in the 
heavens, and asked them what he should do to make the woman happy 
and that she might give increase. The Moon spoke and said, "All things 
that you have made you have made in pairs, as the Heavens and the 
Earth, the Sun and the Moon. Give a mate to the woman, so that the 
pair may live together and help one another in life. Tirawa made a 
man and sent him to the woman; then he said: "Now I will speak to both 
of you. I give you the earth. You shall call the earth 'mother.' 
The heavens you shall call 'father.' You shall also call the moon 
'mother,' for she rises in the east; and you shall call the sun 'father,' 
for he rises in the east. In time you, woman, shall be known as 'mother, ' 
and the man shall be known as 'father.' I give you the sun to give you 
light. The moon will also give you light. The earth I give you, and you 
are to call her 'mother,' for she gives birth to all things. The timber 
that shall grow upon the earth you shall make use of in many ways. 
Some of the trees will "have fruit upon them. Shrubs will grow from the 
ground and they will have berries upon them. Ail these things I give 
you and you shall eat of them. Never forget to call the earth 'mother,' 
for you are to live upon her. You must love her, for you must walk 
upon her. I will now show you how to build a lodge, so that you will 
not be cold or get wet from the, rain. ... I make you to live in 
the lodge, and you shall increase, but you are not to live forever. You 
are to die and will be placed under the ground again. You and your 
children must always remember that I gave you life, but you are to return 
to the earth again. 

G. A. Dorsey. The Pawnee Mythology, Pt. I (Canieg. 
Inst., Washington, 1906), pp. 13-14. 

The "lecture" of Tirawa is, perhaps, quite as good 
and effective as many of the discourses delivered to-day 

82 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

at our "Mothers' Meetings" and "Parent-Teachers' 
Associations" by those professionally engaged in the 
" uplift" of the masses. 

5. " The Gospel of Work. " Many uncivilized peoples 
appear to be thoroughly familiar with the "efficiency" 
campaign that has run riot among ourselves of recent 
years, in which the value and normality of evolutional 
"rest" and "idleness" has been altogether forgotten, 
and it has been assumed that anyone not at work is 
a criminal or a degenerate, or has the making of one 
or both. Like our modern philosophers, some Indians 
have held with the Rev. Isaac C. Watts, 

"For Satan finds some mischief still for idle hands to do." 

A legend of the Wyandots (Iroquoian stock) of Ander- 
don (Ont.) informs us: 

When the Brothers were preparing the land for the Indians to live in, 
the manner of their work was that, as often as the Good Brother made or 
designed anything for the benefit of mankind, the Bad Brother objected, 
and devised something to counteract the good intention, so far as he could. 
Thus, when the Good Brother made rivers for the Indians to journey on, 
it was his design that each river should have a two-fold current (or, rather, 
perhaps, a double channel), in which the streams should flow in opposite 
directions. Thus the Indians would be able always to float easily down- 
stream. This convenient arrangement did not please the Bad Brother. 
He maintained that it would be too good for the people. 'Let them at 
least,' he said, 'have to work one way up-stream.' He was not content 
merely to defeat his brother's design of the return current, but he created, 
at the same time, rapids and cataracts for the further delay and danger of 
voyageis. g ^ ^ ^^ .^ Joum Ame ^ Fo i k _ LoT6) vo \ t (ig88) 

p. 182. 

The Menomini Indians, a branch of the great Algon- 
kian stock, have the following story concerning Mana- 
bush, their culture-hero: 

When Manabush ventured empty-handed from his hunting trip, he 
and his grandmother, Nokomis, gathered together all their effects, moved 
away from the place where they had dwelt, and built a new wigwam 
among the trees in the new locality. 

These trees were maples, and the grandmother of Manabush said to him, 
"Now, my grandson, you go into the woods and gather for me some pieces 
of birch-bark; I am going to make sugar." So Manabush went into the 

1913.] Wisdom of the North American Indian. 83 

woods and gathered some strips of birch-bark, which he took back to the 
wigwam, where his grandmother had cut some pieces of bark to make 
thread for sewing together pieces of birch-bark to make vessels to contain 
the sugar. 

The grandmother of Manabush then went from tree to tree, cutting a 
small hole into the bark of each and inserting into each cut a small piece 
of wood over which the sap ran into the vessels placed beneath. Mana- 
bush followed his grandmother from tree to tree, watching her, and look- 
ing for the sap to drop into the vessels, but none was to be seen. When 
she had gone round among the trees, and cut holes for as many vessels 
as she had made, Manabush went back, and, looking into the vessels, saw 
that all of them had suddenly become half full of thick syrup. 

Manabush. dipped his finger into the syrup, and tasted it. Finding it 
sweet, he said, "My grandmother, this is all very good, but it will not 
do to have these trees produce syrup in this manner. The people will 
not have any work, if they make sugar so easily; they must cut wood to 
boil the syrup for several nights, and to keep them occupied that they 
may not get into bad habits; I will change all this." 

So Manabush climbed to the very top of one of the trees, when he took 
his hand and scattered water all over the maples, like rain, so that the 
sugar should dissolve and flow from the trees in the form of sap. This is 
why the uncles of Manabush and their descendants always have to work 
hard when they want to make sugar. Wood must be cut, vessels must be 
made, and the sap that is collected must be boiled for a long time, other- 
wise the people would spend too much time in idleness. 

See W. J. Hoffman in Fourteenth Ann. Rep. Bureau of 
Ethnology (Washington), pp. 173-174. 

We are justified in believing that many Indians have 
as little belief as have many of our race in the theory 
of " making things hard," which today threatens again 
to assume control of our educational processes and in- 

6. Why Rain is Wet. This is a question, which, 
according to widespread advertisements, can be an- 
swered by reference to the Children's Encyclopedia, a 
work that guarantees to ease the young mind in a hun- 
dred other ways. This legend (in part) of the Caddo 
Indians of Louisiana, containing a primitive philosophy 
of "coming in out of the wet," is just as informing and 
interesting as many of the answers to be found in books 
of the sort just mentioned. And it has a hygienic twist 
as well, besides allowing Coyote to pose as a conservator 
of the family. One can also see that in those days among 

84 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

the Caddos "pure democracy," with the referendum 
and the recall, must have been in full flourish. 

In the beginning of the world there were many, many people, and the 
people held councils to decide how things should be. There was one 
man named Coyote, who always had something to say on every subject. 
At one council this question came up: "How and what kind of rain 
should be in the world?" One of the men said that it should rain in the 
form of lead balls, which would be very dangerous, and so, when the rain 
came, the people would have to stay at home. Then Coyote arose from 
his seat and said: "If it should rain nothing but lead, it would be very 
dangerous for my people, because they do not stay at home very much; 
and, as for myself, I might be carrying a big deer to my family to eat, 
when the rain begins to fall, and I would certainly be killed. I say, let 
it rain in drops of water. Then we can be caught out in the rain, and get 
very wet, but we will soon be diy again, and the wetting will be good for 
us." The people accepted Coyote's suggestion, and so it is that it rains 
in the form of water. 

See G. A. Dorsey, Op. cit., p. 26. 

6a. Why Snow is Cold. From the Maidu Indians 
of Northeastern California we have another story of 
the type of the previous one, "The Wolf makes Snow 
Cold," a myth recorded by Professor R. B. Dixon. 

Wolf and his wife lived toward the southwest. They had a daughter, 
who was married and had many children. The children were out playing, 
when it began to snow. It kept snowing until the snow was up to people's 
knees. Then it cleared off. Next morning the children went out and 
began to play. They made a great deal of noise, shouting and calling 
to each other, as they played in front of their grandfather's house. The 
children played all day, and next morning they began again. Toward 
night the old Wolf grew angry. He wanted to sleep, but the children kept 
him awake. It was the first time the children had ever seen snow, that 
was why they made so much noise. Wolf said to his wife, "I will teach 
these children something." Then he went outsaide the house, and 
urinated in the snow, all about the camp. That made the snow cold; 
before, it had been warm. The children played about a while; but their 
fingers and toes soon got cold, and they went into their mother's house to 
warm themselves, and cried. Then Wolf went back into the house and 
went to sleep. That is the way he spoiled the snow. 

See R. B. Dixon, in Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 1902, 
vol. XVII, p. 101. 

In our "civilization", we, too, have "Old Wolves" who 
suffer from insomnia and play just as mean tricks upon 
little children. 


1913.] Wisdom of the North American Indian. 85 

7. The Ignorant Housekeeper. The story of the 
Cherokee Indians here cited is really as good as anything 
that has appeared on this subject in The Ladies 7 Home 
Journal, or anything that has been revealed in the ad- 
ventures of Hashimura Togo, the Japanese servant, in 
the wilds of American culture. Surely, the Indian has 
here treated an ancient topic in a humanly humorous 
way. The story runs: 

An old man whoso wife had died lived alone with his son. One day he 
said to the young man, "We need a cook here, so you had better get 
married." So the young man got a wife and brought her home. Then 
his father said, "Now we must work together and do all we can to help 
her. You go hunting and bring in the meat, and I'll look after the corn 
and beans, and then she can cook. " The young man went into the woods 
to look for a deer and his father went out into the field to attend to the 
corn. When they came home at night they were hungry, and the young 
woman set out a bowl of walnut hominy before them. It looked queer, 
somehow, and, when the old man examined it, he found that the walnuts 
had been put in whole. "Why didn't you shell the walnuts and then 
beat up the kernels? " said he to the young woman. "I didn't know they 
had to be shelled," she replied. Then the old man said, "You think 
about marrying, and you don't know how to cook." And he sent her 

See James Mooncy, "Myths of the Cherokee," 19th 
Aim. Rep. Bur. EthnoL (Washington), p. 397. 

8. The tiuo old men who killed each other. This topic 
occurs among several Indian tribes and the stories told 
are often quite as good as those which a similar motif 
has furnished to the literature of the civilized races of 
mankind. One of the stories comes from the Cherokee 
Indians, and is to the following effect: 

Two old men went hunting, One had an eye drawn down, and was 
called Uk-kunagita, "Eye-drawn-down." The other had an arm twisted 
out of shape, and was called Uk-kusuntsuti, "Bent-bow-shape." They 
killed a deer and cooked the meat in a pot. The second old man dipped a 
piece of bread into the soup and smacked his lips as he ate it. "Is it 
good?" said the first old man. Said the other, "Hayu! uk-kwunagisti, 
— Yes, sir! It will draw down one's eye. " Thought the first old man to 
himself, "He means me." So he dipped a piece of bread in the pot, and 
smacked his lips as he tasted it. "Do you find it good?" said the other 
old man. Said his comrade, "Hayu! uk-usuntsutet — Yes sir! It will 
twist up one's arm." Thought the second old man, "He means me." 

86 American Antiquarian Society, [April, 

So he got very angry and struck the first old man, and then they fought, 
until each killed the other. 

See Mooney, Ibid., p. 800. 

With this belongs "The Bear and the Two Old Men," 
a story of the Arapaho Indians: 

Two old men were sleeping in a tent with their backs to the fire. A 
bear came in, saw them, and, taking a burning stick from the fire, touched 
one of them on the back. "Stop your foolishness, " said the man who had 
been burned. "It must have been a spark. I did not touch you," 
said the other. The bear was outside laughing. After a time he came 
in again and burned the other's back. ''Stop that," said the old man; 
"you are trying to do what you mistakenly think I have done to you." 
The other denied it; they grew angry and took up stone mauls and began 
to fight. The bear went off laughing. 

See G. A. Dorsey and A. L. Kroeber, Arapaho Traditions, 
(Chicago, 1903), p. 227. 

8a. The Shadow in the Water. Our famous story of 
the Fox and the Shadow of the grapes in the water has 
an interesting counterpart in the following tale of "Old 
Man (a culture-hero) sees Berries in the Water/' be- 
longing to the Blackfoot Indians: 

One day, an old man, standing on the bank of a stream, saw in the 
water some reflections of berries growing on the bank. He thought them 
to be real berries; so he dived into the water, but could find no berries. 
As soon as he was back upon the bank again, he saw them; so he dived one 
time after another, and finally tied rocks to his legs, that he might stay 
down longer. Then he nearly drowned. At last he was very tired, and, 
finding a shady place under a bush, he lay down to rest. Now, looking 
up, he saw the berries hanging over his head. Now he was very angry. 
He picked up a club, and beat the berry-bushes until there was but one 
berry left. This is the reason why the people to this day beat berries 
from the bushes. 

See C. Wissler and C. D. Duval, in Anthrop. Papers. 
Amer. Mas. Nat. Hid., 1908, vol. II, p. 29. 

In some respects the Indian tale is an improvement 
on the Old World one. The ending is better, perhaps, 
than iEsop, and more generic. 

9. Indian Abderites. In the following tale of the 
Creek Indians of Taskigi, we have evidence that the Red 
Men are not without their fund of humorous stories 

1913.] Wisdom of the North American Indian. 87 

concerning the stupidity of man. Indeed, this Creek 
legend might well have appeared, with appropriate 
illustrations, in Fliegende Blatter, the German comic 
journal, which has made so much fun at the expense of 
the hunter, and paid so much attention to the jocoseria 
of the animal world. Its sarcasm might also be of some 
use to many of the hunters of our day and generation, 
who, when they are in the woods of Maine, sometimes 
turn out to be unable to distinguish between a deer and 
a man. All races, seemingly, have their Abderites. This 
story runs : 

A long time ago people were very stupid. There were two hunters who 
started out for turkeys. They had never seen a turkey or a deer, but they 
had been told about them. As they went along, a grasshopper Hew up 
between them, when they were about a hundred yards apart. Neither 
of the men knew what a turkey looked like. The grasshopper flew a little 
way, then alighted on one of the foolish hunters. It alighted on his 
breast. Now, the man whistled to his companion, and then called to 
him. lie pointed to the grasshopper on his breast. Now, the other man 
saw the grasshopper on his friend's breast and thought it was a turkey. 
So he shot at it and killed it. lie killed the man, too. 

See F. G. Speck, "The Creek Indians of TaskigiTown," 
in Memoirs Auter. Anthrop. Assoc, vol. II, p. 158. 

10. The Man outwitted by the Child. This very hu- 
man motif has been treated again and again by the In- 
dian, and in a way as interesting and as satisfactory, as 
by any writer of the white race. In a very simple form 
the theme occurs, in a brief legend of the Ojibwa (or 
Chippewa) Indians concerning the discomfiture of their 
culture-hero, Manabozho: 

One day Manabozho appeared upon the earth in an ill-humor. Walk- 
ing along, he espied a little child sitting in the sun, curled up with his toe 
in his mouth. Somewhat surprised at this, and being of a dauntless and 
boastful nature, he set himself down beside the child; and, picking up his 
own toe, he essayed to place it in his mouth, after the manner of the child. 
He could not do it. In spite of all twisting and turning, his toe could 
not be brought to reach his mouth. As he was getting up, in great dis- 
comfiture, to get away, he heard a laugh behind him, and did no more 
boasting that day, for he had been outwitted by a little child. 

See E. R. Emerson, Indian Myths (Boston, 1884), 
p. 360, and Leland, Op. tit. 


88 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

But what might be styled the magnum opus of the 
Indians on this topic, is the legend of the Penobscot 
Indians of Maine, accounting for the origin of the 
"crowing" of babies. This remarkable human docu- 
ment deserves a place in all the collections of choice 
literature concerning the beginnings of the individual 
and the racial life. It might be called "The Bachelor 
and the Baby," and its reflections upon the unmarried 
male are as appropriate for white as they were for red 
Americans. This delightful story runs thus, as reported 
by Leland: 

Now it came to pass when Glooskap (the culture-hero of these Indians) 
had conquered all his enemies, even the Kewahqu', who were giants and 
sorcerers, and the m'teoulin, who were magicians, and the Pamola, who 
is the evil spirit of the night air, and all manner of ghosts, witches, devils, 
cannibals, and goblins, that he thought upon what he had done, and won- 
dered if his work was at an end. 

And he said this to a certain woman. But she replied, "Not so fast, 
Master, for there yet remains one whom no one has ever conquered or got 
the better of in any way, and who will remain unconquered to the end of 
time." "And who is he?" inquired the Master. 

"It is the mighty Wasis," she replied, "and there he sits; and I warn 
you that if you meddle with him you will be in sore trouble. " 

Now Wasis was the Baby. And he sat on the floor sucking a piece 
of maple-sugar, greatly contented, troubling no one. 

As the Lord of Men and Beasts had never married or had a child, he 
knew nought of the way of managing children. Therefore, he was quite 
certain, as is the wont of such people, that he knew all about it. 

So he turned to Baby, with a bewitching smile, and bade him come to 
him. Then Baby smiled again, but did not budge. And then Master 
spake sweetly, and made his voice like that of the summer bird, but it 
was of no avail, for Wasis sat still and sucked his maple sugar. 

Then the Master frowned and spoke terribly, and ordered Wasis to 
come crawling to him immediately. And Baby burst out into crying 
and yelling, but did not move for all that. 

Then since he could do but one thing more, the Master had recourse 
to magic. He used his most awful spells, and sang the songs which raise 
the dead and scare the devils. And Wasis sat and looked on admiringly, 
and seemed to find it very interesting, but all the same he never moved 
an inch. 

So Glooskap gave it up in despair, and Wasis, sitting on the floor in the 
sunshine, went goo! goo! and crowed. 

And to this day, when you see a babe well contented, going goo! goo! 
and crowing, and no one can tell why, know that it is because he remem- 

1913.] Wisdom of the North American Indian. 89 

bers the time when he overcame the Master, who had conquered all the 
world. For of all the beings that have ever been since the beginning, 
Baby is alone the invincible one. 

See Charles G. Leland, The Algonquin Legends of New 
England (Boston, 1885), pp. 120-122. 

Has any genial devotee of " Child-Study " written or 
sung of the might of infancy in better fashion than this. 
And who has ever "taken down," the bachelor in more 
effective style? Where else can he learn how much 
bigger than the greatest bachelor is the littlest baby? 

III. Indian Words of Aspiration, Faith, Devotion, etc. 

As representing the "higher thought" of some of the 
American Indians north of Mexico, the following 
prayers, ceremonial addresses and like expressions of 
the religious and moral feelings, may be cited. It has 
been, noted by more than one observer that some of this 
material invites comparison with the outpouring of the 
Hebrew soul, which, in refined and ennobled form, finds 
place in our English Bible. The brief prayers of the 
Indians often have a touch of "nature-study" about 
them, while, others are quite feeling human. The ad- 
dress of the Arapaho priest on "Medicine Night" is a 
good short sermon, as, indeed, are others delivered on 
like occasions by the priests of other tribes. The Karok 
Indian woman's farewell to the child may have been 
"improved'' by the recorder, but the ideas therein are 
not at all beyond the thoughts of such primitive people. 
In the sacrifice-prayer of the Pawnee Indian, the appeal 
to all living things occurs. 

1. Song of a Kiowa Indian in the "Ghost Dance." 

My father has pity on me. 
I have eyes like my father's, 
I have hands like my father's, 
I have legs like my father's, 
I have a form like my father's. 

See Mooney, Op. cit., p. 108G. 

2. Song op a Kiowa Indian in the "Ghost Dance." 

That wind, that wind, 

Shakes my tipi (tent), shakes my tipi, 

90 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

And sings a song for me, 
And sings a song for me. 

See Ibid., p. 1087. 

3. Song op the Northern Abapaho Indians referring to the 

"Messiah" of the "Ghost Dance." 
My children, my children, 
It is I who wear the morning star on my head, 
It is I who wear the morning star on my head; 
I show it to my children, 
I show it to my children, 
Says the father, 
Says the father. 

See Ibid., p. 1007. 

4. Speech made by Priest at the Arapaho Sen-Dance to all the 

People in the Offerings-lodge. 
Listen, my young people! I am here to tell you that this is Medicine 
Night. From this time on, until the last moment of the dance, you must 
do your best to extend your gifted powers to comfort and relieve your 
grandchildren. Set your thoughts on the gods in the heavens. Be 
careful not to omit any detail of the painting. Tell your grandchildren 
the particular place that they must look. Help them, and give things 
to attract the supernatural beings. Let everyone come into the lodge 
and keep up the spirit, and sing the songs which our forefathers used to 
sing. You know what this Medicine Night means. Make a joyful 
noise for us. Give music to our Father-Above. 

See G. A. Dorsey, The Arapaho Sun-Dance (Chicago, 
1903), p. 138. 

5. Prayer of the Directing Priest at the Sun-Dance of the 

Arapaho Indians. 
It is the time of day, my Father, Man-Above, that we call upon you 
for your assistance. We are helpers in every way; so, my guardians, 
Four-Old-Men, listen, watch and guide me aright! Your first painting 
of our former children I am going to imitate, for the cleansing and purify- 
ing of sins and sickness. Will you please give us good days during this 
ceremony? Let this paint which we are about to use upon these young 
children be the light of this tribe! Let your roads of good prospect shine 
upon us! Give more light during the day for vegetation, for our stock, 
for ourselves! My dear, ancient Grandfathers, Grandmothers, Rabbit- 
tipi People, Sun-Dance Lodge-Makers, Sun-Dance Old-Men, Sun-Dance 
Old- Women, Sun-Dance Children, — let your spirits come closer to us! 
Guide us straight, that we may do works in harmony with you! I know 
that I am young, but this was the way which you showed me, and it is 
the desire that this lodge, about to be made, shall be the painting (cleans- 
ing) for all people, and that it will bring prosperity and happiness. 

See Ibid., p. 90. 

1913.] Wisdom of the North American Indian. 91 

6. Part of the Prayer of a Shaman of the Navaho Indians (the 
gods of peace have brought the spiritual man to the home of the cor- 
poreal man, where the two elements are happily united, and in the lan- 
guage of the prayer, all "is restored in beauty"). 

The world before me is restored in beauty, 
The world behind me is restored in beauty, 
The world below me is restored in beauty, 
The world above me is restored in beauty, 
All things around me are restored in beauty, 
My voice is restored in beauty, 
It is restored in beauty, 
It is restored in beauty, 
It is restored in beauty, 
It is restored in beauty. 

See W. Matthews, in the American Anthropologist, 
vol. I, 1888, pp. 149-171. 

7. Prayer of Priest before the "Star Society" at the Son-Dance 


My Grandfather, Light of the World; Old-Woman-Night, my Grand- 
mother, — I stand here before this people, old and young. May whatever 
they undertake to do in this ceremony, and may their desires and wishes 
and anxieties in their everyday life meet with your approval; may the 
growing corn not fail them, and may everything that they put in the 
ground mature, in order that they may have food and nourishment for 
their children and friends. May whatever light comes from above, and 
also the rain, be strengthening to them, that they may live on the earth 
under your protection. May they make friends with the neighboring 
tribes, and especially with the white people. May the tribe be free from 
all crimes, and may they be good people! 

See Dorsey, Op. cit., p. 36. 

8. Words Whispered into the Ear of a Dead Child by a Woman of 

the Karok Indians (California), before it is buried. 

O, my darling, my dear one, good-bye! Never more shall your little 
hands softly clasp these old withered cheeks, and your pretty feet shall 
print the moist earth around my cabin never more. You are going on a 
long journey in the spirit-land, and you must go alone, for none of us can 
go with you. Listen, then, to the words which I speak to you, and heed 
them well, for I speak the truth. 

In the spirit-land are tw r o roads. One of them is a path of roses, and it 
leads to the Happy Western Land, beyond the great water, where you 
shall see your dear mother. The other is a path strewn with thorns and 
briars, and leads, I know not whither, to an evil and dark land, full of 
deadly serpents, where you wander forever. O dear child, choose you 
the path of roses, which leads to the Happy Western Land, a fair and 
sunny land, beautiful as the morning. And may the great Kareya (K. 

92 American Antiquarian Society, [April, 

is a sort of primitive Jesus) help you to walk in it to the end, for your 
little, tender feet must walk alone. O darling, my dear one, good-bye! 
See S. Powers, in Contrib. to N. Amer. Ethnol., vol. Ill 
(Washington, 1877), p. 34. 

9. Prayer of a Pawnee Indian before offerino up his Horse as 
a Sacrifice in Distress. 

My Father, dwelling in all places, it is through you that I am living. 
Perhaps it was through you that this man put me in this condition. You 
are the Ruler. Nothing is impossible to you. If you see fit, take this 
trouble away from me. Now, you, all lish of the rivers, and you, all birds 
of the air, and all animals that move upon the earth, and you, O Sun! 
I present to you this animal. You birds in the air, and you annuals upon 
the earth, we are related; we are all alike in this respect, that one Ruler 
made us all. You see me, how unhappy I am. If you have any power, 
intercede for me. 

See G. B. Grinnell, in the Journal of American Folk- 
Lore, vol. VI, 1893, pp. 113-130. 

10. A. War-song of the Pawnee Indians. 

Let us see, is this real, 
Let us see, is this real, 
Let us see, is this real, 
Let us see, is this real, 
This life I am living? 
Ye gods who dwell everywhere, 
Let us see, is this real, 
This life I am living? 

See D. G. Brinton, Essays of an Americanist (Philadel- 
phia, 1890), p. 292. 

V. Indian Words about the Family, Home, Love, Child- 
hood, etc. 

Very few people of our own race and stage of culture 
seem to appreciate the extent to which the so-called 
" lower race" are capable of feeling and giving tender and 
beautiful expression to the emotions and sentiments 
bound up with the experiences of family and domestic 
life. Like the Englishman who failed to find a word 
for "home" in the language of his Gallic neighbor, and, 
therefore, to the day of his death, looked upon him as 
more or less of a barbarian, our (often pitiful) lack of 
knowledge concerning the language and customs of the 
Indians leads us, mistakenly, to believe them devoid of 

1913.] Wisdom of the North American Indian. 93 

the fundamental traits of love and affection, in their 
higher reaches at least. But who can read (much more, 
hear sung in its proper setting) the Navaho "Song of 
the House," or listen to the Omaha " medicine man's" 
prayer before the tent of the new-born child, without 
believing that the togetherness of man and woman, and 
the co-operation with human life and its activities of 
all things in sky, air, earth, and sea, are ideas with which 
the Indian mind is altogether familiar. The little 
"Fire-Prayer" of the Navaho woman and the Cherokee 
doctor's "Birth-Incantation," like the Sioux Indian 
mother's "Song" (after seeing her dead boy in a dream), 
reveal a sympathetic and tender appreciation of child- 
hood, heartily welcome wherever human beings exist. 
Humanly human, too, are the words of the Omaha 
parent to his grandson, the prayer of the priest of the 
Indians of the Sia Pueblo before the unborn child. 
Reading these primitive documents, all must agree that 
the Indian is one with men and women, wherever they 
may be found, — men at the highest moments of the great 
races of all time. 

1. "Song of the House" (sung by the "old man of the songs," or 
shaman, at the dedication of a house, or "house-warming," among the 
Navaho Indians). 

Rising Sun! When you shall shine, 
Make this house happy. 
Beautify it with your beams; 
Make this house happy. 

God of Dawn! Your white blessings spread; 

Make this house happy. 

Guard the doorway from all evil; 

Make this house happy. 

(Spirit of) White Corn! Abide herein; 
Make this house happy. 

Soft Wealth (i. e. skins, blankets, etc.) may this hut cover much; 
Make this house happy. 

Male (i. e. heavy) Rain! Your virtues send; 
Make this house happy. 

Corn Pollen! Bestow content; 
Make this house happy. 

94 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

May peace around this family dwell; 
Make this house happy. 

See A. M. Stephen, in the American Anthropologist, 
vol. VI, 1893, p. 353. 

2. Traditional Prayer (of a Navaho Indian woman, as she sprinkles 
an offering of meal on the fire, at the dedication of her house). 
Burn serenely, my fire. 
May peace surround my fire. 
My fire prepares my children's food; 
May it be sweet, and make them happy. 

See A. M. Stephen, hoc. cU., p. 352. 

3. Words of Omaha to Grandson. 

My grandson! It is hard to lose one's mother, to see one's children die, 
but the sorest trial that can come to a man is to have his wife lie dead. 

My grandson, before she came to you, no one was so willing to bring 
water for you; now that she has gone, you will miss her care. If }'ou have 
ever spoken harshly to her, the words will come back to you, and bring 
you tears. 

No one is so near, no one can be so dear as a wife; when she dies, her 
husband's joy dies with her. 

My grandson! Old men, who have gone, have taught me this. I am 
old. I have felt the things. I know the truth of what I say. 

See Miss Alice C. Fletcher, in the Journal of American 
Folk-Lore, vol. II, 1889, p. 22G. 

4. Prayer (repeated in a low tone by the priest of the Indians of the 
Sia Pueblo, at the natal ceremonies, before the mother is delivered of her 

Here is the child's sand-bed. May the child have good thoughts and 
know its mother-earth, the giver of food. May it have good thoughts, 
and grow from childhood to manhood. May the child be beautiful and 
happy. Here is the child's bed; may the child be beautiful and happy. 
Ashes-man, let me make good medicine for the child. We will receive 
the child into our arms, that it may be contented and happy. May it 
grow from childhood to manhood. May its know its mother Utset (U. 
was the first created woman), the Kopishtala, and its mother-earth. May 
the child have good thoughts, and grow from childhood to manhood. 
May it be beautiful and happy. 

See Mrs. M. C. Stevenson, in the Eleventh Ann. Rep. 
Bur. Amer. Ethnol, 1889 (Washington, 1890), p. 134. 

5. A "Birth-Incantation" (or Formula, used by the "doctor" 
among the Cherokee Indians, when the mother is about to give birth 
to a child). 

1913.] Wisdom of the North American Indian. 95 

Little boy, little boy, hurry, hurry, come out, come out! 

Little boy, hurry! A bow, a bow (i. e. the characteristic of a warrior)! 

Let's see who'll get it, let's see who'll get it! 
Little girl, little girl, hurry, hurry, come out, come out! 
Little girl, hurry! A meal-sifter, a meal-sifter (the characteristic of a 
woman)! Let's see who'll get it, let's see who'll get it! 

See James Mooney, in the Seventh Ann. Rep. Bur. 
Amer. Ethnol, p. 364. 

6. Prayer of a Sioux Indian Grandmother, (at first offering made 
by little boy). 

O, Great Mystery, we hear thy voice in the rushing waters below us! 
We hear thy whisper in the great oaks above! Our spirits are refreshed 
with thy breath from within this cave. O, hear our prayer! Behold 
this little boy and bless him! Make him a warrior and a hunter as great 
as thou didst make his father and grandfather. 

See C. A. Eastman, Old Indian Days (N. Y., 1907), 
p. 311. 

7. Song composed by a Sioox Indian Mother (who saw her dead 
child in a dream). 

I made moccasins for him, 
I made moccasins for him, 
For I love him, 
For I love him. 
To take to the orphan, 
To take to the orphan. 
Soon I shall see my child, 
Soon I shall see my child, 
Says your mother, 
Says your mother. 
See James Mooney, in the Fourteenth Ami. Rep. Bur. 
Amer. Ethnol., p. 1074. 

8. Prayer of an Omaha " Medicine Man, " or "Man of Mystery" 

(at the door of the tent where lies the infant child on the eighth day after 
birth, the "medicine man" is summoned by the parents). 

Ho! Ye Sun, Moon, Stars, all ye that move in the heavens; 
I bid ye hear me! 

Into your midst has come a new life. 
Consent ye, I implore! 

Make its path smooth, that it may reach the brow of the first hill (i. e. 
infancy) ! 

Ho! Ye Winds, Clouds, Rain, Mist, all ye that move in the air; 

I bid ye hear me! 

Into your midst has come a new life. 

96 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Consent ye, I implore! 

Make ita path smooth, that it may reach the brow of the second hill 
(i. e. youth)! 

Ho! Ye Hills, Valleys, Rivers, Lakes, Trees, Grasses, all ye of the earth; 
I bid ye hear me! 

Into your midst has come a new life. 
Consent ye, I implore! 

Make its path smooth, that it may reach the brow of the third hill (i. e. 
manhood) ! 

Ho! Ye Birds, great and small, that fly in the air; 

I bid ye hear me! 

Into your midst has come a new life. 

Ho! Ye Animals, great and small, that dwell in the forest; 

Ho! Ye Insects, that creep among the grasses and burrow in the ground; 

I bid ye hear me! 

Into your midst has come a new life. 
Consent ye, I implore! 

Make its path smooth, that it may reach the brow of the fourth hill 
(i. e. old age.) 

Ho! All ye of the heavens; all ye of the air; all ye of the earth; 

] bid ye hear me! 

Into your midst has come a new life. 

Consent ye, consent ye all, I implore! 

Make its path smooth, then shall it travel beyond the four hills! 

See F. La Flesche, in the Journal of American Folk- 
Lore, vol. XVIII, 1905, p. 273. 

An unprejudiced consideration of all these "wise 
words" of the North American Indians will show that, 
fundamentally and generically, he is "a man as we are 
men, " and in the great situations of life has thought and 
done much as we have thought and done. Truly, the 
races of man are but one, after all. 


1913.] Some Humors of American History. 97 



In Carlyle's correspondence and in the text of his 
" Frederick the Great" there is much bewailing of the 
amount of drudgery he has been obliged to go through to 
get at the facts with which he may construct his narra- 
tive. If I remember correctly, the lack of indexes to Ger- 
man books is one of his grievous complaints and in the 
midst of his relation of the ending of the First Silesian 
War, studying long-winded despatches, which are exceed- 
ingly stiff reading, he thus breaks out: "O reader, what 
things have to be read and carefully forgotten; what 
mountains of dust and ashes are to be dug through and 
tumbled down to Hades to disengage the smallest frac- 
tion of truly memorable! Well if, in ten cubic miles of 
dust and ashes you discover the tongue of a shoe-buckle 
that has once belonged to a man in the least heroic, and 
wipe your brow invoking the supernal and the infernal 
gods." "May the infernal gods deal with these dip- 
lomatic dealings and reduce Dryasdust to limits!" 

I can well imagine some enthusiastic American ad- 
mirer reading Carlyle's remark in his fourth volume, 
"The incalculable Yankee nation itself biggest phenome- 
non (once thought beautifullest) of these Ages!" and 
at once saying: "Do, Mr. Carlyle, write the history of 
our Civil War." To which the Sage of Chelsea would 
reply in words actually used by him: "No war ever 
raging in my time was to me more profoundly foolish- 
looking." It was a "smoky chimney which had taken 

Had Carlyle lived as long as Ranke, practically writing 

98 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

up to his dying clay, and had our Civil War attracted 
him, he might have been led to admire the easy and 
methodical arrangement of our historical materials, the 
accessibility of our libraries and the various helps at 
hand which render the lot of the American historian an 
easy one compared with that of his European compeer, 
who has to pore over books without indexes and delve 
among manuscripts in dusty archives. And what is 
more to the point connected with the subject of my pres- 
ent paper, I think he would have enjoyed the many 
humors which cannot escape the investigator. It is 
not necessary to consider here why the people of one 
nation fail to appreciate the humor of another. That 
subject has been discussed with wide intelligence and 
excellent temper by John Graham Brooks, who mentions 
one of the most striking instances: that of Alphonse 
Daudet doing his best to laugh over the pages of Mark 
Twain, but always in vain. Our newspapers and after- 
dinner speakers have made merry over the non-apprecia- 
tion of American humor by Englishmen and I hope that 
this merriment has reached its culmination in Chauncey 
Depew's thread-bare and not very funny story of "What 
is the matter with the huckleberry pie?" Certainly a 
country which has produced Shakespeare and Dickens 
and supported Punch (not to mention a dozen other 
examples) has no apology to offer to any other country 
touching any deficiency in its sense of humor. Never- 
theless, as Americans generally appreciate the fun in 
Scott and in Burns, it has always seemed to me that the 
Scotch understood our somewhat grotesque variety of 
humor better than did their countrymen south of the 
Tweed. Bryce wrote that "humor is a commoner gift 
in America than elsewhere" and the Americans "are 
as conspicuously the purveyors of humor to the nine- 
teenth century as the French were the purveyors of wit 
to the eighteenth" and it seems to me that if his brother 
Scotchman Carlyle could have been attracted to the 
history of our country he might, if not tormented by his 
dyspepsia, have seen some humor in the instances that 

1913.] Some Hu?nors of American History. 99 

I have collected together for the purpose of our examina- 
tion this morning. 

I shall begin with Benjamin Harrison and work my 
chronology backwards. One of the comic papers, think- 
ing it had lighted upon a bit of keen satire pictured Presi- 
dent Harrison in the effort of wearing his grandfather's 
hat. The hat was at first too big for the presidential 
head and Harrison's head and body kept growing smaller 
and smaller as the criticism of the paper increased in 
sharpness and injustice, so that the disproportion be- 
tween his head and grandfather's hat was immense. 
This caricature was widely spread so that it may be said 
to have pervaded the life of the people. Now for an 
incident which was told me by Paul Leicester Ford. A 
townsman and old friend of Harrison's came on from 
Indianapolis for a visit to Washington, and his first duty 
and pleasure was to call upon the President. Going to 
the White House he said to the chief usher, I want to 
see President Harrison. At once came the reply, "The 
President cannot be seen to-day," when the Indianapolis 
citizen exclaimed, "Good Heavens, has he got so small 
as that!" 

The implication of the comic paper that Benjamin 
Harrison was inferior in ability to his grandfather, Wil- 
liam Henry, was decidedly incorrect. Benjamin was 
much the abler of the two. William Henry Harrison 
owed his election as president to having gained a victory 
over the British and Indians during the War of 1812 and 
to his living in a log cabin and drinking hard cider. He 
believed that polished American eloquence meant the 
use of undigested bits of classic lore out of Plutarch and 
the Encyclopaedias; and his inaugural address was full 
of Roman consuls, of the Curtii, the Decii, Camillus, 
Caesar, Antony, Brutus and the rest. What the address 
was before Daniel Webster, the prospective Secretary 
of State, used his blue pencil on it, must be left to con- 
jecture. Webster was late in arriving at a dinner party 
and after his apology he replied to the remark of his host 
that he looked tired and to the question whether any- 

100 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

thing had happened. " Something indeed has hap- 
pened/' said the great man, "I have had a very stiff 
job. I have killed no less than seventeen Roman pro- 

Van Buren, whom William Henry Harrison succeeded 
in the White House was a New Yorker, fond of the good 
things of life, and, during the campaign of 1840, the 
simple diet of Harrison was contrasted with the soupe 
a la reine, pate de foie gras and dinde desosse, on which 
his competitor was supposed to dine or sup in the so- 
called President's Palace. Harrison undoubtedly in- 
herited the steward, cook and kitchen of Van Buren, 
but, after a short while, so the story goes, he wearied of 
the food and cooking and demanded such a dinner as he 
was accustomed to eat in his log cabin at North Bend 
on the Ohio River. Boiled corned beef and cabbage 
was the repast. He ate immoderately. He had indi- 
gestion, then a chill, followed by bilious pneumonia of 
which he died one month after his inauguration. 

Webster, being late at dinner, calls to mind a circum- 
stance in the career of another great lawyer, William M. 
Evarts. I must premise that no word so well describes 
Andrew Johnson's course as President as "asinine." 
As everybody knows, there was a fierce quarrel between 
him and Congress and in the end he was impeached by 
the House of Representatives. Evarts was one of his 
counsel and the preparation of the defence in the trial 
before the Senate fell largely to him. Working on it 
all of a Sunday, on coming to Senator Sumner's to din- 
ner, he excused his breach of the commandment by say- 
ing, "Is it not written that if thine ass falleth into a pit, 
it is lawful to pull him out on the Sabbath day?" 

Andrew Johnson suggests his fierce vindictive and 
unrelenting opponent, Thaddeus Stevens, who was 
characterized by sardonic humor. The story has been 
often told, but it will bear repetition, as it brings Stevens 
into connection with Lincoln. When Lincoln was hesi- 
tating, in regard to the appointment of Cameron as his 
Secretary of War, Stevens went to him and protested 



Some Humors of American History. 


against the appointment in no mealy-mouthed phrase. 
"You don't mean to say," said Lincoln, "that Cameron 
would steal?" "No," said Stevens, "I don't think he 
would steal a red-hot stove." Lincoln could not for- 
bear telling this remark to Cameron, which naturally 
made him very angry and led him to protest to Stevens in 
hot indignation, saying a gross injury was done him 
and that Stevens must retract the offensive phrase and 
this he agreed to do. The next scene is between Stevens 
and Lincoln. "Mr. Lincoln, why did you tell Cameron 
what I said to you?" "I thought," was the reply, "that 
it was a good joke and I didn't think it would make him 
mad." "Well," said Stevens, "he is very mad and 
made me promise to retract. I will now do so. I 
believe I told you that I didn't think he would steal a 
red-hot stove. I now take that back." 

In any dissertation upon the humors of American 
history Abraham Lincoln must bulk large, as his keen 
sense of humor and his aptness at illustrative anecdotes 
are known to everyone who knows his name. In him 
pathos and humor were so blended that Petroleum V. 
Nasby, the humorist, thought Lincoln's the saddest 
face he had ever looked upon; and Lincoln mixed fun 
with seriousness when he decided upon the Proclamation 
of Emancipation, the carrying out of which, the giving 
freedom to 4,000,000 human beings led Mommsen to 
declare that our Civil War was "the mightiest struggle 
and most glorious victory as yet recorded in human 

In July, 1862, Lincoln submitted to his Cabinet a 
proclamation freeing the slaves, but on an objection of 
Seward, which seemed to the President to have great 
weight, he laid it aside until the Union armies should 
gain a victory. It seemed to both Lincoln and Seward 
that such an edict ought to have the support of military 
success. From the cabinet meeting of July 22, when the 
President announced tentatively his purpose, to that of 
September 22 when he told his advisers he should issue 
an irrevocable decree, the working of his mind is open to 

102 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

us. While he had come to a conclusion, he showed the 
true executive quality as well as the fair mind, ready to 
change for sufficient reason, in not regarding the policy 
of thus hitting slavery, as absolutely and stubbornly 
determined until it had been officially promulgated. He 
endeavored by correspondence, through formal inter- 
views and private conversation to get all the light pos- 
sible to aid him in deciding when the proper moment 
had come to proclaim freedom to the slaves. 

Turning the question over in his mind, he settled his 
doubts; he believed that a proclamation of freedom was 
a military necessity and that the plain people of the 
North would see it as he did. As the days went on, he 
• was confirmed in the conclusion which he had come to 
in July and he felt that public sentiment was growing 
in that direction. In the dark hours following the second 
defeat of Bull Run and Lee's invasion of Maryland, he 
did not falter. "When the rebel army was at Frederic" 
(Sept. 6-10, 1862) he afterwards said, "I determined, as 
soon as it should be driven out of Maryland to issue a 

proclamation of emancipation I said nothing 

to anyone, but I made the promise to myself and to my 
Maker." Antietam was won. Lee had crossed the 
Potomac into Virginia. 

A point in the history of civilization was the meeting, 
Sept. 22, 1862, of the cabinet council at the White House. 
After some general talk, the President took the word and 
read from Artemus Ward's book a chapter "High Handed 
Outrage at Utica." This has always seemed to me a 
remarkable circumstance. There can be no question 
that Lincoln was very much impressed with the serious- 
ness of the act he was about to perforin. His summer 
• had been full of perplexity and disappointment. Until 
Antietam, he had had nothing but military failure. 
McClellan's Peninsular campaign had come to naught. 
Pope, whom he had thought might prove a fit commander 
for the Army of the Potomac, had been overwhelmingly 
defeated at Bull Run and Lee's Army, flushed with vic- 
tory, had threatened Washington, Baltimore and Harris- 

1913.] Some Humors of American History. 103 

burg. From a Confederate army in Kentucky, Cincin- 
nati had been in imminent danger of capture and at the 
time of this Cabinet meeting Louisville stood in jeopardy. 
The President had hoped that McClellan would destroy 
Lee's army. The victory at Antietam simply turned 
back the Confederate invasion. It is extraordinary 
that a man of deep feeling who had had so much distress, 
who knew that the actors in the great scenes of history 
ushered them in with gravity — generally with pomp 
and prayer — it is extraordinary, I say, that he should 
have begun his cabinet meeting, which he felt might be 
one of the most solemn events of his country's history, 
in a manner so grotesque. I confess to having been 
susceptible to Artemus Ward's humor. It would have 
been unnatural for a boy brought up in the fifties in the 
Puritanical town of Cleveland to be otherwise. Life 
was as serious there as in the ordinary New England com- 
munity and the Saturday Evening Plain Dealer, of which 
Artemus Ward was local editor and in which he published 
weekly one of his articles, brought joy to the household. 
Those articles seemed very funny then and I can read 
some of them now with a slight degree of amusement. 
In making my study of this famous cabinet meeting I 
tried to call up my youthful delight in Artemus Ward 
and in some such mood read Lincoln's introduction to 
his solemn announcement. Whether it be that there is 
really no humor in it or whether it be disgust at the 
juxtaposition of this silly showman's talk with the 
sublime words of the proclamation I can see no fun in it. 
The article jars upon me as a discord in a Beethoven 
symphony does upon a lover of music. Artemus Ward's 
contribution to this cabinet meeting is brief and the 
reading of it entire will in a measure bring back the scene 
when eight grave men sat around the council board. 
As a word of explanation, I must say that much of the 
fun in Artemus Ward consists in his manner of misspelling 
words. I cannot pretend to give an idea of this in my 
pronunciation but I imagine that Lincoln in his reading 
represented this with exactness. 

104 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

I shall now read Artemus Ward's 

High-Handed Outrage at Utica. 

"In the Faul of 1856, I showed my show in Utiky, a 
trooly grate sitty in the State of New York. 

The people gave me a cordyal recepshun. The press 
was loud in her prases. 

1 day as I was givin a descripshun of my Beests and 
Snaiks in my usual flowry stile what was my skorn and 
disgust to see a big burly fellor walk up to the cage con- 
tainin my wax figgers of the Lord's Last Supper, and 
cease Judas Iscarrot by the feet and drag him out on the 
ground. He then commenced fur to pound him as hard 
as he cood. 

'What under the son are you abowt?' cried I. 

Sez he, 'What did you bring this pussylanermus cuss 
here fur?' & he hit the wax figger another tremenjis 
blow on the hed. 

Sez I, 'You egrejus ass, that air's a wax rigger — a re- 
presentashun of the false 'Postle.' 

Sez he, 'That's all very well fur you to say, but I 
tell you, old man, that Judas Iscarrot can't show hisself 
in Utiky with impunerty by a darn site!' with which 
observachun he kaved in Judassis hed. The young 
man belonged to 1 of the first famerlies in Utiky. I 
sood him, and the Joory brawt in a verdick of Arson in 
the 3d degree." 

Lincoln, as Chase tells the story in his diary, thought 
the article very funny and enjoyed the reading of it 
greatly; the members of the cabinet except Stanton 
laughed with him. The President then fell into a grave 
tone and told of the working of his mind on the slavery 
question since the July meeting. ' ' The rebel army is now 
driven out of Maryland," he said, "and I am going to 
fulfill the promise I made to myself and my God. I 
have got you together to hear what I have written down. 
I do not wish your advice about the main matter; for 
that I have determined for myself." 1 He read his great 

Phase's Diary (Warden), p. 481. 

1913.] Some Humors of American History. 105 

proclamation of freedom: "On the first day of January 
in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and 
sixty three, all persons held as slaves within any State 
or designated part of a State the people whereof shall 
then be in rebellion against the United States shall be 
then, thenceforward and forever free." All the mem- 
bers of the cabinet, except Blair, approved substantially 
the proclamation and his objection was on the score of 
expediency not of principle. On the morrow, Sept. 23, 
1862, this edict, this mark of the world's progress, was 
given to the country. 

Lincoln has suffered much from having jokes ascribed 
to him which he never perpetrated and the most cruel 
one I have ever heard was by Robert Ingersoll, the high- 
priest of Agnosticism in his really great oration on Abra- 
ham Lincoln. The proclamation of Sept. 22, 1862 
needed a supplement to be issued January 1, 1863 and 
Robert Ingersoll related the circumstance somewhat in 
this wise: "Lincoln read to his Cabinet the draft he 
had determined on and at the conclusion of the reading, 
Secretary Chase, a very religious man, said, 'It is all 
right, Mr. President, except that in my judgment there 
ought to be something about God in it.' 'Oh, no/ said 
Lincoln, 'that would spoil it.'" Ingersoll, for the sake 
of raising a laugh, gave his audience a wickedly wrong 
impression. Of course, Lincoln not only made no such 
remark but he could not have made it. No one who 
studies his character can fail to be impressed with his 
sincere theism and the whole story of the proclamation 
as I have told it shows his reliance on a superior power. 
There was no cant about Lincoln's religion and his end- 
ing of the January 1st proclamation in accordance with 
Chase's suggestion was a sincere expression. ' ' And upon 
this act," he wrote, "I invoke the considerate judgment 
of mankind and the gracious favor of Almighty God." 

Another anecdote fastened upon Lincoln always gives 

me a painful feeling. It is assigned to the spring of 1863 

when Grant was beginning his campaign against Vicks- 

burg. It will be remembered that, up to this time, all 


106 . American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

the generals of the Army of the Potomac, and some else- 
where, had proved failures and that on the whole the 
most conspicuous success had been Grant. Some 
zealous persons came to see Lincoln and demanded Giant's 
removal because he drank too much whiskey. As the 
story goes, Lincoln asked what brand he drank, because 
he added, "'If I knew what brand of whiskey he drinks, 
I would send a barrel or so to some other generals." 
I cannot believe the story, because there were some seri- 
ous subjects on which Lincoln would not jest and this, 
I think, was one of them, for both he and his Secretary 
of War, Stanton, were at this time much disturbed at 
the reports of Grant's intemperance. The literature 
of the subject attests this anxiety in some degree and the 
traditions put it beyond doubt. One of these I will 
mention. A rich man in Cleveland, being much wrought 
up over the disasters of the Northern armies and par- 
ticularly affected by the gloom following Fredericksburg 
and Chancellorsville, seriously considered the idea of 
converting a part of his property into gold and sending 
it to England. The pecuniary sacrifice would be so 
great and the lack of patriotism so apparent that, before 
coming to a decision, he went on to Washington to 1 ook 
the ground over and consult an intimate friend who was 
very close to Stanton. His friend put the situation 
before him in a nut shell: "If we can take Vicksburg, " 
he said, "we shall win and if we can keep Grant sober, we 
shall take Vicksburg. " 

It is a far cry from Lincoln back to Henry Clay, but 
no account of humors in American history can avoid 
touching upon the virulent party and personal contest 
between Clay and Andrew Jackson which began as early 
as 1825 and lasted until Jackson's death. The bitter- 
ness between the principals was communicated to their 
adherents and no other partisanship in our history has 
been so heated and so long-enduring. Miss Murfree 
refers to this, in her story of the "Prophet of the Great 
Smoky Mountains," in an account of a significant 
discussion between two old men of Tennessee, which 

1913.] Some Humors of American History. . 107 

took place many years after the deaths of both Jackson 
and Clay. Both of these old Tennesseeans were past 
seventy, one was a paralytic, whose every word and 
motion was accompanied with a convulsive gasp and 
jerk; the other, a trifle younger than his associate was 
saturnine and lymphatic. They belonged to the same 
family, lived in the same house in the mountainous 
region of East Tennessee and passed their days sitting 
in rude armchairs on either side of a huge fireplace. An 
actual political contest between Republican and Demo- 
crat was being discussed by the younger members of 
the family and as the old paralytic listened, his eye blaz- 
ing, his chin quivering, his pipe shaking in his palsied 
hand, he exclaimed with intense bitterness: "The 
strength an' the seasonin' hev all gone out in the Ian'! 
Whenst I was young, folks knowed what they war an' 
they let other folks know too, ef they hed ter club it 
inter 'em. But them was Old Hickory's times [let me 
remind you that Andrew Jackson was called Old Hick- 
ory by his admirers]. Waal, waal, we aint a-goin' ter 
see Old Hickory no more — no — more!" 

This irritated the other old man, who said with as- 
perity: "I hopes not, I hopes we'll never see no sech 
tormentin' old Dimmycrat agin. But law! I needn't 
fret my soul, Henry Clay shook all the life out'n him five 
years afore he died. Henry Clay made a speech agin 
Andrew Jackson in 1840 what forty thousan' people 
kern ter hear. Thar was a man fur ye ! He had a tongue 
like a bell; pears like ter me I kin hear it yit when I 
listens right hard. By Gum! that day he tuk the stiff en- 
in' out'n Old Hickory! Surely, surely he did! Ef I 
thought I war never a-goin' ter hear Old Hickory's name 
agin I'd tune up my ears fur the angel's quirin'. I was 
born a Republikin'; I growed ter be a good Whig an' I'll 
die a Republikin. Ef that aint religion I dunno what 
air! That's the way I hev lived an' walked afore the 
Lord. An' hyar in the evenin' o' my days I hev got ter 
set alongside o' this hyar old cansarn an' hear him jow 
about'n Old Hickory from morning to night. Ef I had 

108 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

knowed how he war goin' ter turn out bout'n Old 
; Hickory in his las' days I wouldn't hev let my darter 
marry his son, thirty-five years ago. I knowed he war 
| a Dummy crat but I never knowed the stren'th o' the 
failin' till I war called on ter 'sperunce it." (Prophet 
of the Great Smoky Mountains, p. 87.) 

I ought never to try to read these dialect stories as so 
much of their force is lost if one cannot make some at- 
tempt at rendering them true to life, but the necessity 
of my narrative compels me to give another. As an 
advocate of Henry Clay has been heard, it is proper now 
that we should hear from an adherent of Andrew Jack- 
son, but before he takes the stump it will be worth our 
while to refresh our memory concerning the Battle of 
New Orleans, which was fought on January 8, 1815. 
Eight thousand disciplined British troops, well-officered, 
well-equipped, largely Peninsula veterans, confident in 
themselves and their commander had been sent across 
the water to take New Orleans. Their commander was 
Pakenham, a brother-in-law of Wellington, and Welling- 
ton believed such a force competent to capture New 
Orleans or to rout any American army he ever heard of. 
On this 8th day of January, the British forces attacked 
the American earth works behind which were 4,000 to 
4,500 motley troops, but magnificent marksmen, backs- 
woodsmen, Indian fighters, under the command of 
Andrew Jackson. The rout of the British was complete, 
their commander was killed and their loss was 2,036 
while the American casualties were but 71. I must add 
that it was the popular though erroneous belief that 
Jackson and his men fought behind cotton bales. This 
battle pushed Jackson to the fore, made him a great 
figure in American politics, the leader and dictator of 
the Democratic party and president for two terms. The 
8th of January is still celebrated by the Democrats as 
Saint Jackson's day. 

We are now ready to hear from the orator who was 
running for the office of constable in a town in the South- 
west; " Whar, my enlightened friends of the hundred and 

1913.] Some Humors of American History. 109 

sixty-sixth militia district," asked the stump orator, 
"was Dan'l Webster in the battle of Noo Orleenes? He 
wur nowhar. Pie wur a livhV down to Bosting in a brown 
stone house with a marble facade out of the Quincy quar- 
ries, a drawin' of cheques on Nicholas Biddle's Bank and 
nary darn cent of 'em paid when they com' doo. That's 
whar he wur. And Henry Clay, my enlightened friends 
of the Hundred Sixty-Sixth Militia district? Wur he 
ter the battle of Noo Orleanes? He wurnt. He wur 
a woggulatin' from Paris to Vienna a play in' of draw 
poker with all the princes and potentates of Europe and 
nary an ace in the pack. That's whar he wur. But, my 
enlightened friends, whar wur Andrew Jackson? Wur 
he ter the battle of Noo Orleenes? He wur. He wur 
a ridin' up and down on a bobtail Arabian out of Eclipse, 
a wavin' of a crooked sabre, up to his armpits in blood 
and mud, and a givin' of the British thunder; the Genius 
of his Country a holding of her aegis over his head, cotton 
bales paravenerring in front to pertect him from every 
danger and the Great American Eagle with the stars 
and stripes in her beak, a soarin' aloft in the blue em- 
pyrean, cryin' 'Hail Columbia!' He wur thar and I 
wur with him." (Sala's " Diary in America," vol. 2, 
p. 108). 

110 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 



In the year 1812 literally the whole world was at war. 
Beginning with the capture of the Bastille, June 14, 
1789, the convulsions which marked and followed the 
French Revolution of 1789, known as the Napoleonic 
wars, had entered upon their final phase in October, 
1812, when the retreat of the French army from Moscow 
began. That phase culminated at Waterloo thirty-two 
months later, June 15, 1815. 

For the United States the period was one of tension 
and humiliation. During it, disunion was freely agi- 
tated, and in 1814 steps preliminary to a secession of the 
New England States from the Union were taken. 

James Madison was inaugurated as the fourth Presi- 
dent March 4, 1809. One of the earliest acts of Madison 
after taking office had been to nominate John Quincy 
Adams to represent the United States at the court of 
St. Petersburg. Two years previously the Czar of Rus- 
sia, Alexander I, then thirty-five years old, had agreed 
with Napoleon to the Treaty of Tilsit, so-called, theatri- 
cally signed on a raft moored in the river Niemen, by 
virtue of which a temporary arrangement in the nature 
of a, peace was brought about between the two poten- 
tates. Napoleon was then at the zenith of his career, 
and this treaty had been rudely broken by him in the 
summer of 1812. The disastrous Russian campaign and 
the War of 1812-15 between the United States and Great 
Britain were thus contemporaneous. The last named 
War came to a close at the end of 1814, [December 25th] 
less than six months before the battle of Waterloo. 

The residence of J. Q. Adams in Russia [1809-1814] 
covered the whole of the period of Napoleon's Russian 

1913.] Letters of John Quincy Adams. Ill 

experience, as also his campaign during the subsequent 
year, 1813, intervening between the retreat from Moscow 
and Waterloo. The official position held by Mr. Adams 
was consequently at the very center of conflict during 
the four most troubled years of the nineteenth century. 
Throughout that period there was a constant interchange 
of familiar family letters, so far as the facilities for such 
an interchange then existed, between St. Petersburg 
and Quincy, the home of the Adams family in Massa- 
chusetts. These letters, relating exclusively to events 
contemporaneously occurring in Russia and America 
and to characters now become historical, have never 
seen the light. The letter, for instance, from H. Q. 
Adams to his mother, Mrs. John Adams, describing a 
long interview with the famous Madame de Stael in 
St. Petersburg, was written on the day preceding that 
on which the great battle of Borodino was fought, — 
September 7, 1812. 

In those exceptionally troubled times the transmission 
of letters between Europe and America, never either 
safe or rapid, was carried on under difficulties and 
restrictions now not easy to realize. In the first place, 
no real international mail service, in the modern sense of 
the term, then existed. In the second place, what is 
now known as post-office " sanctity" was systematically 
ignored. Letters, whether passing through the post or 
in private hands, were opened or subject to seizure by 
officials in nearly every country. To such a degree was 
this the case that in a letter written from St. Petersburg 
to his brother, Thomas Boylston Adams, 1 J. Q. Adams 
observed: — "Almost every letter I write is opened and 
read either by French or English officers." Letter- 
writing, therefore, had to be marked by a great degree 
of discretion. This is apparent in the letters of Mrs. 
John Adams to her son. In one of them, dated from 
Quincy, July 29, 1812, she says: — "The declaration of 

* Thomas Boylston Adams, second son of John Adams, born in Braintree, Mass., Sep- 
tember 15, 1772, graduated at Harvard in the class of 1790, was a representative from 
Quincy in the General Court of Massachusetts, [1805-06] and Judge of the Court of Com- 
mon Pleas of Massachusetts [1809-11]. He died in Quincy, 12 March, 1832. Accom- 
panying his father to Europe a boy of seven, in 1779, he had been put to school in Fiance 
and Holland. Returning to America in 1781, subsequently, when in 1794, J. Q. Adams 
was appointed minister at the Hague, T. B. Adams went with him in the capacity of 
Secretary of Legation. Ho returned to America in 1800. 

112 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

war by the United States against Great Britain, the 
necessity for which is deplored, renders the communi- 
cation between us so hazardous that I despair of hearing 
from you or conveying intelligence to you. * * * 
We have not any letters from you of a later date than 
the 4th March, and we wait in anxious expectation of 
hearing. I have written to you by various opportuni- 
ties, and I could now fill many pages with subjects which 
ought to come to your knowledge of a political nature, 
if I did not feel myself restrained by the desire I have, 
that this letter may reach you, as it contains no subject 
to gratify the curiosity of any one and can be only in- 
teresting to yourself as a testimony of the health of your 
friends. " And again, writing under date of November 
30th following, she says: — "Your letters of April 30th, 
of May 28th, of June 27th, a duplicate which we could 
not read so faint was the press copy, and your letters of 
July 8th and August 10th have all safely arrived, the 
two last upon 19th of this month, and gave us the more 
pleasure, as we had despaired of hearing again from you 
during the winter. It is almost a forlorn hope to expect 
any communication between us. The war between 
France and Russia on the one hand, and America and 
England on the other, leaves few chances for private 
correspondence. If while peace existed so little regard 
was had to letters addrest to a publicke minister that 
they must be broken open and family and domesticke 
concerns become the subject of public investigation, 
there can be but little satisfaction in writing; notwith- 
standing that blundering Irish Lord Castlereigh denies 
the fact, I cannot expect more respect or civility when 
the nations are hostile to each other. Should this be 
destined to similar honor I request Sir William or any 
of their Lordships to awaken in their own Bosoms some 
natural affection and kindly forward this letter to the 
son to whom it is addrest, and whom three years absence 
from his parents and children render it particularly 
necessary that it should go with safety." 

J. Q. A. to Thomas Boylston Adams 

St. Petersburg, 31 Juty, 1811. 
* * * * * "The time is apparently coming when the 
temper and character of the American People will be tried by 

1913.] Letters of John Quincy Adams. 113 

a test to which since the War of our Revolution they have 
been strangers. And unfortunately the unparalleled pros- 
perity which for more than a quarter of a Century they have 
enjoyed has been constantly unfitting them from year to year 
for the reverse of Fortune which they now have to encounter. 
The school of affliction however is as necessary to form the 
moral character of Nations as of individuals. 1 hope that 
ours will be purified by it. The prospect of a War with Eng- 
land has been so long approaching us that we ought to have 
been better prepared for it than we are. It was to prevent 
this War, which I believed altogether otherwise unavoidable, 
that I assented to and voted for "the Embargo when a member 
of the Senate. I hoped it would have saved us from the War; 
I have ever been convinced, and now believe more firmly than 
ever that it did save us from the War for that time, and post- 
poned it for four years. The same causes which would have 
produced it then are producing it now, and according to all 
appearance, if anything can possibly save us from it again, it 
will be another Embargo. 

Whether our Government will have the time or the incli- 
nation, or the resolution, to resort to this expedient I do not 
know — from the Accounts received here from England since 
the news of the encounter between the President Frigate 
and the Little Belt, 2 measures appear to have been adopted 
there for the professed purpose of " humbling the Yankies" 
and a squadron of five ships of the line to be followed it is said 
by a Regiment of troops, has sailed for America with sealed 
orders to be opened West of Scilly. Their object will doubtless 
be known to you long before you receive this letter. Whether 
it be of mere menace or of direct hostility, I trust the Spirit of 
my Country will prove true to itself. But it opens in either 
case a prospect before us at least as formidable as that of 1775 
and 1776 was to our fathers. 

You tell me that you burnt a letter which you had written 
me, expressing perhaps too freely your opinions of certain late 
measures of our Government. Perhaps I ought to have burnt 
two letters which I Wrote you expressing ray opinions with 
regard to the non-intercourse or non-importation Act of the 
last Session of Congress. I do sincerely respect and honour 
the motives, and I fully approve the spirit of those by whom 
it was past. They had given a pledge by the Act of the former 
Session, which they thought themselves bound to redeem, and 
they might justly expect that France would carry into effect 

1 The collision between the U. S. frigate President and the British corvette Little Belt 
had occurred off Cape Charles, Va., May 15, 1811, eleven weeks previous to the date of 
this letter. 


114 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

her engagements on her part so positively and explicitly stated 
by the Duke de Cadore. 3 But it was my opinion that France 
had already violated her own engagements in a manner which 
absolved us from all obligation contracted by the Act of the 
former Session, and I strongly apprehended that the tendency 
of the new Act would be to precipitate a War with England. 
The new incident which has occurred and upon which the 
accounts of the two parties differ so materially with regard to 
the facts undoubtedly increases the danger and seems to 
render the War unavoidable. If the War must come, I hope 
that the temper and the energy of the Government and People 
will rise to a dignity and firmness adapted to the emergency. 
So far as it may be defensive, I can only pray that as our day is, 
so our Strength may prove. But the first and most important 
quality for War in my estimation is Justice. And may God 
Almighty grant that we may be careful to keep that on our 
side. That we may not undertake it presumptuously, nor 
impelled by Passion; nor without a precise and definite object 
for which to contend. 

This state of affairs is also calculated to turn back my reflec- 
tions upon myself. It has led me to review my own public 
conduct in past time, and to consider my prospects and my 
duties for the future. You will already see that I find in it 
an additional justification to my own mind for the part I took 
in relation to our foreign Affairs during the last Session of 
Congress in which I held a Seat in the Senate. My principle 
was one which no result of Events could possibly shake. But 
in respect to policy, I always considered the Ejnbargo as justi- 
fiable on no other ground than that its only alternative was 
War. This opinion from the necessity of the thing was con- 
jectural. It is even now not demonstrable that War would 
have followed without it; but if War comes from the same 
operative Causes, as I believed would have produced it then, 
I shall certainly consider my reasoning at that time as more 
completely sanctioned by the Events than I could if it should 
not ensue. 

Since my residence in Russia, our relations both with France 
and England have taken a variety of turns, and new incidents 
affecting them have occurr'd, but in which it has not been my 
duty to take any part. I have of course none of the respon- 
sibility connected with them upon me. I have had nothing 
English to guard against but forgery. My most difficult and 
important labours have been to struggle against another influ- 
ence. But let me tell you an anecdote. In the month of 

•Champagne, Jean Baptiate Nompere de, first Duo de Cadore. 1756-1834. Minis- 
ter of Foreign Affairs under the Empire, 1807-1811. 

1913.] Letters of John Quincy Adams. 115 

February last, I hoard that there was an American Vessel, 
somewhere in the river Elbe, going shortly with a special per- 
mission from the French Government to Boston. Thinking 
this might be a good opportunity to write a private letter or 
two (I took special care not to send by that way any public 
ones) I wrote you on the 5th of March n. 12, and enclosed it 
together with a Duplicate of n. 11 under a cover directed to 
my father, and sent it by Post to Mr. Forbes at Hamburg, 
with a request that he would forward it by the first safe oppor- 
tunity to the United States. 

On the 26th of March Mr. Forbes wrote me that he had 
received my letter, and should send the enclosures by the Ship 
Packet Captain Hinkley; which was to sail for Boston in a very 
few days. I congratulated myself on having thus found one 
more chance of conveyance for my Winter letters and was 
indulging the hope that my number twelve had reached you 
at latest in June, untill about ten days since I received a sub- 
sequent letter from Mr. Forbes, informing me that a few days 
previous to the departure of Captain Hinkley at 7 O'clock in 
the Morning his bed chamber was entered by order of the 
Police, and all his letters amounting only to 7 or 8 were taken 
from him; and that my letter directed to my father was among 
them. Mr. Forbes made immediately a written application 
for the restoration of my letter, but was referred from the 
Police to the Post-Office, and from the Post-Office to the 
Police but never obtained the letter. 

You may perhaps have thought me particularly cautious of 
writing you ami my other friends at Quincy upon topics of 
political interest and if you receive my letters n. 11 and 12, 
you may Wonder what motive there could be, not for breaking 
them open, but for eluding the return of them. But I trust 
you will perceive that 1 have had sufficient reason for great 
reserve in writing politicks and that you will find some excuse 
for letters on subjects which might be thought too trilling for 
a man of rny years and gravity." * * . * 

J. Q. A. to Thomas Boylsion Adams. 

St. Petersburg, 25 September, 1811. 
****** "The London Newspapers are usually 
from three to four weeks from their date in reaching this place. 
And they commonly contain one or more paragraphs of Public 
news from the United States which have got across the Atlantic 
in a similar interval of time. It is through this channel that 
we always receive the most recent intelligence from our Coun- 
try, though it sometimes comes to us through another second- 
ary medium by transfer into the French or German Gazettes, 


116 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

which we regularly receive twice a week. They are seventeen 
days coming from Hamburg; and three weeks from Paris. 

It was in a London Paper, the Courier, that I first saw the 
political forgery, pretended to be a letter from the Duke of 
Cadore, which had originally been published in the Boston 
Patriot.* In addition to the original imposture, which though 
it first came from America, I hope and believe to have been of 
English origin, the Editor of the Courier trumped up a tale of 
its having been addressed to the Russian Ambassador at Paris 
— sent by him to the Emperor Alexander — communicated 
by the Russian Government to me, transmitted by me to my 
own Government, and to my father, through whom he says it 
was first published. And all this without hesitation or scruple 
— not as a conjecture given as probable — not as a report re- 
ceived from others, but as of unquestionable certainty and 
incontrovertible fact. I am perfectly sure that the assertion 
respecting my father is as false as all the rest, but it is utterly 
unaccountable to me how the Editor of the Patriot could 
have been made the dupe of what appears to me to be so clear 
an imposition. He says it bears the very image and super- 
scription of the modern Caesar — which only shows how little 
he is acquainted with that personage, and how open he has 
suffered his mind to the rank absurdities, and cunning misrep- 
resentations of Englishmen and anglified Americans. Ames 
tried to scare all our federal old women out of their senses by 
telling them with a grave face that he trembled for fear Bona- 
parte would take his and their- children for a conscription 
against St. Domingo; and Walsh, with a little mincing of the 
matter, just enough to show that he does not believe a word of 
it, says that indeed he does not know but — he is no coward- — 
but really there may be some danger of the conscription a- 
gainst St. Domingo. In all this however there is no forgery. 
Ames's fears raised a Spectre before his mind's eye, which he 
really believed he saw, and from which he started with a shriek 
of horror. Walsh affects to partake of his trepidation because 
he has his purposes to answer by spreading it among others — 
but the author of this spurious step advances one step further 
in the righteous Cause. Hobgoblins and prophecies are not 
highly seasoned enough for his palate. Plain, downright 
forgery, is his fashion of raising bugbears, and so he puts the 
Duke of Cadore's name to a jumble of materials as incongruous, 
and ridiculous as the composition of the Caldron of Macbeth's 
witches, the result of which is to be, that Bonaparte intends to 
destroy the English Constitution, and dethrone the house of 

1 This frabication, a bitter tirade against Great Britain, appeared in the Boston Patriot, 
of June 19, 1811, filling two and one-half columns of the issue of that date. 

1913.] Letters of John Quincy Adams. 117 

Hanover, and that he considers the United States, as ruled by 
the weakest and most contemptible of Governments. That such 
a wretched piece of Patch Work should have pass'd current 
for genuine among the profound wiseacres of the federal 
Gazettes, that Russell or Coleman 5 should have taken or given 
it all out for Gospel would have been natural enough; but 
I really should never have suspected quite so much cullability 
in the Editor of the Patriots * * * * 

J. Q. A. to John Ada?ns. 

St. Petersburg, 29 June, 1812. 

* * * * * "It was but yesterday that the account of 
the first hostilities in Poland reached this City; 8 no Event of 
importance is yet known to have occurred; but it is believed 
impossible that many days should pass without a shock such 
as perhaps is unparralleled even in the sanguinary modern 
annals of Europe. What this Event will be, human wisdom 
cannot foresee; but here it is a moment of profound and gloomy 
anxiety. And what singularly characterizes the period is 
that prodigious as the armaments and preparations have been 
on both sides, not an intimation has been given to the public 
on either side of any misunderstanding between them. Russia 
has declared and adhered to the determination not to begin 
the War, but on the subject of the differences which had arisen 
between them, there has been a persevering refusal on her part 
to negotiate at all, the motive for which will doubtless now be 
assigned, but which as yet is unaccountable." 

J. Q. A. to Thomas Boylston Adams. 

St. Petersburg, 4 July, 1812. 

* * * * * "On the \\ June, the hostilities between 
France and Russia commenced. The French crossed the river 
Niemen at four different places and invaded the Russian Terri- 
tory. The latest accounts are of the \l when no Event of 
importance had occurred. A general action must have taken 
place, or cannot probably be delayed many days longer. We 
are within three days distance of the news. The forces on 
both sides are great; and the issue of the conflict will be mo- 
mentous. It is a period of anxious expectation." * * * 

* The personages referred to in this letter are Fisher Ames (1758-1808); Robert Walsh 
(1784-1859) author of "Letter on the Genius and Disposition of the French Government" 
(Philadelphia, 1810); Benjamin Russell (1761-1845) editor of the Columbian Centind; 
and William Coleman (17G6-1829) editor of the New York Evening Post. 

* The French army crossed the river Niemen, near Kovno, Prussian Poland, June 23d, 
commencing Napoleon's Moscow campaign. 

118 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

J. Q. A. to Thomas Boylston Adams. 

St. Petersburg, 14 July, 1812. 
* * * * * "By what singular and unaccountable acci- 
dent the letters taken from Captain Hinkley last year at Ham- 
burg, ever found their way to you is matter of much more 
surprize to me than the Seizure of them by the Police at the 
time. It must certainly be that generosity, which your father 
gives the world credit for, which induced the honourable 
Seal-Breakers to forward the letters, after reading them, and 
there is a candour and bonhommie, in the enclosure of their 
own abstract and Translation, which I like much better than 
Mylord Castlereagh's Report from the Right Honourable 
the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty that "no letters, 
public or private, were broken open." 

When I first learnt that my number 11 to you had fallen 
into the hands of the French Police, and that in all probability 
it had been transmitted to Paris, I very well knew that the 
paragraph of which the Translation is now in your hands would 
excite attention, and have a degree of interest there stronger 
than you could imagine. It referred to Transactions, and to 
the exertion of an influence with which they were well ac- 
quainted, and which had given me more trouble and concern 
than anything else that has happened during my residence 
here. When they got the letter the struggle was over, and 
their objects had been completely defeated. I have no doubt 
they understood every word of the extract better than you 
to whom the letter was directed, because they had reports 
from other sources relative to the same subject, which you have 
had no opportunity of perusing. His Majesty the Emperor 
Napoleon occupies himself much more with details of Com- 
merce than you seem to be aware of; and if he does not exactly 
reason from his informations as you and I might, it is because 
certain motives enter into the composition of his deliberations, 
which we should not so readily admit. 

Mr. John Henry's Correspondence is one of the most in- 
structive political pamphlets that has fallen under my cogni- 
zance for several years. Among many other interesting 
Revelations, it discloses, or at least asserts that the Pleasures 
and the Indolence of certain Ministers abandon to subalterns 
the administration of public affairs. One of the great misfor- 
tunes of all the old Governments of Europe, and it has not a 
little contributed to their greatest Calamities of late years, 
has been precisely this — That their great Men, their Ministers 
and Generals have been and are Men of Pleasure and of In- 
dolence, and of course that their business has of necessity 
been abandoned to subalterns. Ignorance of what they ought 


1913.] Letters of John Quincy Adams. 119 

to know, has been no inconsiderable source of the blunders 
which have been punished by such heavy Calamities to them- 
selves. Whatever may be the Vices of France under her new 
System, this is not among them. She at least is not governed 
by subalterns. The activity of all her official administrations 
might teach her enemies a lesson of wisdom, if luxury, sensu- 
ality and indolence could learn wisdom from either friend or 
foe. But when Indolence contends with Toil; when Pleasure 
wrestles with Diligence, which party think you, will bear 
away the prizes? I certainly do not approve the manner in 
which His Majesty's Police obtained possession of my letter; 
but the extract and translation sufficiently show, that it was 
not obtained without a purpose, and I incline to the belief 
that its final enclosure to you was intended as a hint that its 
contents had not been perused without suitable notice. 

The City of St. Petersburg has no longer the honour of being 
the scene of Negotiations, either political or commercial. The 
Emperor and his Minister of Foreign Affairs have both been 
nearly three months absent from it, and now in the political 
Convulsion which is shaking Europe to its deepest foundations, 
Russia has once more changed her side, and entered upon the 
" bloody Arena." The War has been commenced more than 
three weeks. Of its Events hitherto our information here is 
not very distinct nor perhaps very accurate. The Russians 
have been retreating to unite their forces, but nothing decisive 
of the issue of the Campaign lias to our knowledge hitherto 

J. Q. A. to Mrs. John Adams. 

St. Petersburg, 10 August, 1812. 
* * * * * "The War in the North of Europe has already 
been marked by an alternate series of successes and disasters 
to both parties. The French armies have been advancing 
upon the Russian Territory, untill they have occupied almost 
all the Polish Provinces within the Russian Dominion. The 
Russian armies have been retreating before them, without 
suffering themselves to be drawn into a general Engagement. 
But in every instance when they have engaged partially, the 
Russians have been, or at least represent themselves to have 
been victorious. This City has been three times illuminated 
within the last week— twice of which three times was for vic- 
tories over the invading armies. They no doubt have a differ- 
ent story to tell on their part, but notwithstanding the rapidity 
with which they have penetrated into the Country, and the 
delay of resistance against them which has been systematically 
pursued, the Spirit and Confidence of the People here is much 
greater than it was at the commencement Of the Campaign. 

120 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Besides the immense armament which they already have on 
foot, the losses of which as yet have been small, they are now 
organizing a second line of defence, and preparing to have two 
or three hundred thousand men, to supply the places of those 
now in the field, if any serious disaster should happen to them. 
Numbers of Men will not be wanting to them for any probable 
emergency. They will form troops easily disciplined, and will 
receive from England supplies of arms, ammunition, and per- 
haps Cloathing. If they continue to avoid a general Action, 
or if engaging in one they win the Battle, there is no doubt 
but they will drive the Invaders back before Winter beyond 
the frontiers." 

J. Q. A. to Thomas Boylston Adams. 

St. Petersburg, 29 September, 1812. 

"A War between the United States and Great Britain, and 
a War between France and Russia, having commenced on the 
same Week in the month of June last, have concurred almost 
entirely to annihilate the few and precarious opportunities 
of Communication with you, which I had previously possessed. 
Our War has banished our flag from the Baltic, and stopped 
the channel of conveyance through England of which I some- 
times availed myself. The French and Russian War has 
stopped the communication between this place and Paris, by 
which I sometimes received letters from America, and through 
which I sometimes wrote. I have had no letter from you, 
nor from any person in America, since I wrote you last. I 
seem to be cut off from all intercourse with my Country. 
* * * * * "As I know not how, or when, or if ever this 
letter will reach you, nor into whose hands it may fall, common 
prudence forbids me to say much on the public affairs of the 
world. You know my sentiments with regard to the War 
which has commenced in our own Country. I cannot say 
that the Declaration was avoidable, when it took place. But 
I think that its principal Cause and Justification was removed 
precisely at the moment when it occurred. I have flattered 
myself with the hope that when the change of policy forced 
upon the British Ministry by our previous measures, should 
be known in America, it would still be practicable to arrest 
the War, at the threshold and to restore us to the blessings of 
Peace and Neutrality. But my expectations have been weak- 
ened by the information of what was passing in America im- 
mediately after the Declaration, and now are almost extinct. 

A more terrible and destructive War is raging in the heart 
of the Country where I reside. Three Months have elapsed 
since the invasion of the Russian Territories, by French ar- 
mies; and they are already in possession of Moscow. Several 

1913.] Letters of John Quincy Adams. 121 

bloody Battles have been fought, with various and alternate 
success; none of them, however, of a character to decide the 
Event, even of this Campaign. Neither the People nor the 
Government of this Country are disheartened by the present 
aspect of their affairs. They consider the situation of their 
Enemy as desperate in the midst of his success and entertain 
not a doubt that they will ultimately expel him and his armies 
from their Country. The army destined against this City 
has been repeatedly defeated with such heavy loss that the 
place is thought secure notwithstanding the occupation of 
Moscow. Some of the English Inhabitants of the City are 
however preparing to leave it." 

J. Q. A. to John Adams. 

St. Petersburg, 4 October, 1812. 
****** "But of the War in the Country where 
I reside you may expect me to speak more at large, and besides 
the general Interest to which it is entitled, as forming so large 
a portion of the history of the Civilized World, our residence 
here may give you a particular concern with it, as our own 
situation and Circumstances are in no small degree involved 
in its Events. On the 24th of June the War began; and from 
that day to this according to the official Bulletins published 
here has consisted of an uninterrupted series of Russian Vic- 
tories. We have had Te Dewhs, Illuminated Cannon firing, 
Bell-ringing, and ail the external demonstrations of continual 
triumph, while the French armies have been advancing with 
rapid and steady pace, until] on the 15th of September, the 
wry day that my poor child died, they took possession of 
Moscow, the antient and renowned Metropolis of the Russian 
Empire. The real progress of military Operations has been 
known very tardily, and only by the dates from time to time 
of the Official Reports from Head Quarters. It is not prudent 
to have the knowledge of disasters, when they have happened 

Mill less to anticipate those that may come. The private 

Correspondence from the armies, must tally with, or at least 
not materially vary from the official Reports, of the Com- 
manders in Chief. Discretion is one of the most universal 
Virtues, in Governments organized like this, as the Want 
of it is one of those the most surely and severely punished. 
The concealment and disguise practised to keep the knowledge 
from the public of facts which it would be disagreeable to them 
to know, give rise however to many rumours of defeat and 
misfortune still more unfounded than the oiheial Reports of 
Victories, so that between flattering misrepresentations, on 
one side, and fictitious alarms on the other, the real state of 

122 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Affairs is perhaps better and sooner known in the other hemi- 
sphere than here as it were upon the very scene of Action. 

There, however, a spectator has the opportunity of witness- 
ing the impressions produced upon the public mind, by the 
course of the War, which could not be so well observed at a 
distance. The hopes of the Russians that the issue will be 
glorious and successful to them are founded, first on their 
army, and secondly on the natural advantages of their situa- 
tion. To judge of the Operations of their Generals from their 
measures it would seem that their sole Instructions are on no 
consideration and in no Event whatsoever to risk any essential 
disaster to the army. To abandon everything else rather than 
stake the army upon the chances of a Battle. This system is 
cautious, and perhaps the best that could have been adopted, 
but it gives an appearance of timidity to all their warlike opera- 
tions, singularly contrasting with the boldness and impetuosity 
of the invader, and which he has not failed to turn to his own 
advantage. Twice on the passage from the river Niemen to 
Moscow the Russians appear to have determined to meet their 
Enemy in Battle, and on both occasions they assert that the 
field of Battle was theirs. But the fear of hazarding the 
safety of the army, has not only prevented them from profiting 
by their success, but has induced them to yield to their van- 
quished antagonist all the fruits of Victory. For the Battle 
of Borodino, St. Petersburg was illuminated and a Te Deum 
was performed. The Russian General who commanded at it 
was made a Field-Marshal, and received a gratuity of a hun- 
dred thousand Rubles — and eight days afterwards Napoleon 
entered Moscow; and the Field-Marshal, with excuse and 
apology reported to his Master, that notwithstanding his 
Victory, he had surrendered the Capital, to preserve the army. 

But Napoleon is in an Enemy's Country. Hemmed in 
between four Russian Armies, over whose bodies he must 
either advance or retreat. Two thousand Miles distant from 
his own Capital; having half the forces with which he 
commenced the War, and surrounded in the midst of his Camp 
by auxiliary armies so disaffected to him and his Cause that 
at the first sympton of defeat they would more eagerly turn 
their armies against him than they now follow his banners. 
Notwithstanding his rapid and hitherto triumphant Career, 
the hope of finally expelling and even annihilating him and 
his whole host here grows sanguine in proportion as he pro- 
ceeds. It is far stronger and more Confident than it was at 
the Commencement of the War, and the Emperor Alexander, 
who then pledged himself to his People that he would never 
make Peace while one armed Enemy should have his foot on 
the Russian Territory, has since the loss of Moscow publicly 

1913.] Letters of John Quincy Adams. 123 

said that none but a scoundrel can at the present juncture 
pronounce the name of Peace." 

J. Q. A. to Mrs. John Adams. 

St. Petersburg, 24 October, 1812. 
***** a If relief could be obtained for actual woe by 
contemplating the wretchedness of others our distress would 
indeed be light. There is now scarcely a spot upon the hab- 
itable globe but is desolated by the scourge of War. I see my 
own Country writhing under it, and every hope of better 
prospects vanishing before me. If I turn my eyes around me, 
I see the flame still more intensely burning. Fire and the 
Sword are ravaging the Country where I reside. Moscow, the 
antient Metropolis, one of the most magnificent and most 
populous Cities of Europe in the hands of an invader, and 
probably the greatest part of it buried in ashes. Numerous 
inferior Cities daily devoted to the same Destruction, and 
Millions of People trampled under the feet of oppresion or 
fugitives from the ruins of their habitations, perishing by hun- 
ger, in woods or deserts. It is by the slaughter of many 
thousands, and by the time and chance, which happen to all 
men, winning the race from the swift, and wresting the battle 
from the strong, that the spot from which I write has hitherto 
been saved from sharing the fate of the Capital of the Empire. 
No one can tell how long it will enjoy this exemption. Its 
prospects are more favourable than they have been heretofore, 
and it is now threatened by no immediate danger. 7 But while 
the invader shall tread upon the Russian soil, its situation 
cannot be perfectly secure." 

J. Q. A. to John Adams. 

St. Petersburg, 5 November, 1812. 
* * * * * "To escape as much as possible from the 
ineffable mortification of this burlesque upon War, I endeavour 
to persuade myself that it is a new proof that War was neces- 
sar}' to us. We are indeed coping with an Enemy whose naval 
and military force is so disproportioned to ours that nothing 
but the consideration of the other Enemies with whom he must 
at the same time contend, could save us from the sentence of 
gross and glaring folly for engaging him at all. But in addi- 
tion to all his other advantages at the outset of this contest 
he has that of beginning with the skill and experience of twenty 
years previous War, with the greatest and most formidable 
Powers, while all our martial metal has been gathering the 
rust of the same twenty years. With troops and Generals 

• The retreat of the French army had begun October 15. 

124 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

so perfectly raw, and those with which from the nature of 
things we must enter the field, awkward, unskilful, and un- 
successful operations were naturally to be expected. I was 
prepared to hear of them; though for such grinning infamy* 
as this I confess I had not looked forward. If then our mili- 
tary faculty has already degenerated to such excessive debase- 
ment, it seems high time for us to have the experiment whether 
it is yet capable of being retrieved. The Courage of a Soldier, 
Gibbon says, is the cheapest quality of human nature; but it 
will often fail, and at the most critical and fatal moment with- 
out the aid of use, discipline, and example. If it had been 
possible for us to avoid a War at this time and even to have 
enjoyed many more years of Peace, War must after all have 
come at last, and if we are so disqualified for it now, is it not 
probable that in the progress of enervation and languor which 
another long period of inaction would have produced, the very 
Spirit of Independence itself might have been extinguished, 
and we should have been really, what Fisher Ames said we 
were ten years ago, "of ail men on Earth, the fittest to be 

We live indeed in an age when it is not lawful for any civi- 
lized Nation to be unprepared for or incapable of War. Never, 
with an aching Heart I say it, never did the warlike Spirit 
burn with so intense a flame throughout the civilized World 
as at this moment. Never was the prospect of its continuing 
to burn and becoming still fiercer, so terrible as now. It 
would perhaps not be difficult to show that the State of War 
has become indispensable to the existence both of the French 
and British Governments. That in Peace they would both find 
their destruction. That they both must force outwards those 
deadly humours of National Corruption, which if allowed to 
be thrown back upon their own vitals would produce speedy 
and inevitable death. Add to this, that War has become not 
only in France but even in England, and Spain, and Portugal, 
and now in Russia, the great, if not the only Career of Wealth, 
Honour and Renown. That while the glory of Principalities, 
Kingdoms and Empires as Rewards of martial achievement, 
is blazing in the bosoms of men in the higher Classes of Society, 

» Hull's surrender of Detroit had occurred August 16, and the previous day Fort Dear- 
born at Chicago had been evacuated and its garrison massacred by the Indians, acting 
in co-operation with the British. " The last vestige of American authority on the western 
lakes disappeared. Thenceforward the line of the Wabash and the Maumee became the 
military boundary of the United States in the Northwest, and the country felt painful 
doubt whether even that lino could be defended." (Adams, United States, VI, 335.) 
The equally unhappy and no less discreditable reverses of the, so-called, Niagara cam- 
paign did not occur until the middle of the following month, and tidings of them could 
not have reached St. Petersburg at the time this letter was written. Allusion is made to 
them in the following extract from a letter of November 21. 

1913.] Letters of John Quincy Adams. 125 

the misery and famine which War itself has brought upon 
numberless multitudes of the lower Classes, is forcing them 
into the ranks, and filling every vacant spot as fast as the 
sword can make it. The fruits of Victory by land are no longer 
exclusively reserved for France — England lias at length 
brought forth a General, 9 who bids fair to redeem the military 
Fame of his Country, and to take his stand in History, if not 
with the Edwards and the Henry's of former ages, at least 
with the Wolf and the Marlborough of the last. 

A more extraordinary phenomenon is here unfolding itself 
before my eyes. With a standing army of at least five hun- 
dred thousand men, the Emperor of Russia, by a simple sum- 
mons to his people has called forth in less than three months 
three hundred thousand more, who with the Caftan, and the 
Beard, and the hatchet, are mingled in among the regiments of 
smooth-faced, uniformed veterans, and already rivalize with 
them in martial exploit. Napoleon has taken Moscow, but 
it is doubtful whether he or his army will ever get back from 
it. In his attempts upon St. Petersburg and Kiga, he has 
been foiled, and his troops and his marshals have been 
repeatedly and effectually beaten. Russia has not only dis- 
covered a vigour and energy of defence beyond the expectations 
of both her friends and foes, but she has perhaps discovered 
to herself a secret of her own strength of which she was not 
aware. It is not for Riga, Moscow or St. Petersburg that 
France and Russia are now contending, it is for the dominion 
of the European Continent. In this Campaign, and while 
I write Napoleon has exposed and is exposing, many believe 
to certain destruction, assuredly to the most imminent danger, 
not only himself and his army, but the whole mass of French 
Power, accumulated in twenty years of Revolution. " * * * 

J. Q. A. to Mrs. John Adams. 

t,. , n St. Petersburg, 22d November, 1812, 

My dEAR Sir: 

Toward the close of the last summer there arirved here as 
a sort of a semi official appendage to the British embassy an old 
acquaintance of yours, Sir Francis DTvernois who as you 
know has been for many years a distinguished political writer 
in the French language and in the Interest of the British Gov- 
ernment. He came not I believe with but very soon after the 
Embassador Lord Cathcart. 10 Just at the same time a lady of 


• The battle of Salamanca, in which Wellington decisively defeated the French under 
command of Marshal Marmont, had occurred July 22. 

10 William Shaw Cathcart, created Earl Cathcart July 16, 1814. He had served in tho 
American Revolutionary War, 1777-1780. lie was Ambassador from the Court of St. 
James to that of Russia in 1812-1814. 


126 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

celebrated fame, Madame de Stael, the daughter of Mr. 
Necker, was also here on a transient visit. 11 As I had not the 
honor of being personally known to Madame de Stael and as 
we had just received information of the American Declaration 
of war against Britain, I had no expectation of having any 
communication or intercourse either with the Embassador 
or the lady. 

Early one morning I received a note from Madame de Stael, 
requesting me to call on her at her lodgings, that same day at 
noon as she wished to speak to me on a subject respecting 
America. I went accordingly at the hour appointed and upon 
entering the lady's saloon found there a company of some fif- 
teen or twenty persons not a soul of whom I had ever before 
seen. An elderly gentleman in the full uniform of an English 
General was seated on a sopha and the lad} r whom I immediate- 
ly perceived to be Madame de Stael was complimenting him 
with equal elegance and fluency upon the glories of his nation, 
his countryman, Lord Wellington, and his own. The Battle 
of Salamanca and the bombardment of Copenhagen were 
themes upon which much was to be said and upon which she 
said much. When I went in she intermitted her discourse 
a moment to receive me and offer me a seat which I immedi- 
ately took and for about half an hour had the opportunity 
to admire the brilliancy of her genius as it sparkled incessantly 
in her conversation. 

There was something a little too broad and direct in the 
substance of the panegyrics which she pronounced to allow 
them the claim of refinement. There was neither disguise nor 
veil to cover their naked beauties, but they were expressed 
with so much variety and vivacity that the hearers had not 
time to examine the thread of their texture. Lord Cathcart 
received the compliments pointed at himself with becoming 
modesty; those to his nation with apparent satisfaction and 
those to the conqueror of Salamanca with silent acquiescence. 
The lady insisted that the British nation was the most aston- 
ishing nation of antient or modern times, the only preservers 
of social order, the exclusive defenders of the liberties of man- 
kind. To which his lordship added that their glory was in 
being a moral nation, a character which he was sure they would 
always preserve. The glittering sprightliness of the Lady and 

11 Anne Louise Gerrnaine Necker, Baronne de Stael-Holsteiu, better known as Madame 
de Stael, was born at Paris, April 22, 1706, and died there July 14, 1817. Exiled from 
France in 1812 by order of Napoleon, she visited Austria, Russia, Sweden, and England. 
She was then forty-six years of age, and at the height of her great reputation. This letter 
of J. Q. Adams to John Adams is dated the 22d of November, 1812. The interview des- 
cribed, however, and the conversations related took place on the 6th and 8th of the pre- 
vious September. 

1913.] Letters of John Quincy Adams. 127 

the stately gravity of the Embassador were as well contrasted 
as their respective topics of praise, and if my mind had been 
at ease to relish anything in the nature of an exhibition I 
should have been much amused at hearing a Frenchwoman's 
celebration of the English for generosity towards other nations 
and a lecture upon national morality from the commander of 
the expedition to Copenhagen. 

During this sentimental duet between the ambassador and 
the Embassadress, I kept my seat, merely an auditor. The 
rest of the company were equally silent. Among them was 
an English Naval Officer, Admiral Bentinck, since deceased. 
lie was then quite the cJievalier d'honneur to Madame de Stael 
but whether the scene did not strike him precisely as it did 
me or whether his feelings resulting from it were of a more 
serious cast than mine the moment it was finished and the 
Ambassador had taken leave he drew a very long breath and 
sighed it out as if relieved from an offensive burden saying 
only " thank God that's over." lie and all the rest of the 
company immediately after that retired and left me tete-d-tete 
with Madame Stael. The subject respecting America was 
to tell me that she had a large sum in the American funds and 
to enquire whether I knew how she could contrive to receive 
the interest which she had hitherto received from England. 
1 gave her such information, as I possessed. She had also 
some lands in the State of New York of which she wished to 
know the value. I answered her as well as I could but her 
lands and her funds did not appear to occupy much of her 
thoughts. She soon asked me if I was related to that cele- 
brated Mr. Adams the author of the book upon Government. 
I said I had the happiness of being his son. She replied that 
she had read it and admired it very much, that her father, 
Mr. Necker, had always expressed a very high opinion of it. 
She next commenced upon Politics ancl asked how it was 
possible that America should have declared war against Eng- 
land. In accounting for this phenomenon I was obliged to 
recur to a multitude of facts not as strongly stamped with 
British generosity or British Morality as might be expected 
from such a character as she and the Embassador had been 
assigning to that nation. The orders in council and the press 
gang afforded but a sorry commentary upon, the chivalresque 
defence of the liberties of mankind and no very instructive 
lessons of morality. She had nothing to say in their defence 
but she thought that the knights errant of the Human race 
were to be allowed special indulgence and in consideration of 
their cause were not to be held by the ordinary obligations of 
war and peace. There was no probability that any arguments 
of mine could make any impression upon opinions thus tuned. 

128 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

She listened, however, with as much complacency as could 
be expected to what I said and finally asked me why I had not 
been to see her before. I answered that her high reputation 
was calculated to inspire respect no less than curiosity and that 
however desirous I had been of becoming personally acquainted 
with her I had thought I could not without indiscretion intrude 
myself upon her Society. The reason appeared to please her. 
She said she was to leave this city the next day at noon. She 
was going to Stockholm to pass the winter and afterwards to 
England. She wished to have another conversation with me 
before she went and asked me to call and see her the next 
morning. I readily accepted the invitation and we discussed 
politics again two or three hours. I found her better conver- 
sant with Rhetoric than with Logic. She had much to say 
about social order, much about universal monarchy, much 
about the preservation of religion in which she gave me to 
understand she did not herself believe and much about the 
ambition and tyranny of Buonaparte upon which she soon 
discovered there was no difference of sentiment between us. 
But why did not America join in the holy cause against this 
tyrant? First because America had no means of making war 
against him, she could neither attack him by sea or land. 
Secondly because it was a fundamental maxim of American 
policy not to intermeddle with the political affairs of Europe. 
Thirdly because it was altogether unnecessary. He had ene- 
mies enough upon his hands already. What! Did not I 
dread his universal monarchy. Not in the least. I saw indeed 
a very formidable mass of force arrayed under him, but I saw 
a mass of force at least as formidable arrayed against him. 
Europe contained about 160 millions of human beings. He 
was weilding the means of 75 millions and the means of 85 
millions were weilding against him. It was an awful spectacle 
to behold the shock, but Edid not believe and never had be- 
lieved that he would ever be able to subjugate even the con- 
tinent of Europe. Had there ever been any real danger of 
such an event it was past. 

She herself saw that there was every prospect of his being 
very shortly driven out of Spain. And I was equally con- 
vinced he would be driven out of Russia. It was the very 
day of the battle of Borodino. "J'en accepte Vaugure," she 
said. " Everything that you say of him is very just. But 
I have particular reason for resentment against him. I have 
been persecuted by him in the most shameful manner. I was 
neither suffered to live anywhere nor to go where I would 
have gone, — and all for no other reason but because I would 
not eulogize him in my writings. 

As to our war with England I told her that I deeply lamented 

1913.] Letters of John Quincy Adams. 129 

it and yet cherished the hope that it would not last long. 
That England had forced it upon us by measures as outrageous 
upon the rights of an independent nation, as tyrannical, as 
oppressive, as any that could be charged upon Buonaparte. 
Her pretences were retaliation and necessity. Retaliation 
upon America for the wrongs of France and necessity for man 
Stealing. We asked of England nothing but our indisputable 
rights, but we allowed no special prerogatives to political 
Quixotism. We did not consider Britain at all as the cham- 
pion for the liberties of mankind but as another Tyrant pre- 
tending to exclusive dominion upon the ocean. A pretension 
full as detestable and I trusted in God full as chimerical as 
the pretensions of univeral monarchy upon the land. Mad- 
ame de Stael "was of her own opinion still" but on the point 
of impressment she owned that my observations were reason- 
able. I have riot yet found a European of any nation but 
the British who on having this question in its true statement 
brought to a precise point had a syllable to say for the English 
side. In conclusion I told her that the pretended retaliation 
of England had compelled us to resort to real retaliation upon 
them and that as long as they felt a necessity to fight for the 
practice of stealing men from American merchant vessels on 
the high seas we should feel the necessity of fighting against it. 
I could only hope that God would prosper the righteous 
Madame de Stael on my leaving her charged me if I ever 
should be again in any place where she should be at the same 
time not to neglect paying her a visit which 1 very willingly 
promised. 12 She left St. Petersburg the same day. I should 
ask Sir Francis DTvernois pardon. I began this letter with 
him, but whom can one help deserting for Madame de Stael? 
I will return to Sir Francis by the next opportunity having 
now only room to say that I am dutifully and affectionately 

J. Q. A. to Thomas Boylston Adams. 

St. Petersburg, 24 November, 1812. 
***** "You know how deeply I was disappointed 
at the breaking out of our War, precisely at the moment when 
I entertained the most ardent and sanguine hopes that War 
had become unnecessary. Its Events have hitherto been far 
from favourable to our Cause, but they have rather contributed 
to convince me of its necessity, upon principles distinct from 
the consideration of its Causes. The termination of General 
Hull's campaign in upper Canada is known to us, as far as the 


» Mr. Adams subsequently met Madame de Stael again in Paris, in February, 1815, 
during the interim between the abdication of Fontainebleau and Napoleon's return from 
Elba. See Memoirs, III, 153, 155, 165. 

130 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

English Government have seen fit to make it known, by the 
dispatches from the Governor General and General Brock, 
and by the Capitulation. We are informed also of an armis- 
tice agreed to by General Dearborn, which the President re- 
fused to ratify — and from these two portents I have come to 
the conclusion, which indeed it was not very difficult to antici- 
pate before, that our projected invasion of Canada will end 
this year in total and most disgraceful defeat. 

The misfortune considered by itself is not a very heavy 
one to the Nation. But it is a deep mortgage of reputation 
to redeem. Its effects upon the Spirits and dispositions of 
the people present the most important light in which it is to 
be viewed; and these to my mind are problematical. If the 
effect upon the national sentiment should be familiar to that 
of the Chesapeake affair, we shall not have ultimately much 
reason to regret the disaster of Hull's army, or the failure of 
our first military expeditions. Our means of taking the Brit- 
ish possessions upon our Continent are so ample and unques- 
tionable that if we do not take them it must be owing to the 
want of qualities, without which there is no Independent 
Nation, and which we must acquire at any hazard and any 

The acquisition of Canada however was not and could not 
be the object of this War. I do not suppose it is expected that 
we should keep it if we were now to take it. Great Britain is 
yet too powerful and values her remaining possessions too 
highly to make it possible for us to retain them at the Peace, 
if we should conquer them by the War. The time is not come. 
But the power of Great Britain must soon decline. She is now 
straining it so excessively beyond its natural extent that it 
must before long sink under the violence of its own exertions. 
Her paper credit is already rapidly declining, and she is daily 
becoming more extravagant in the abuse of it. I believe that 
her Government could hot exist three years at Peace without 
a National Convulsion. And I doubt whether she can carry 
on three years longer the War in which she is now engaged, 
without such failure of her finances as she can never recover. 
It is in the stage of weakness which must inevitably follow 
that of overplied and exhausted strength that Canada and all 
her other possessions would have fallen into our hands with- 
out the need of any effort on our part, and in a manner more 
congenial to our principles, and to Justice, than by Conquest. 

The great Events daily occurring in the Country whence I 
now write you are strong and continual additional warnings 
to us not to involve ourselves in the inextricable labyrinth of 
European politicks and Revolutions. The final issue of the 
campaign in the North of Europe is not yet completely ascer- 

1913.] Letters of John Quincy Adams. 131 

tained; 13 but there is no longer a doubt but that it must be disas- 
trous in the highest degree to France, and no less glorious to 
Russia. It may not improbably end in the utter annihilation 
of the invading army, three-fourths of which have already 
been destroyed. Whether the Emperor Napoleon will per- 
sonally escape the fate which has befallen so many of his 
followers is yet doubtful, but it may be taken for granted that 
he will never be able again to assemble against Russia a force 
which can be formidable to the security or Integrity of her 
Empire. The politicians who have been dreading so long the 
phantom of universal monarchy may possess their souls in 
quietness. Never having been infected with the terror of it, 
I shall derive no new source of tranquility from these occur- 
rences; but I cannot say that my foresight was clear enough 
to expect that the Colossus of French power would in so veiy 
short a period be staggering upon its foundations so manifestly 
as it is. It is impossible not to consider the internal State of 
France as greatly depending upon the course of these external 
Events. The Empire of Napoleon was built upon victory 
alone. Defeat takes away its foundation, and with such defeat 
as he is now suffering, it would be nothing surprizing to see the 
whole fabrick crumble into ruins. France indeed still remains; 
a formidable mass of power; but into what condition she may 
be plunged by the overthrow of his Government I am scarcely 
able to conjecture. 

The day of trial to Russia has been severe; but it has been 
short, and her deportment under it will raise her high in the 
estimation of mankind. Her plan of defence has the most 
decisive demonstration in its favour — success — and success 
under numerous incidental circumstances disadvantageous 
to her. Not only her armies, but her peasantry, armed and 
sent into the field as if by enchantment, have fought with the 
most invincible courage, though not always with favourable 
Fortune. The chances of War have been sometimes with and 
sometimes against them, but they have arrested the Career 
of the Conqueror of the Age, and drawn him on to ruin, even 
when they yielded him the Victory." 

J. Q. A. to Mrs. John Adams. 

St. Petersburg, 30 November, 1812. 
* * * * * " It may well be doubted whether in the com- 
pass of human history since the Creation of the World, a 

13 This was written November 24. The terrible passage of the river Beresiua by the 
remnants of the French army occurred between the 26th and 29th of the same month 
aud, six days later, December 6th, Napoleon, at Smorgoni, made known to the French 
Marshals his intention to leave the army and proceed at once to Paris. ' He arrived 
there the evening of December 18. 


132 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

greater, more sudden and more total reverse of Fortune was 
ever experienced by man, than is now exhibiting in the person 
of a man, whom Fortune for a previous course of nearly twenty 
years had favored with a steadiness and a prodigality equally 
unexampled in the annals of mankind. He entered Russia 
at the head of three hundred thousand men, on the 24th of last 
June. On the 15th of September he took possession of Mos- 
cow, the Russian armies having retreated before him almost 
as fast as he could advance; not however without attempting 
to stop him by two Battles, one of which was perhaps the most 
bloody that has been fought for many ages. He appears really 
to have concluded that all he had to do was to reach Moscow, 
and the Russian Empire would be prostrate at his feet. In- 
stead of that it was precisely then that his serious difficulties 
began. Moscow was destroyed; partly by his troops, and 
partly by the Russians themselves. His Communications 
in his rear were continually interrupted and harrassed by sep- 
arate small Detachments from the Russian Army. His two 
flanks, one upon the Dwina, and the other upon the frontier 
of Austria were both overpowered by superior forces, which 
were drawing together and closing behind him; and after 
having passed six weeks in total inaction at Moscow, he found 
himself with a starving and almost naked army, eight hundred 
miles from his frontier, exposed to all the rigour of a Russian 
Winter, with an Army before him superior to his own and 
a Country behind him already ravaged by himself, and where 
he had left scarcely a possibility of any other sentiment than 
that of execration and vengeance upon himself and his follow- 
ers. He began his retreat on the 28th of October, scarcely 
a month since, and at this moment, if he yet lives, he has scarce- 
ly the ruins of an Army remaining with him. He has been 
pursued with all the eagerness that could be felt by an exas- 
perated and triumphant Enemy. Thousands of his men have 
perished by famine — thousands by the extremity of the Season, 
and in the course of the last ten days we have heard of more 
than thirty thousand who have laid down their arms almost 
without resistance. His Cavalry is in a more dreadful condi- 
tion even then his Infantry. He has lost the greatest part of 
his Artillery, — has abandoned most of the baggage of his 
army; and has been even reduced to blow up his own stores of 
ammunition. The two wings of the Russian Armies have 
formed their junction and closed the passage to ,his retreat; 
and according to every human probability within ten days the 
whole remnant of his host will be compelled like the rest to 
lay down their arms and surrender at discretion. If he has a 
soul capable of surviving such an Event, he will probably 
be a prisoner himself. 

1913.] Letters of John Quincy Adams. 133 

Should he by some extraordinary accident escape in his 
own person, he has no longer a force nor the means of assemb- 
ling one which can in the slightest degree be formidable to 
Russia. Even before his Career of victory had ceased, com- 
motions against his Government had manifested themselves 
in his own Capital, on a false rumour of his death which had 
been circulated. Now that, if he returns at all, it must be as 
a solitary fugutive, it is scarcely possible that he should be 
safer at the Thuileries, than he would be in Russia. His 
allies, almost every one of whom Avas such upon the bitterest 
compulsion, and upon whom he has brought the most impend- 
ing danger of ruin, may not content themselves merely with 
deserting him. Revolutions in Germany, France, and Italy 
I must be the inevitable consequence of this state of things, 

i and Russia, whose influence in the political affairs of the World 

he expressly threatened to destroy, will henceforth be the 
arbitress of Europe. 

It has pleased Heaven for many years to preserve this man, 
and to make him prosper, as an instrument of divine wrath 
to scourge mankind. His race is now run, and his own term 
of punishment has commenced. — "Fret not thyself because 
of him who prospereth in his way, because of the man who 
bringeth wicked devices to pass — for yet a little while, and the 
wicked shall not be; yea, thou shalt diligently consider his 
place and it shall not be." How often have I thought of this 
Oracle of divine truth, with an application of the Sentiment 
to this very man upon whom it is now so signally fulfilling. 
And how ardently would I pray the supreme disposer of Events 
that the other and more consolatory part of the same promise 14 
may now be also near its accomplishment — "But the meek 
shall inherit the Earth, and shall delight themselves in the 
abundance of Peace." 

Mrs. John Adams to J. Q. A. 

December 30th, 1812. 
"Despairing almost of conveying a letter to you amidst 
the war of Empires and Kingdoms, I have had but little encour- 
L agement to write, yet knowing how anxious you must be relative 

to your Family, your Children, your Friends and Country, 
I shall make the attempt and trust this letter on Board a 
Cartel now going from N. York to England hoping that it will 
be treated with the same lenity with which we treat our Ene- 
mies, send them to the place of their destination. 
***** We have had our misfortunes and our disas- 
ters to contend with, owing to want of skill, discipline and 

uPsalma xxxvii, 10, 11. 

134 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

proper arrangement, but we shall learn wisdom by chastise- 
ment, and skill by experience. In the meantime we shall have 
our sufferings to contend with. The defeats we have met with 
upon the land, in our imperfect attacks upon Canady have 
been mortifying to us because we have reason to believe they 
might have been successful. Our Country have been so nobly 
monumented upon the ocean, by our Hull, Jones and Decatur 
that we glory in our infant navy, and hope to add a new line 
to the song, "of rule Britannia, rule the waves," and to con- 
vince the self-stiled Queen of the ocean that there is a power 
rising up, not to usurp the title, but to contend for their own 
rights and to oblige others to yield them. To this and the 
bill which is now past in Congress to build with all possible 
dispatch four seventy-four gun ships and six 44 gun frigates, 
making ten with those already agreed upon, these with those 
we already have in commission will be sufficient to protect our 
commerce and teach other nations to respect it also; our navy 
has already instructed Great Britain in some Wholesome truths 
and it would be much for her interest to listen to them. She 
may rest assured that this increase of our naval establishment 
will be the binding chain of the union and she will hear very 
little more of the cry of N. England for peace if she persists 
in her injustice. The re-election of Mr. Madison, now certain 
by a majority of 36 already returned, and of Mr. Gerry who 
has still more votes, plainly show that altho a great clamour 
has been excited, and British partizens have been active in 
fomenting it, yet the great body of the people are united. She 
needs no other proof of this than the universal applause with 
which our naval victories have been hailed and celebrated and 
the honours bestowed upon the conquerors throughout the 
United States. 

We look with sorrow and with heart felt anguish upon the 
desolation of the "cloud capt Towers and gorgeous Palaces" 
of that ancient, wealthy, and magnificent city of Moscow. 
Charles the 12 of Sweden was as brave as Napoleon. May the 
Emperor Alexander be as fortunate and as successful as the 
great Peter. 

What havock and destruction of the human species! Can 
man be born then, only to be destroyed by his fellow man. 
Yet plagues and earthquakes break not Heaven's designs. 
Are we rational creatures? 

J. Q. A. to Mrs. John Adams. 

St. Petersburg, 31 December, 1812. 
* * * * * "A Mr. Andrew of Salem, left this place about 
three weeks since, on his return to America. By him I wrote 
to you and my father; to my brother; and a short letter to my 

1913.] Letters of John Quincy Adams. 135 

two sons at Atkinson. Since then I have not heard from you 
nor from the United States at all. But an English Gazette 
Extraordinary has informed me of the Surrender, number 
two — Brigadier General Wadsworth and nine hundred men; 
to Major General Roger Hale Sheaffe. 15 If we go on at this 
rate, it is to be hoped there will be prisoners enough in Upper 
Canada to take it, without needing any fire-arms. 1 perceive 
the Indians have the greatest share in the exploits of the Brit- 
ish forces against us — Major General Brock was made a knight 
of the Bath, for taking General Hull, pretty much as FalstafT 
took Sir John Colevile of the Dale; who "gave himself away 
gratis." As General Brock will have no Occasion for his 
"blushing ribband," when it arrives in America, 18 the best use 
that could be made of it would be to give it to Norton, who 
seems quite as much entitled to it on the score of merit and 
service as the conqueror of Detroit himself. 

As this propensity to surrender appears to be an infectious 
distemper among our troops, I am in daily expectation of 
hearing the third instance of it, which I hope will be the last 
for some time. As I am willing to believe that we shall learn 
something by experience, I flatter myself that among the acqui- 
sitions which our Warriors will make they will reckon that of 
receiving surrenders in return. If not, the best thing we can 
do will be to turn unanimously disciples of George Fox and 
William Penn, and be conscienciously scrupulous against 
bearing arms. 

If indeed the practice of surrendering were about to become 
a military fashion, as from the numerous examples of it which 
within the last two months I have almost had under my eyes, 
would seem probable, there might be reason to hope that War 
itself would lose some of its favour as the only occupation and 
amusement of mankind. In my last Letter I gave you a sketch 
of the situation at that time of Napoleon the Great. There is 
no Account yet that he has personally surrendered himself; 
but he has only saved 'himself by the swiftness of his flight, 
which on one occasion at least he was obliged to pursue in 
disguise. Of the immense host with which six months since 
he invaded Russia, nine-tenths at least are prisoners, or food 

15 The disaster referred to occurred at Queenstown on the Canada side of the Niagara 
river, October 13. The retreat of the French army from Russia begim the following week; 
and, October 25, Decatur, in command of the U. S. frigate United States, captured the 
British frigate -Macedonian. 

1S Sir Isaac Brock, K. C. B., in military command of the British forces in Upper Canada 
in 1812, and likewise provisional lieutenant governor of the Province, had attained the 
rank of Major General in June, 1811. An officer of energy and experience, he had cap- 
tured Detroit, August 16. He was killed in the affair at Queenstown, October J 3, follow- 
ing. Three days previously he had, because of his services at Detroit, been made an 
extra Knight of the Bath. 

136 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

for worms. They have been surrendering by ten thousands at 
a time, and at this Moment there are at least one hundred and 
fifty thousand of them in the power of the Emperor Alexander. 
From Moscow to Prussia, eight hundred miles of road have 
been strewed with his Artillery, Baggage-Waggons, Ammuni- 
tion-Chests, dead and dying men whom he has been forced to 
abandon to their fate. Pursued all the time by three large 
regular armies of a most embittered and exasperated Enemy, 
and by an almost numberless militia of peasants, stung by 
the destruction of their harvests and cottages which he had 
carried before him, and spurr'd to Revenge at once themselves, 
their Country and their Religion. To complete his disasters, 
the Season itself during the greatest part of his Retreat has 
been unusually rigorous even for this Northern Climate. So 
that it has become a sort of bye-word among the Common 
People here that the two Russian Generals who have conquered 
Napoleon and all his Marshals are General Famine and General 
Frost. There may be and probably is some exaggeration in 
the accounts which have been received and officially published 
here of the late Events; but where the realities are so certain 
and so momentous the temptation to exaggerate and misrep- 
resent almost vanishes. In all human probability the Career 
of Napoleon's conquests is at an end. France can no longer 
give the law to the Continent of Europe. How he will make 
up his account with Germany, the victim of his former suc- 
cessful rashness, and with France, who rewarded it with an 
Imperial Crown is now to be seen. The transition from the 
condition of France in June last to her present State is much 
greater than would be from the present to her defensive cam- 
paign against the Duke of Brunswick in 1792. A new Era 
is dawning upon Europe. The possibility of a more propitious 
prospect is discernible; but to the great disposer of Events only 
is it known whether this new Revolution is to be an opening 
for some alleviation to human misery or whether it is to be 
only a variation of Calamities. 

It is not without some Satisfaction that I have had the 
opportunity of being so near a witness to the great and decisive 
Events of the year now ending. It has been full of moral and 
political instruction. To the Russian armies and Generals it 
has also been a great military School; so great indeed as not 
altogether to leave reflection unconcerned what future uses 
may be made of what they have learnt; but as military in- 
struction is of little use to me I have only had in this respect 
the opportunity to observe the general features of the Cam- 
paign. Its results have presented nothing new. The Fabian 
system, which succeeded in our Revolutionary War, which 
Lord Wellington has with equal success adopted in Spain and 

1913.] Letters of John Quincy Adams. 137 

Portugal and which even in this Country had triumphed a 
Century before over Charles the twelfth of Sweden has again 
been signally triumphant over the Hero of the present age; 
but his errors have been so gross and flagrant that their con- 
sequences so fatal to himself can teach nothing to the military 
Student but what had been taught a thousand times b< U >■ 
It is not the present Disasters, it is the continuance of his 
former successes, which may hereafter excite the astonishment 
of posterity. ***** 

* * * * * "I have already mentioned that the season 
has been unusually rigorous. In the course of this month of 
December, we have had seventeen days in succession with 
Fahrenheit's thermometer almost invariably below 0. I now 
write you at that temperature, and notwithstanding the stoves 
and double windows my fingers can hardly hold the pen. The 
Sun rises at a quarter past 9 in the morning, and sets a quarter 
before 3 in the afternoon; so that we must live almost by Can- 
dle-light. We are all literally and really sick of the Climate. 
It is certainly contrary to the course of Nature, for men of the 
South to invade the Regions of the North. Napoleon should 
have thought of that. So should the visitors of Upper and 
Lower Canada — The Romans to be sure—but they were 
exceptions to all general rules." 

J. Q. A. to Mrs. John Adams. 

St. Petersburg, 30 January, 1813. 

* * * * * "Another month is drawing to a close, since 
I last wrote you, and I remain without a line from you or from 
any of my friends in America. The last letter from you that 
I have received was dated in April of the last year. * * * 

* * * * * "There are several Americans residing here, 
who continue to receive frequent letters from their friends at 
home. Through them and through the English Newspapers 
we collect the information of the most important events oc- 
curring on our side of the Water, and sometimes intelligence 
respecting persons of our friends or acquaintance. It is thus 
that we have seen the President's Message to Congress at the 
Commencement of the Session. Its view of the State of our 
affairs is upon the whole, cheering, though I cannot but la- 
ment the remoteness of the prospect which it presents of our 
restoration to Peace. 

The English Government and Nation have been told, and 
have probably believed that Mr. DeWitt Clinton would be 
elected President instead of Mr. Madison, and that he would 
instantly make peace with England upon English terms. 
Of the real issue of the Election we are here not yet informed; 
though accounts from the United States have reached us to 

138 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

late in November, and they lead us to expect Mr. Madison's 
re-election. 17 

I never entertained very sanguine hopes of success to our 
first military efforts by land. I did not indeed anticipate 
that within six months from the Commencement of the War 
they would make us the scorn and laughter of all Europe, and 
that our National Character would be saved from sinking 
beneath contempt, only by the exploits of our Navy upon the 
Ocean. Blessing upon the names of Isaac Hull and Decatur, 
and their brave Officers and Men! for enabling an American 
to hold up his head among the Nations! 18 — The capture of two 
British frigates successively, by American ships but little 
superior to them in force has not only been most profoundly 
felt in England, but has excited the attention of all Europe. 
It has gone far towards wiping away the disgrace of our two 
Surrenders in Canada. I believe if the English could have had 
their choice they would rather have lost Canada the first 
Campaign, than their two frigates as they have lost them. 
I hope and pray that the effect of these occurrences upon the 
national mind in our own Country will be as powerful as it 
has been in England, but with a different operation. After 
the news of the Guerriere 1 s capture, I saw an Article in the 
Times, a Wellesley Paper, written evidently under the im- 
pression of great alarm; and explicitly declaring that "a new 
Enemy to Great Britain had appeared upon the Ocean, which 
must instantly be crushed, or would become the most formidable 
Enemy to her naval supremacy with "which she ever had to 
contend. " We must rely upon it that this will be the prevail- 
ing sentiment of the British Nation. That we must instantly 

17 The Presidential election of 1812, occurring in the rnidat of the war with England, was 
closely contested. James Madison was a candidate for re-election, representing the so- 
called Republican party. De Witt Clinton of New York was the candidate of the Fed- 
eralist party. A change of twenty electoral votes would have turned the scale. The 
Federalists in Massachusetts had a majority of 24,000, and the Peace party swept the 
Congressional districts throughout New England and New York. Madison, however, 
received 128 votes in the Electoral College, out of a total of 217. 

18 The name Isaac was in this letter underscored and emphasized for an obvious reason: 
— "No experience of history ever went to the heart of New England more directly than 
this (Constitution-Guerriere) victory, so peculiarly its own; but the delight was not confined 
to New England, and extreme though it seemed it was still not extravagant, for however 
email the affair might appear on the general scale of the world's battles, it raised the 
United States in one half hour to the rank of a first-class Power in the world. 

"Hull's victory was not only dramatic in itself, but was also supremely fortunate in 
the moment it occurred. The Boston Patriot of September 2, which announced the cap- 
ture of the Guerriere announced in another column the melancholy intelligence of the 
surrender of General Hull and his whole army to the British General Brock. Isaac Hull 
was nephew to the unhappy General, and perhaps the shattered hulk of the Guerriere 
which the nephew left at the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean, eight hundred miles east of 
Boston, was worth for the moment the whole province which the uncle had lost, eight 
hundred miles to the westward." (Adams, United States, VI, 375-76.) 

1913.] Letters of John Quincy Adams. 139 

be crushed upon the Ocean — and unless our Spirit shall rise 
and expand in proportion to the pressure which they can and 
will apply to crush us, our first success will only serve more 
effectually to seal our ultimate ruin upon the Sea. 

The disproportion of force between us and Britain at Sea 
is so excessive that the very idea of a contest with her upon 
that Element has something in it of desperation. To her it 
is only ridiculous. Upon a late debate in the House of Peers, 
something having been said of the American Navy, Lord Bath- 
urst, one of the Ministers, told their Lordships that the Ameri- 
can Navy consisted of five frigates — and the House burst into 
a fit of laughter. These five frigates, however, have excited 
a sentiment quite different from laughter in the five hundred 
frigates of the British Navy; and if the American People will 
be as true to themselves as their little despised Navy has 
proved itself true to them, it is not in the gigantic power of 
Britain herself to crush us; neither instantly nor in any course 
of time, upon the Ocean. 

Hitherto, Fortune, or rather with a grateful Heart would I 
humbly say Providence, has favoured us in a signal manner. 
But we must not expect that our frigates will often have the 
luck of meeting single ships a little inferior in strength to them- 
selves, or of escaping from ships greatly superior to them. 
That they have not already all fallen into the Enemy's hands, 
is matter of surprize as well as of gratulation. Their situation 
during the present year will be still more critical than it has 
been the last, and as they have done honour to their Country 
by their conduct hitherto, I can only hope that their Country 
will in its turn feel the obligation of supporting them and their 
cause by exertions against which all the thunders of Britain 
will prove to be of no avail. 

The first wish of my heart is for Peace. But the Prospects 
of Peace, both in Europe and America, are more faint and 
distant than they have been for many years. War has in the 
course of the year 1812 consumed in the North of Europe alone, 
at least half a million of human lives, without producing the 
slightest indication in any of the parties engaged in it of a 
disposition to sheathe the sword." * * * 

J. Q. A. to Thomas Boylston Adams. 

St. Petersburg, 31 January, 1813. 
* * * * * "The English Government have declared a 
blockade of Chesapeake Bay and Delaware river. New York, 
and the Coast of New England they leave open. They follow 
Captain Henry's advice; just as at the beginning of our Revo- 
lutionary War, they disfranchised Boston in favour of Salem. 

140 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

The Spirit of 1775 seems to be extinct in New England, 13 but 
I hope the profligacy of British policy will not be more suc- 
cessful now than it was then. 

The War between us and them is now reduced to one point 
— Impressment! — A cause for which we should not have 
commenced a War, but without an arrangement of which our 
Government now say they cannot make Peace. If ever there 
was a just cause for War in the sight of Almighty God, this 
cause is on our side just. The essence of this Cause is on the 
British side Oppression, on our side personal liberty. We are 
fighting for the Sailor's Cause. The English Cause is the 
Press-gang . It seems to me that in the very Nature of this 
Cause we ought to find some resources for maintaining it, by 
operation upon the minds of our own Seamen, and upon those 
of the Adversary's. It is sometimes customary for the Com- 
manders of Ships to address their crews, on going into action; 
and to inspirit them by motives drawn from the cause they 
are called to support. In this War, when our Ships go into 
action, their Commanders have the best possible materials 
for cheering their men to extraordinary exertions of duty. 
How the English Admirals and Captains will acquit themselves 
on such occasions I can easily conjecture. But I fancy to 
myself a Captain telling them honestly that they are fighting 
for the Cause of Impressment. That having been most of 
them impressed themselves, in the face of every principle of 
Freedom, of which their Country boasted, they must all be 
sensible how just and how glorious the right of the Press-gang 
is, and how clear the right of practising it upon American Sail- 
ors as well as upon themselves must be. I think they will 
not very readily recur to such arguments. — No doubt they 
will keep them at their guns with others. But there may be 
times and occasions upon which the English Seaman may be 
made to understand for what he is to fight in this War, and 
when it may have its effect upon the Spirit with which he will 
fight. The English talk of the Seduction practiced by us upon 
their Seamen. There is a seduction in the very Nature of 
this Cause, which it would be .strange indeed if their 
Seamen were insensible to it. I have heard that many of 
their Seamen taken by us have shown a reluctance at being 
exchanged, from an unwillingness to be sent back to be im- 

l * In the presidential election of 1812 Vermont alone of the New England States threw 
its electoral vote in favor of Madison. New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island 
and Connecticut voted for DeWitt Clinton, the candidate of the Federal party. Clinton 
carried every electoral district of Massachusetts, the total popular vote being 50,333 for 
the Clinton electors and 26,110 for the Madison electors. In the Union at large, the 
South voted in favor of Madison, most of the North in favor of Clinton. The vote of 
Pennsylvania, — 25 for Madison — decided the election. New York threw its 29 electoral 
votes for Clinton. 

1913.] Letters of John Quihcy Adams. 141 

pressed again. A more admirable comment upon the charac- 
ter of the War could not be imagined. Prisoners who deem it 
a hardship to be exchanged! With what heart can they fight 
for the principle which is to rivet the chains of their own ser- 

I have been reading a multitude of speculations in the 
English Newspapers, about the capture of their two Frigates 
Guerriere and Macedonian. They have settled it that the 
American forty fours are line of battle-ships in disguise, and 
that henceforth all the frigates in the British Navy are to have 
the prilivege of running away from them ! 20 This of itself is 
no despicable result of the first half-year of War. Let it be 
once understood as a matter of course that every single frigate 
in the British Navy is to shrink from a contest with the large 
American frigates, and even this will have its effect upon the 
Spirits of the Tars on both sides. It differs a little from the 
time when the Guerriere went out with her name painted in 
Capitals on her fore top-sail, in search of our disguised line 
of battle-ship President: 21 

But the English Admiralty have further ordered the im- 
mediate construction of seventeen new frigates, to be disguised 
line of Battle ships too. Their paticular destination is to be 
to fight the Americans. Their numbers will be six to one 
against us, unless we too taking the hint from our success can 
build frigate for frigate and meet them on their own terms; 
in which case if our new ships are commanded and officered, 
and manned like the Constitution and United States and 

™ A circular to British naval officers was at this time issued by the Secretary of the 
Admiralty. It read as follows: "My Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty having 
received intelligence that several of the American ships of war are now at sea, I have their 
Lordships' commands to acquaint you therewith, and that they do not conceive that any 
of his Majesty's frigates should attempt to engage, single-handed, the larger class of 
American ships, which, though they may be called frigates, are of a size, complement and 
weight of metal much beyond that class and more resembling line-of-battle ships. ' 

"In the event of one of his Majesty's frigates under your orders falling in with one of 
these ships, his captain should endeavor in the first instance to secure the retreat of his 
Majesty's ship; but if he finds that he has an advantage in sailing he should endeavor to 
manoeuvre, and keep company with her, without coming to action, in the hope of falling 
in with some other of his Majesty's ships, with whose assistance the enemy might be 
attacked with a reasonable hope of success. 

"It is their Lordships' further directions that you make this known as soon as possible 
to the several captains commanding his Majesty's ships." (The Croker Papers, I, 44.) 

In a paper prepared by him on the American Navy, Rear -Admiral French Ensor 
Chadwick pronounces this "the finest tribute ever paid any navy." (Proceedings of 
the Massachusetts Historical Society for November, 1912, vol. 4d, pp. 207-208. 

21 This incident resulted from what was known as the affair of the Little Belt, already 
referred to. It was alleged at the time that the commander of the President had mistaken 
the Little Belt for the Guerriere, and consequently the Captain of the Guerriere, it is said, 
subsequently had the name painted as indicated in this letter, in order that in future there 
should be no possibility of mistake. See Adams, United States, vii, 14. 

142 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Wasp™ I am persuaded they will in process of time gain one 
step more upon the maxims of the British Navy, and settle 
it as a principle that single English ships are not to fight 
Americans of equal force. This much I believe it will be in 
their power to do. And further I wish them never to go. 
I hope they will never catch the insolent affectation of seeking 
Battle against superior force,— An English pretension which 
has been so well chastised in the fate of their two frigates. 

Our Navy, like all our other Institutions, is formed upon the 
English model. With regard to the Navy at least the superi- 
ority of that model to all others extant is incontestible. But 
in the British Navy itself there are a multitude of abuses 
against which we may guard, and there are many improve- 
ments of which it is susceptible, and for which the field is open 
before us. Our three 44 gun ships were originally built not as 
the English pretend for line of Battle ships, but to be a little 
more than a match in force to the largest European Frigates, 
and the experience both of our partial War with France., in 
1798, and 1799 as well as of our present War with England 
has proved the wisdom of the principle upon which they were 
constructed. It has been a great and momentous question 
among our Statesmen whether we should have any Navy or 
not. It will probably still be a great question, but Great 
Britain appears determined to solve all our doubts and diffi- 
culties upon the subject. She blockades our Coast, and is 
resolved to crush us instantly upon the Ocean. We must sink 

without a struggle, under her hand, or we must have a Navy.' ' 
* * * •* 

J. Q. A. to John Adams. 

St. Petersburg, 15 February, 1813. 
***** "The War in the North of Europe is for the 
present at an end. The dissolution of the Emperor Napoleon's 
Army is so complete, that the Russians, who have entered 
Prussia and the Duchy of Warsaw, advance even in the depth 
of an extremely severe Winter, without finding an Enemy to 
oppose them. They go as friends and deliverers, and say they 
are everywhere received as such; with joy and triumph. 
Napoleon has been now nearly two Months at Paris, where a 
popular fermentation menacing the whole foundation of his 
Government is said to be not very secretly working. A Peace 

a Reference is here made to the engagements between the frigates Constitution and 
Querriere, August 19; between the frigates United States and Macedonian, October 25; 
and between the Wasp and the Frolic, both eighteen-gun sloops of war, October 17, — 
all in 1812. The Wasp was commanded by Captain Jacob Jones of Delaware. The 
action lasted forty-three minutes, was desparately fought, and resulted in the capture of 
the Frolic. 



1913.] Letters of John Quincy Adams. 143 

and Alliance both with Austria and Prussia is expected here, 
and the Negotiations though not public are believed to be far 
advanced. The Emperor Alexander is with his army in the 
Duchy of Warsaw. " 

J. Q. A. to Mrs. John Adams. 

St. Petersburg, 18 February, 1813. 
" As I shall probably not have an opportunity of dispatching 
letters for America, after that of which I now avail myself, 
at least before the expiration of the present Month, and as I 
am unwilling to break through the rule which I prescribed to 
myself of writing to you, at least once every Month, I sit down 
to repeat to you, what only three clays since I wrote to my 
father, namely, that I have not seen the hand-writing of any 
one of my friends at Quincy dated later than last April." 
* * * * * " The War against the United States, appears 
to be now approved and supported by all parties in England; 
for the original Opposition to the present Administration, 
very weakly and very unjustly pledged themselves, to join 
Ministers upon this point of their policy, if the Revocation . of 
the Orders in Council should not satisfy the Americans. And 
now the Ministers and their friends hold them to their word. 
Some of their Parliamentary leaders are as wrong headed, and 
stiff-necked in support of the Press-gang as the Ministry them- 
selves, and the others dare not avow the disposition to com- 
promize this point, because John Bull among his whimsies 
has taken it into his head that his Trident is at Stake upon the 
question; and they think he will look with an evil-eye upon 
any one who advises him to abandon it. Cobbett is the only 
politician among them who has boldly and explicitly told his 
Nation that they never can have a solid Peace with America 
while they practice Empressment on board of American Vessels 
at Sea. But Cobbett is out of favour with all parties, and since 
he began to speak the language of truth and justice and hu- 
manity has lost all credit with his Countrymen. As to the 
fragments struck off from the Ministry, by their internal 
collisions, such as Wellesley and Canning, who form what was 
once called in America a Quid part}', they are among the bitter- 
est of our Enemies, and having been themselves the principal 
Causes of the War, very consistently say that nothing can be 
more just than a War with America now. But they are not 
at all satisfied with the conduct of the War. The Wellesley 
Gazette (the Times) abuses the Ministry for not having blown 
the American Navy to atoms, and Canning abuses them in 
Parliament for not having ravaged our Coast with fire and 
sword. They say in answer to the first that they gave orders 
to their Admirals on the American. Station to burn, sink and 

144 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

destroy all American vessels before the War began, and that 
they have constantly had on those American Stations, a force 
equal to seven times the whole American Navy. In answer to 
Canning, they had the grace to say, not in Parliament, but in 
the Courier, their Newspaper, that to ravage our Sea-Coast 
with fire and sword would be trespassing a little upon the laws 
of War, and that it would be spiteful. But notwithstanding 
this we may be assured they will follow Mr. Canning's pre- 
scription, if they can. 

The War against American Independence was for five years 
of its continuance one of the most popular Wars that the 
Nation ever waged; and it was seven before they could be con- 
vinced that they could not obtain by War the object of the 
War. Their real object in the present War is the dismember- 
ment of the American Union. Their professed object is the 
Press-gang. The War for the Press-gang will be as popular 
as the War against American Independence was, untill we 
can convince them that they cannot obtain by War, the object 
of the War. Were it possible to conceive that the success of 
the War, upon the Ocean, would for seven years correspond 
to that of the first six Months, my hopes would be sanguine, 
that they would eventually be completely defeated in both 
their objects, and that we should finally succeed in ours. But 
this cannot be expected. If our Country could expend in 
three years as many dollars, upon naval force, as they expend 
Pounds Sterling in one, I should hold our success for infalliale 
— but as it is the chances are too unequal. Providence may 
interpose in ways of its own to vindicate the righteous Cause, 
and I have had under my eyes the last half year a signal in- 
stance of such interposition. The Cause against the Press- 
gang is righteous if there ever was one since the hand of man 
was armed against oppression. The Cause of the Press-gang 
is doubly atrocious as a British Cause. Impressment, as a 
practice upon their own subjects and within their own Terri- 
tory, not only brands the Nation with the mark of the most 
odious despotism, but gives the lie to every pretence of Free- 
dom in their Constitution. And as if it were to show how far 
the absurdity of human iniquity could go, the Helots of Britain 
are their Sailors. The only Class of People subjected to the 
most unqualified servitude, robb'd of every right of personal 
liberty, kidnapp'd like African Negroes, without resource or 
relief in the tribunals of their Country, the out-laws of the 
Land, who have no Rights in the eyes of the Kings Judges, 
because they are stolen from their families, and employments, 
to serve the King, are precisely the Class of People who main- 
tain with their blood the power, and dignity and glory, nay, 
as their oppressors say, the existence of their Nation. They 



1913.] Letters of John Quincy Adams. 145 

talk of our practising seduction upon their Sailors. The charge 
is false and ridiculous. But in this War, it would be strange 
indeed, if there were not seduction to their Sailors, in the very 
nature of our Cause. Our War is the Sailor's War; it is surely 
enough if they force their seamen to die in battle for the Press- 
gang. If their men are human beings their hearts must be 
on our side. 

The War as far as the British professions can be trusted, is 
now reduced to this single point — What its issue will be must 
be left in the hands of him who scourges the vices and crimes 
of Nations by War, and who has sent this for our Chastisement 
as well as for that of our Enemies. At the thought of what my 
Country must suffer and go through before a rational prospect 
can open of her success in this Contest, my heart would sink 
within me, but for the reliance which I place in the divine 
goodness. There are great and glorious qualities in the human 
character, which as they can unfold themselves only in times 
of difficulty and danger, seem to make War from time to time 
a necessary evil among men. A Nation long at Peace seldom 
fails to become degraded. Symptoms of this species of Cor- 
ruption were very visible in our Country. Cod grant that in 
suffering the unavoidable calamities, we may recover in all 
their vigour the energies of War!" 

Mrs. John Adams to J. Q. A. 

Quincy, Febry 25, 1813. 
" Upon looking over my list, I find that I have written to you 
a letter every month, since October. My last letter was in 
January 21st, written immediately after receiving yours of 
Sepbr. 21, informing me of the loss of your dear babe. I 
wrote to Mrs. Adams at the same time; the letters went in a 
cartel to Liverpool, through the kindness of a friend. * * * 
I inclose to you the result of the election for president and vice- 
president. I could fill a dozen pages with the political affairs 
of our Country, with the disasters of our Irregular Army, the 
causes which produced them, and the effects which have fol- 
lowed them. Much of this you will get from the English 
newspapers, with as much of truth and accuracy as a French 
Bulletin. I lament that much of what you ought to know 
cannot be communicated to you. The channel through which 
this letter must pass wholly forbids it. But one thing I will 
tell you, and let the loud clarion of fame proclaim to the world 
the laurels won and the victories achieved by our naval com- 
manders. First in the triumph was Captain Hull in the 
frigate Constitution, who engaged and captured the British 
frigate Guerriere, making her a wreck, was obliged to blow her 
up. Capt. Jones in the Wasp sloop of war fought, dismasted, 

146 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

and took the British sloop of war the Frolic. Afterward both 
were taken by a 74. Commodore Decatur in the frigate U. S. 
captured the British frigate Macedonian, and brought her 
safely into N. York altho at a vast distance from home. Com- 
modore Bainbridge who took the command of the Constitution 
to enable Captain Hull to secure and make his own a prize, 
called the Hart, and for other private reasons; he suffered not 
the laurels won by Hull to fall upon his brow. He engaged, 
fought, and conquered the British frigate. Java, but was neces- 
sitated to blow her up. Landed her officers and crew at St. 
Salvador, the Captain soon died of the wounds he received. 
I have been concise for time would fail me to detail to you how 
these conquerors have been received, and the honours which 
have been conferred upon them by Legislatures and public 
bodies in the various States. . m In spight of all British partial- 
ities, American Blood exults in the trophies won. Alas! Alas! 
our 74s are yet in embrio, were they as they ought to have been, 
upon the ocean the Chesapeake would not now be in a state of 
blockade by a British squadron. For with equal force we have 
proved that our Countries wrongs can and will be avenged, 
our loss has been comparatively small. 

Tell it in Britain, proclaim it to the world, that the trident 
of Neptune has bowed to the valour and genius of Columbia, 
unless a speedy peace ensue, of which I see not any prospect. 
She is raising up a power, and a force which will humble her 
pride and share the ocean with her. 

Unto that Being who governs the destiny of Nations let 
us ascribe the glory, and ask for his support and guidance in 
the war in which we have engaged. 

I could tell you a tale which would raise your blood, would 
rouse your passions, would grieve your heart, and make you 
exclaim O my native State, how art thou fallen! 

Degenerate sons, return, return or sink in oblivion! May 
the waters of Lethe pass over you!" 

J. Q. A. to Mrs. John Adams. 

St. Petersburg, 27 February, 1813. 
"At length, after another interval of nearly seven Months 
since I had been favoured with the sight of a line from any of 
my friends at Quincy, yours of 29 July has come to hand. It 
is nearly seven Months old, but is more than three Months 
later than your last previous letter. * * * 
***** I have seen the English Regent's Declaration 
of War, issued according to English custom, many Months 
after the War began. It is a mawkish compound of direct 
falsehood and sophistical prevarication, but so well suited to 
English Palates that a letter from London tells me that it has 

1913.] Letters of John Quincy Adams. 147 

made the War with America popular, though it was not so 
before. Mr. Bull is so mortified at having been taken in by- 
Jonathan's Line of Battle-ships in disguise that he is actually 
cutting down seventy-four gun Ships, to disguise them into 
frigates too. A large Squadron under Lord Beauclerk is sent 
to reinforce the naval sea force in America, and spiteful as 
the idea of bombarding the American Seaports when Canning 
called for it in Parliament, was represented, it has not now been 
found reconcileable to the Laws of War, and is to be accom- 
plished. We shall see what they will gain by that. 

The success of the Russian arms, and the disasters of Lord 
Wellington, notwithstanding his famous Battle of Salamanca, 
have cooled the ardour in England for the cause of Spain. The 
noble Marquis went to Cadix to demand of the Cortes a new 
Military Organization of the whole Country, contrary to the 
Spanish Constitution, and lie wrote a letter to his Oflicers tell- 
ing them that his own army was the most disorderly and un- 
disciplined army that he ever saw. In their retreat from Bur- 
gos, they committed such horrible excesses upon the Country 
of which they were the magnanimous and disinterested defend- 
ers that the People abhorred them worse than the French. 
They say it was to save themselves from perishing by famine. 
There is danger that they will abandon the Spaniards to their 
Fate; but I hope not so soon after reproaching us, while we 
have kept Spain, and their own Army there from starving, with 
ungenerosity, for not joining them in their martial Quixotism. 

There is at present as little prospect of a general Peace in 
Europe as of a particular one, between the United States and 
England. The Russian Armies in Prussia and Poland have 
nothing now to do but to march forward. They meet no 
Enemy to oppose them. Warsaw is in their possession and Ber- 
lin will very shortly be so too; — Perhaps is already. Napoleon 
has a decree of his Senate, placing at his disposal 350,000 men, 
but a decree of the Senate does not make them. He has abated 
much of his destinating tone towards Russia, but apparently 
nothing of his pretensions." 

* J. Q. A. to Thomas Boylston Adams. 

St. Petersburg, 3 April, 1813. 
* * * * * " The Continent of Europe is just commencing 
the progress of a Counter Revolution the end of which it is 
yet impossible to foresee. .The frosts of Russia and Poland 
have struck at the roots of Napoleon's laurels and of his power. 
In September he entered Moscow as a Conqueror, and in 
March his Enemy took possession of his "good City" of Ham- 
burg. All Germany is in combustion. Prussia has deserted 
his banners, and rallies all the remnants of her force under the 

148 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

standard of Alexander. Denmark has implored Peace of 
England, her despoiler, and has been rejected. Austria ne- 
gotiates and dissembles, and aims probably to join at last the 
new Coalition against her antient foe, and France has the 
most imminent prospect of being reduced at least to her ante- 
revolutionary dimensions, and perhaps to the restoration of 
the Bourbons. Nothing less than this is now intended; and 
between this design and its accomplishment there is now noth- 
ing but the life and the Genius of Napoleon to interfere. For 
his Fortune has deserted him; and of his Genius independent 
of his Fortune, I have never entertained a very exalted opinion. 
Caesar was once in perhaps as great a strait as he now is and 
extricated himself from it. But to extricate himself he must 
possess greater resources of genius than were employed by 
Caesar, and I do not yet believe that he has them to display. " 

J. Q. A. to Mrs. John Adams. 

St. Petersburg, 7 April, 1813. 
"I know not whether it was generosity, or any other virtue, 
or merely a disposition to receive the postage, that induced 
the transmission of your favour of 30 December to Mr. 
Williams at London; for by him it was kindly forwarded to 
me, and on the first day of this month, to my inexpressible 
joy, came to hand. It was but so short a time before that I 
had received your letter of 29 July! — and excepting that, not 
a line from Quincy later than April of the last year. This 
last letter had apparently been opened, although the impres- 
sion of your Seal upon the wax was restored — 1 A circumstance 
which indicates that it was done in England, where they still 
affect the appearance of not breaking seals at the Post-Ofhce. 
On this Continent they are less scrupulous about forms. 
When they open letters, they break the seals, and do not take 
the trouble of restoring them. They send them open to their 
address. It reminds me of an anecdote I have lately met 
with of Prince Kaunitz when he was prime Minister of the 
Empress Maria Theresa. One of his clerks whose business it 
was to copy the opened letters, coming to foreign Ministers 
at Vienna, in the hurry of reclosing a dispatch to one of the 
Envoys, sent him his copy instead of the original. The En- 
voy went to Prince Kaunitz, showed him the copy that he had 
received, and complained that the original was withheld from 
him. The Prince immediately sent for the Clerk, severely 
reprimanded him in the Envoy's presence for his blunder, 
and directed him to bring instantaneously the original des- 
patch. The Clerk brought it accordingly, and the Prince gave 
it to the Envoy, with many apologies for the trouble occasioned 

1913.] Letters of John Quincy Adams. 149 

him by the Clerk's mistake, and assurances of his hope that it 
would never occur again. 

In the present state of the Relations between us and Britain, 
I have nothing to say, if they open letters to or from me which 
they get fairly into their hands. But I should think it more 
creditable to them if they did not attempt the imposition of 
restoring the impression of the Seals. * * * * 
* * * * * of Peace, unless eventually produced by a 
course and through a channel at which I have already hinted, 
I now utterly despair. Our new 74's and frigates will only 
protract and obstruct every prospect of Peace. The prodigies 
performed by our Apology for a Navy (to call it a Navy is too 
ridiculous) have had the same effect — and so have our disgraces 
in Canada. There is a National Spirit among the British 
which such successes and such defeats grasp at with equal 
eagerness to unite all parties against us. We are a more vir- 
tuous and less vicious People than the British; but of that 
National Spirit which is a political virtue of the highest order, 
we have much less than they. Under our present Adminis- 
tration I have no fear that we shall subscribe to a disgraceful 
and degrading Peace, and from the temper of the British Gov- 
ernment at this time, there is little expectation of any dis- 
position in them for any other. 

The conflagration of Moscow, and the sufferings of the Rus- 
sian Empire under the formidable invasion of the last Summer 
were awful visitations of Heaven, but they have been succeed- 
ed by prosperities and successes without example in modern 
History. The iron Crown of Napoleon, and his Imperial 
Crown, too, will henceforth be but crowns of thorns to him. 
His Violence and Injustice are recoiling upon his own head. 
Russia, Poland, Prussia, and all the North of Germany are 
delivered from his power, and the Cities of Lubeck and Ham- 
burg which had been formally annexed to the French Empire 
are already in Possession of the Russians. His internal Gov- 
ernment is convulsed even at Paris, and the pretensions of 
the House of Bourbon are again advanced, under the patron- 
age of the British Government, and perhaps of Russia. The 
situation of France has never been so precarious and in such 
imminent danger since the Duke of Brunswick's invasion of 
Champagne in 1792. And instead of universal monarchy, or 
even the preponderancy of power in Europe, she has now the 
prospect before her of being called again to contend for her 
antient boundaries. Whether the happiness of mankind or 
the Peace of the world will gain anything by this new Revolu- 
tion in the affairs of Europe is yet among the secrets of Provi- 
dence. That Russia should maintain and that Germany 
should recover their Independence; and that Spain, Portugal 


150 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

and Italy should have the same good fortune in the South is 
undoubtedly desirable, but when Ambition is controlled only 
by Ambition, and one boundless lust of domination is only 
exchanged for another, Humanity gains very little by the 
substitution. At present Russia is the arbitress of Europe. 
Of her Wisdom and Moderation I am not inclined to doubt. 
She has gloriously stood the trial of Adversity, which was 
severe but short. She has now the stronger test of Prosperity 
to endure. The character of her Sovereign promises much for 
the relief of our species. I trust he will not catch the infection 
of Passions which would only prolong the scenes of horror and 
devastation that have so long been desolating Europe." 

J. Q. A. to Mrs. John Adams. 

St. Petersburg, May 1, 1813. 
* * * * * "I have already learnt from English News- 
papers the arrival at New York of the Freeling Cartal in which 
Mr. Harris was a passenger. Whatever the President may 
determine concerning the dispatches of which he was the 
bearer, it will at least be decisive with regard to our prospects 
for the present year. That we should stay here is the least 
probable as well as the least desirable of the alternatives that 
I can anticipate. After my experience of four successive 
Russian Winters, I believe there is no person accustomed to 
mild climates, who would not be desirous of an opportunity 
to assure himself once more that in the changes of the seasons 
there is such a thing as Summer. We have formed no social 
attachments that can make us much regret the Country; and 
I have no employment here which can even afford me the 
consolation of being useful to my own. 

On the Continent of Europe, the year upon which we have 
entered promises to be as eventful and threatens to be as 
sanguinary as its last predecessor. But the scene of action 
and the cause are totally changed. The dream of universal 
Monarchy in France, which may have tickled the imagination 
of the Corsican, and which has so hideously haunted the 
fancies of his Enemies is forever past. France will not soon 
again appear in the character of an invader. She is herself 
invaded. The Hanseatic Cities are already lost. Holland 
in a few Months, perhaps in a few weeks will share the same 
fate. Prussia, from the most subservient of her allies, has 
become the most exasperated of her Enemies. Denmark has 
deserted her and is before this numbered with her foes. Aus- 
tria will in all probability very soon join the same side. A 
Swedish, Russian and British force commanded by a French 
General is destined to recover Hanover, and to restore Holland 
to the house of Orange; while at the same time Louis 18 has 

1913.] Letters of John Quincy Adams. 151 

issued a Declaration claiming anew the throne of France as 
his inheritance. To oppose all this Napoleon has little but 
the resources of a Genius, great only by success, and the rem- 
nant of a shattered military reputation. It is rumoured that 
he is collecting a large army upon the Rhine, but his troops 
will be mostly raw and inexperienced, and all of them dis- 
heartened. His present Disasters are so entirely imputable 
to himself that it can scarcely be said Fortune has abandoned 
him. There is so little in his personal character that can take 
hold of the affections of mankind that his destruction which is 
as certain as any human event that can be foretold, will leave 
no sympathizing feelings behind. But what will be the 
Fortunes of France, it is not so easy to foresee. If she takes 
back the Bourbons, she must take them from the hands of 
her Enemies. And with the Bourbons she must take condi- 
tions the most humiliating to her Pride; and at the price of 
sacrifices the most fatal to her Power. This is a point of view, 
by no means grateful to contemplation, but which cannot be 
overlooked. Louis 18 in his Declaration has promised to 
abolish the Laws of Conscription. A promise certainly well 
suited to the purposes of England; but which if accomplished, 
will make the Bourbons themselves when restored the mere 
puppets of foreign Powers, and France alternately a prey to 
all her neighbors. 

The reflection of the present State of things upon our own 
concerns is not auspicious. In the Spring-tide of success 
which has flowed with such an impetuous torrent in favour of 
the English almost from the moment of our Declaration of 
War, they have been gathering spirit and inveteracy, and 
unanimity, so that now the language of all their parties is, 
that we must be chastised into submission. The loss of three 
frigates and of more than five hundred Merchant vessels in 
six Months has only stimulated them to revenge, and our 
shameful failures in Canada have made them perfectly secure 
in the only quarter where they could have any reason to fear 
us. They have blockaded all our Ports from the Mississippi 
to New York inclusively, and the rest I suppose will soon fol- 
low. I hope our Country will prove herself equal to the trial 
that awaits her. — Peace is not to be expected. 

After a Winter more severe than I ever witnessed even in 
this Country we have had the compensation of an earlier 
Spring than is usual. The month of March was moderate and 
mild, and the river Neva broke up on the 11th of April New 
Style. We still have occasional frost and snow, but the Sum- 
mer is always reckoned from the dissolution of the River. 
This Event has always before been peculiarly interesting to us, 
because it opened our direct Communications with America. 

152 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Every week brought numbers of our Countrymen, and 
intelligence from our friends was always fresh. Our prospects 
have changed, and we shall see nothing of the American flag 
this Season. The opening of the River is accordingly a matter 
of indifference to us." 

J. Q. A. to Thomas Boylston Adams. 

St. Petersburg, 21 June, 1813. 
***** "Le moment ou je parte, est deja loin de moi. 1 
This would be the proper motto for the History of Europe 
during the last twelve Months. The succession of Events has 
been as momentous and rapid as it ever was at any period in 
the annals of the world. On the 24th of last June Napoleon 
at the head of at least 300,000 men entered upon the Russian 
Territory — in September he was at Moscow. In December 
he reached Paris, almost literally alone, and his immense host 
were fattening the crows, and bleaching the frozen fields of 
Russia and of Poland. In March the Russians were at Berlin 
and Dresden, Hamburg and Lubeck. On the first and second 
of May he met them at Lutzen, and at this moment, if for 
want of better information, I can believe common Report, he 
is in or on the borders of Silesia, with an armistice concluded, 
and a Russian and a Prussian Plenipotentiary at his Camp. 
Prussia from his Ally has become his most inveterate foe. 
Austria I am very positively assured has made the same evo- 
lution. But whether she has actually commenced hostilities 
or not is a problem which time only can solve. The public 
here are assured in the Gazettes that she has; while in the 
same Gazettes other Articles affirm that she is in concert 
with him, to convoke a General Congress of all Europe and 
the United States of America, to negotiate a general Peace. 
Hamburg in the course of a month has passed successively 
into the hands of Russian, Danish, Swedish, Danish again, 
and finally French troops. Sweden with a French General 
at the Head of her army, is in English pay to invade France. 
Denmark has been wavering between France and the Coalition, 
ready to take the side of the allies; spurned back into the- arms 
of France, and perhaps at this moment bombarded, and Con- 
greve rocketed again into submission to the allies. All is yet 
• a chaos of Confusion; through which the Elements are barely 
discernible of a plan attempted to be organized in concert 
between Russia, Sweden and England; and into which Austria, 
Prussia, and Denmark were drawn. Its first object was 
the dissolution of the Rhenish Confederation, and a reorgan- 
ization of the German Empire. Then it would seem Holland 
was to be restored to the House of Orange, and the Bourbons 
were to have as much of old France as a dismemberment to be 


1913.] Letters of John Quincy Adams. 153 

limited by the moderation of the allies might leave her. The 

(two Battles, of Lutzen, and of Bautzen, 23 though both officially 
declared here Victories of the allies, appear to have interposed 
some little obstacle to the immediate execution of this great 
plan. To the utter astonishment of all Europe, after a series 
of disasters which would have overwhelmed in irretrievable 
ruin the oldest and mightiest monarchy of the Globe, Napoleon 
returned to the field, as formidable as if no misfortune had 
befallen him. In the first Battle, he fought under great dis- 
advantages, and with an inferior force. The victory was 
perhaps equivocal on the day of the battle, but the next day 
the Russians and Prussians retreated. Three weeks after- 
wards, having received a reinforcement of 30,000 men, they 
fought another Battle of three days, the 19th, 20th, and 21st 
of May; upon the first and second days of which they again 
claim the victory; but acknowledge a retreat on the third 
A full Month has passed since the last event, and nothing 
official has been published here of subsequent occurrences. 
The rumor of an Armistice is very general, but the fact is not 
publicly acknowledged. It is not the custom here to publish 
any news but such as are agreeable. Of the consequences of 
the battle of Lutzen, nothing was known here untill English 
Newspapers came, containing the French official Relations. 
From the postponement of public acknowledgement that an 
armistice has been concluded, it is supposed that it was only 
for a few days, and that a renewal of hostilities will ensue. 
Great reinforcements were marching to join the Russian army. 
Austrian troops were asesmbling in Bohemia, to join the allies; 
and the success of a last effort to whip Denmark into the ranks 
of the Coalition was to be waited for. We know not even the 
time to which the Armistice was limited. The Reports are 
40 hours — 3 days — 15 days— 40 days— and we know not where 
the headquarters of either of the armies were." 

J. Q. A. to Mrs. John Adams. 

St. Petersburg, 19 July, 1813. 
******* " There are many circumstances which 
indicate a probability that an effort is now making to effect 
a general Peace in Europe. In the course of the last Winter, 
after the tremendous Catastrophe of the immense army that 


25 Liitzen, fought May 2, 1813, near Leipsic, Saxony, between the French under Na- 
poleon and the allies, Prussian and Russian, The French greatly predominated in num- 
bers, and claimed the victory; which, however proved fruitless. 

Bautzen, fought May 21, 1814, between the allies and the French, at a point some thirty 
miles east of Dresden, and about one hundred and fifty miles from Lutzen. It was 
another nominal French victory. In these two engagements the loss of Napoleon's 
army is computed as having been between forty and fifty thousand men. 

154 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

had invaded Russia, Austria offered her mediation to all the 
belligerent powers, and from having been an auxiliary to 
France, assumed a neutral position. The mediation was 
immediately accepted by France. It was not positively 
rejected by the others, but was treated as subordinate to an- 
other Negotiation to draw Austria into the new Coalition 
against France. Whether Austria had really promised to 
join the Coalition, or had only held out flattering hopes which 
the sanguine temper of the times had received as promises, 
certain it is that England, Russia, Prussia and Sweden did in 
the month of April expect with undoubting Confidence the 
Co-operation of Austria, to dissolve the Confederation of the 
Rhine; to recover Hanover and Holland; and to circumscribe 
France within her antient boundaries, if not even to restore 
the House of Bourbon. The Battle of Lutzen was claimed 
by both parties as a Victory, and was here celebrated as such 
by a Te Deum. But in its consequences it was the most 
important Victory ever won by Bonaparte — for it proved to 
all Europe that France was still able to cope with her Enemies, 
and even to make head against them. A second Battle three 
weeks after had a similar and more unequivocal result. Be- 
tween the first and second Battles Napoleon had proposed 
that a Congress should be assembled at Prague in Bohemia, 
to which all the powers at War, including the United States of 
America, should be invited to send Plenipotentiaries for the 
purpose of concluding a general Peace; and he offered to stip- 
ulate an Armistice, during the Negotiation. After the second 
Battle, Russia and Prussia, with the concurrence of Austria, 
accepted the proposition for an Armistice, limited however 
to the term of six weeks, probably with a view to receive the 
answer from England, whether she should choose to be rep- 
resented at the Congress or not. This Armistice is now on the 
point of expiring, but is said to have been prolonged for six 
weeks more. In the meantime Napoleon has quartered his 
army upon the Territory of his Enemy in Silesia, is levying 
a contribution upon Hamburg of about ten Millions of Dollars, 
is doubl}' fortifying all his positions upon the Elbe, and receiv- 
ing continual reinforcements to be prepared for renewing an 
offensive campaign. He has made sure of the aid and support 
of Denmark and Saxony, and strongly confirmed Austria in 
her propensities to neutrality. If the War should be renewed 
his prospects, though infinitely below those with which he 
invaded Russia, last Summer, will be far above those with 
which he entered upon the present Campaign in April. If 
the Congress should meet he will not have it in his power to 
give the law to Europe; but the Peace must be the effect of 
reciprocal and important concessions. 

1913.] Letters of John Quincy Adams. 155 

There has nothing occurred since the commencement of 
the French Revolution which has occasioned such astonish- 
ment throughout Europe as this state of things. There are 
many examples in History of the extraordinary defeat and 
annihilation of immensely powerful armies. But the reappear- 
ance of a second overpowering host, wtihin five Months after 

the dissolution of the first, is I believe without a parallel." 

* * * * 

J. Q. A. to Thomas Boylston Adams. 

St. Petersburg, 7 August, 1813. 

* * * * * "There has been at Midsummer a feeble 
attempt, or perhaps it would be more correct to say, the pre- 
tence of an attempt for the negotiation of a general Peace in 
Europe. It immediately succeeded the unexpected issue of the 
two Battles of Lutzen and Wurschen with which the Northern 
campaign of the present year commenced. Austria was with 
one hand offering the olive branch as Mediator, and with the 
other raising a most formidable armament to join the Coalition 
in an Alliance offensive and defensive against France. Her 
preparations were not quite completed, when Napoleon rushed 
into the field with so much precipitation and effect after the 
disasters of the last Winter. The two Battles had weakened 
and exhausted both the belligerent parties so much that a time 
for breathing from the work of butchery was necessary to 
both. Austria then in her mediating character talked of 
Peace. Napoleon very readily answered Peace. The allies 
strained so hard at the word that they have not yet distinctly, but they agreed to an Armistice, — first for 30 
hours — then for forty days, and finally for three weeks longer. 
The parties have all been employing the interval in prepara- 
tions to renew the War, in which Austria is now said to be 
ready to take her part. The term of the Armistice is six days 
Notice from the 10th of August, but we are told the hostilities 
between France and Austria will begin before that date. They 
may have begun at the moment while T am writing. The 
English victory in Spain has doubtless hastened the resolution 
of Austria to drop the Mask of Mediation. The storm is now 
bursting upon France in all its fury. It is however so late in 
the Season, that no very important progress is likely to be 
made by either party, in the short remnant of the present 
Season. None of them will I believe be ambitious of another 
Winter Campaign. 

We are anxiously waiting for intelligence from our own Coun- 
try—the latest we have is the unpleasant account of the loss 
of the Chesapeake Frigate. As usual we receive it first in its 
English garb, which we suppose to be as all our experience war- 



156 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

rants us in expecting, falsely coloured. It would be presump- 
tuous to hope, and perhaps worse than idle to wish that in 
every contest with such an Enemy upon the Ocean we should 
be blessed with a triumph; but unless the English narratives 
of this affair are gross misrepresentations, there must have 
been some mismanagement or want of skill on our part, to 
which they were more indebted for the victory than to their 
prowess, or even to the unfortunate chances of War. The 
capture of the Guerriere, the Macedonian, and the Java were 
obviously accomplished by good conduct no less than by val- 
our. I hope and believe that our gallant naval Wariors will 
not suffer themselves to be elated even by their unparalleled 
successes, into rashness — that in every defeat as well as in 
every victory they will find a lesson to make them more and 
more formidable to the foe. How formidable they are al- 
ready needs no other proof than the riot of exultation which 
the news of the Chesapeake's capture excited in England. 
Among the many motives which I have for lamenting the 
War in which we are involved, I have one great source of con- 
solation. There are energies in the Constitution of Man which 
a long protracted Peace always weakens, and sometimes ex- 
tinguishes altogether. Occasional War is one of the rigorous 
instruments in the hands of Providence to give tone to the 
character of Nations. We had in America too much of "the 
cankering of a calm World and a long Peace. " As Providence 
has seen fit now to visit us with the Calamity of War, it be- 
hooves us all, and most especially those whose opinions and 
examples have the greatest influence over those of the Nation, 
to direct the public Spirit towards those Virtues which it is 
the peculiar attribute of War to display. Of these, cool and 
deliberate Valour is the first and closely connected with it is 
the persevering Fortitude "not to be overcome" — the stead- 
fastness in adversity, which is superior to evil Fortune. We 
have a powerful, stubborn and insolent Enemy to deal with. 
The Event is with God — may it be the triumph of eternal 
Justice, and propitious to our Country!" 

J. Q. A. to Mrs. John Adams. 

St. Petersburg, 23 August, 1813. 
* * * * * "We are indeed never long without news of 
some kind or other from the United States; but the channel of 
its conveyance is such that it is not always welcome. The 
English Newspapers are always ready to tell us what we should 
desire not to know — they are seldom in haste to report any- 
thing that can be agreeable to us. . We have had one. oppor- 
tunity of hearing directly from the United States since the 
arrival of the Envoys. A vessel was dispatched from New 


1913.] Letters of John Quincy Adams. 157 

York in June, probably with English Passports, to bring 
General Moreau to Europe. He arrived at Gothenburg, 
about the 25th of July, and proceeded from thence to tiie 
Emporer Alexander's Head-Quarters. A Mr. Swienin, a 
Gentleman attached to the Russian Legation in America, 
came with him, and brought letters and Gazettes to 22 June. 
We had already heard by the way of England of the loss of 
the Chesapeake Frigate 24 — Prodigies cannot become objects of 
common occurrence. Our naval successes had so far exceeded 
all rational anticipation that we were in danger of being too 
much elated by them. The Fortune of War will maintain its 
supremacy and even where there is proportion between the 
forces of contending parties will favour sometimes one side 
and sometimes the other. Our Officers and Seamen have 
proved to us, and to the world, what they can and will do, if 
their Country will support them. But we are not to expect 
with five Frigates to make head permanently against the 
British Navy. 

We still continue to furnish materials for the merriment of 
mankind upon the land. 25 At the commencement of the War of 
our Revolution we committed blunders, and met with disasters 
enough; but there was more excuse for them then than there is 
now. Our means and resources were incomparably less, and 
we had infinitely more to accomplish than we have at present. 
We did then learn the art of War in the school of misfortune. 
A whole Generation has since passed away, and we have the 
same unpalatable lesson to learn again. The school has amply 
proved itself to be the same — God grant that its severe in- 
struction may not be lost upon us! 

The armistice in the North of Europe;, which was agreed 
upon at the beginning of June, has been successively prolonged 

u The action between the frigates Chesapeake and Shannon took place off Boston Light, 
Sunday, May 30, 1813, resulting in the capture of the American frigate. 

36 Reference ia here made to the badly conceived, inefficiently conducted and wholly 
futile military operations on the Northwestern frontier in Ohio and Indiana, and on the 
Lakes and upper St. Lawrence, during the early months of 1813. Thirty j'ears had then 
elapsed since the close of the War of Independence; and, in 1813, the national military 
service was gradually freeing itself from the inheritance of traditions and superannuated 
incompetents handed down from, or survivals of that struggle. A younger and more 
energetic set of leaders, of whom Winfield Scott was typical at the North as was Andrew 
Jackson at the South, were coming to the front. Their presence made itself felt during 
the last half of 1813, and throughout later military operations. These operations are, 
historically speaking, now forgotten; but, this correspondence is of value as illustrating 
contemporaneously the effect, on an American living abroad in an official capacity, 
produced by the performances of a small but efficient naval, and an equally small but 
inefficient military organization set suddenly in action under organic conditions tradi- 
tional in the United States. Half a century later the country went through a similar 
experience on a vastly increased scale, working out results through an almost incalcul- 
able waste of money and human lives. 

158 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

untill the 16th of this Month, and although a full week lias 
elapsed since the expiration of that term, it is yet unknown 
here whether a further prolongation of it has taken place, or 
whether the hostilities have recommenced. The armistice 
itself was very generally disapproved, and the passion for the 
renewal of the War is extreme. As the co-operation of Austria 
is relied upon with certainty, the interval during which hos- 
tilities have been suspended was employed in securing it. You 
cannot be surprized at the bitterness and exasperation against 
the French, and especially against Napoleon, which prevails 
in this Country; and as his last Winter's disasters had inspired 
a very sanguine hope of his destruction, they are now very 
unwilling to relinquish it. The first operations were so much 
more energetic and successful than had been foreseen by any 
body that for a time they threatened the disappointment of 
his Enemies; but the English Victory in Spain, and the entrance 
of Lord Wellington's army on the French Territory 26 has revived 
every flattering expectation, and placed his fate and that of 
France again upon the Chapter of Accidents." * * * * 

J. Q. A. to Mrs. John Adams. 

St. Petersburg, 21 September, 1813. 
"This day two Months have elapsed since Mr. Gallatin 
and Mr. Bayard arrived 27 and delivered to me your favours of 
5 and 23 April. Nothing later from you has yet come to hand. 
Very shortly after their arrival the ship Hannibal, belonging to 
Mr. Astor of New York arrived at Gothenburg. This vessel 
was furnished with a British licence with a permission even to 
bring a Cargo, and to carry one back in return — all in Consider- 
ation of a passenger whom she conveyed to Europe. The 
passenger was General Moreau. She sailed from New York 
the 22d of June, and he landed at Gothenburg the 25th of 
July. One of his fellow passengers who had a special charge 
to accompany him, wrote a letter to a friend here, which I 
have heard read, expressing an opinion that the voyage had 
been so short and prosperous, by the particular smiles of 
Providence upon the purpose for which he came. From Gothen- 
burg General Moreau crossed the Baltic, and landed at Stral- 

*« Wellington had defeated the French at Vittoria, June 22d, and in the battle of the 
Pyrenees, August 4. He did not, however, cross the Bidosa, entering France, until 
October 7. 

J7 In consequence of au offer of mediation between the United States and Great Britain 
made by Alexander II in March, 1813, Messrs. James A. Bayard, of Delaware, and Albert 
Gallatin of Pennsylvania, at the time Secretary of the Treasury in the Madison cabinet, 
were appointed special commissioners to carry on the proposed negotiation. They sailed 
from Newcastle, Delaware, May 9 and reached St. Petersburg, July 21. Mr. Adams 
was associated with them in the commission. 

1913.] Letters of John Quincy Adams. 159 

sund, where he had an affecting interview with the Crown 
Prince of Sweden, another French General now commanding 
an army against France. General Moreau then proceeded to 
the Emperor Alexander's Head-Quarters, and arrived at 
Prague, precisely at the moment when the two Emperors of 
Russia, and of Austria, were meeting to commence the Cam- 
paign of the new Coalition against Napoleon. This was the 
15th of August. The 16th was the clay upon which the Armis- 
tice was to terminate; and on the 10th the Austrian declara- 
tion of War against France had been delivered to the French 
Ambassador at Prague. On the 17th hostilities were to com- 
mence. General Moreau entered the Russian service, and was 
appointed first Aid de Camp General to the Emperor Alex- 
ander. On the 22d he wrote from the Emperor's Head-Quar- 
ters a letter, which I have read. It said that he had come to 
fight against Bonaparte, and that he should do it without the 
slightest repugnance. That if he contributed to the overthrow 
of Bonaparte he should have the thanks of France as well as 
of the rest of Europe. That if the Coalition had destroyed 
Robespierre, France would have thanked them for it. That 
the Banner is of little consequence when a man succeeds. 
Three days afterwards the allied Austrian Russian and Prus- 
sian main Army invaded Saxony from Bohemia, and on the 
26th of August they were at the gates of Dresden. On the 
27th Napoleon with 100,000 men went out from Dresden and 
gave them Battle. A Cannon-Bali took both the feet of 
General Moreau from under him, and shattered both his legs 
so that on the same day he was obliged to undergo the ampu- 
tation of them both. The movements of the armies made it 
necessary to remove him in this Condition to Toplitz, where he 
died on the 2d of this Month, greatly regretted by the Sover- 
eign to whom his services had just been devoted, and at whose 
side he fell. 

He was in arms against his native Country. Although I 
do not Subscribe to the British doctrine of unalienable alle- 
giance in the extent to which they wish to drive it in their 
disputes and Wars with us, I do consider that very great 
and weighty causes are essential to justify a Man for bearing 
arms against his native Country. That there were causes 
sufficient for his justification is to say the least extremely 
questionable. He probably was not formally bound in Alle- 
giance to Napoleon, and might perhaps have cause of com- 
plaint against his Country. But from the time of his first 
participation in the intrigues to restore the Bourbons in 1795 
and his accusation of Pichagru, with whom he had been con- 
cerned in them, I have always considered him as a man who 
thought success the only standard of virtue. This is always 


ICO American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

the maxim of wavering, unsteady characters. It is a principle 
in itself so loose and unsettled that it almost always finishes 
by betraying those who confide in it. Moreau has often been 
heard to declare that he never would take up arms against 
France. He had declined proposals previously made to him, 
when the prospect of success was not so bright. With the 
change of his Country's Fortune, his aversion to fight against 
her disappears. He comes five thousand Miles to join the 
standard of her Enemies; and one of the first Cannon-Bails 
that is fired sends him to his Account, a memorable warning 
to others not to judge of the moral merit of the Banner, by 
success. Eight days after he was dead a long elaborate article 
in the Gazette of this City assured the world that Providence 
had preserved the life of Moreau through thousands of dangers, 
in Battles, through conspiracies, amidst plagues, and over 
Oceans, to make him the instrument of some great and extra- 
ordinary purpose of beneficence to mankind. 

Providence did not intend to make him any longer the in- 
strument of any purpose, either merciful or afflictive. But it 
has manifested in the most unequivocal manner the intention 
of turning the tide of success. If success were the standard 
of excellence what mortal since the Creation of the World had 
for a compass of twenty years such signal proofs of the favour 
of Providence as Napoleon. He too fancied himself more 
than mortal. He dreamt that he was the dispenser of destiny 
to mankind. It would seem that even yet he has not awaked 
from his dream. He left one immense army to fatten the 
region kites of Russia, and another is now perishing under his 
hands, by the sword of his Enemies and by famine. All 
Europe is now conjured against him. His inflexible Spirit 
has bid defiance to Austria, in addition to all those he had 
before. But his means of resistance are sinking under him, 
and since the renewal of the War he has been defeated in al- 
most every quarter. His armies are disheartened. He is 
surrounded with disaffection and treachery. His Enemies 
are flushed with success; embittered by the remembrance of 
former losses, and struggling with desperation for their own 
existence, "What is it, (says the son of Sirach) if one be 
highly famed? yet is it known that he is but a man; neither 
may he contend with him that is mightier than he." 

Mr. Gallatin and Mr. Bayard are still here, waiting for a 
definitive answer from England, whether the British Govern- 
ment will treat under the Russian Mediation or not. In the 
meantime the Accounts from America leave them in suspense 
and under an uncertainty whether the Senate have confirmed 
the nominations to this Commission. The news which we 
receive respecting the progress of the War is less favourable 

1913.] Letters of John Quincy Adams. 161 

than we had anticipated, and we hear of the opposition from 
Massachusetts in all its vehemence. I approve much of your 
principle never to despond, and hope for an improving fu- 
turity." * * * * 

J. Q. A. to Mrs. John Adams. 

St. Petersburg, 25 October, 1813. 
* * * * * "Although I am. duly sensible to the gentle- 
manly politeness of Sir John Sherbrook, 28 in permitting my 
letters to be transmitted to you, I do not wish to give him the 
trouble to peruse any more of my Epistles, or to write any 
adapted for his perusal. Yet I see not why I should withhold 
my Opinions upon some of the subjects mentioned in your 
letters. For instance — 

I am not of Opinion with the Senate of Massachusetts that 
the present War is waged on the part of the United States 
without justifiable Cause — as little am I of their Opinion that 
it has been prosecuted in a manner indicating that Conquest 
and Ambition are its real motives. 29 But if I concurred with 
them in both those Opinions, I should still from the bottom of 
my Soul disclaim the conclusion which the said Honourable 
Senate have drawn from it and declared to be their sense — 
to wit that it is not becoming a Moral and Religious People 
to express any approbation of Military or Naval Exploits,' 
which are not immediately connected with the defence of our 
Sea-Coast and Soil. 

A Moral and Religious People are bound in sacred duty to 
express approbation of military or naval exploits performed 
in their service even although the Senate of Massachusetts 
should think the War unjust — even though the War should 
be really unjust — provided that they who performed the 
exploits believed it to be just. The Virtue of all Action de- 
pends upon the motives of the actor, and it is neither moral 

28 Sir John Coape Sherbrooke, Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia. Subsequently 
(1810-1818) he was Captain General and Governor in Chief of Canada. At the time in 
question he was very active in the performance of his duties in connection with British 
military and naval operations in the war with the United States. 

29 Reference is here made to a report drawn up by Josiah Quincy, then a member of the 
Senate of Massachusetts, concluding as follows: "And to the end that all misrepresen- 
tations on this subject may be obviated, — 

Resolved, as the sense of the Senate of Massachusetts, that in a war like the present, 
waged without justifiable cause, and prosecuted in a manner which indicates that con- 
quest and ambition are its real motives, it is not becoming a moral and religious people 
to express any approbation of military or naval exploits which are not immediately con- 
nected with the defence of our sea-coast and soil." 

The particular naval exploit in question was the engagement between the sloop-of-war 
Hornet, commanded by Captain James Lawrence, and the sloop-of-war Peacock, off the 
Demarara River, February 24, 1813. The Hornet had sunk the Peacock as the result of 
one broadside. 

162 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

nor religious to take Mr. Quincy's opinion as to the Justice 
of the Cause for a standard to measure the merit of exploits 
achieved by Hull, Decatur, and Bainbridge. There is a Book 
much esteemed by moral and religious men, which says "who 
art thou that judgest another man's servant? to his own Mas- 
ter he standeth qr falleth." 30 If I could degrade myself in my 
own mind, and sink deep enough into the kennels of faction 
to embrace the opinion that the redemption of my sea-faring 
Countrymen from the accursed oppression of British Press- 
gangs is not a justifiable cause of War, I should still think it 
possible that other men, quite as patriotic as myself might 
be of a different opinion. And when I saw such men display- 
ing Heroic Virtue in support of their Country's Cause and 
sealing the sincerity of their belief with their blood, I should, 
feel and would express approbation of their exploits, unless 
with the loss of all sense of my Country's Rights I had also 
lost all sense of Morals, Religion and Truth. 

I had seen some weeks since in the English Newspapers this 
pious Resolution; but I never thought much of its ingenuity, 
even as a party measure — I knew very well that it could dis- 
grace none but those who voted for it. I knew very well that 
if the exploits should continue to be achieved, the Moral and 
Religious People would not ask Mr. Quincy or the Senate of 
Massachusetts for permission to express their approbation of 
them; and if the deed of glory was performed, I cared very 
little whether Mr. Quincy or the Senate of Massachusetts 
expressed their approbation of it or not. The approbation 
which avowedly hangs the Virtue of one man upon the motives 
of another is too worthless to be an object of desire to men of 
real Honour, Morals, or Religion. 

Since I began this letter, I have seen the National Intelli- 
gencers of 3 and 5 August containing all the proceedings of 
the U. S. Senate upon the nominations to the Russian Mission; 
and the projected Mission to Sweden. The situation in which 
these transactions place us is a little awkward; but we have yet 
no official information of the Event. We have no reason to 
expect that the British Government will treat at all under the 
Mediation; but Mr. Gallatin and Mr. Bayard have hitherto 
been waiting here for a final answer from England, which 
has not yet been received. They have at their disposal the 
, ship in which they came and intended to send her round to 
Gothenburg before the freezing of the river here. Her de- 
parture has however been so long delayed that it is not certain 
she will now be able to get away. We have the ground al- 
ready covered with snow, and Fahrenheit's thermometer at 

10 Romans xiv, 4. 

1913.] Letters of John Quincy Adams. 163 

ten degrees below the freezing point. Four of five days of 
such weather will lock us up for the winter." * * * * 

J. Q. A. to Mrs. John Adams. 

St. Petersburg, 19 November, 1813. 

* * * * * "Since the renewal of the War in Germany 
the odds of force have been too decisive against the French, 
and the catastrophe of their Army has been nearly equal to 
that of the last year. Naj)oleon himself has been defeated 
and overpowered by the four combined armies of Austria, 
Russia, Prussia and Sweden, and on the 19th of October es- 
caped from Leipzig leaving his ally the king of Saxony a Pris- 
oner, more than twenty of his Generals, and forty thousand 
men also prisoners, and 400 pieces of Cannon, Ammunition, 
baggage, etc., in proportion to the conquerors. All his other 
German Allies have deserted him and taken side against him; 
the Austrians are advancing in Italy, and Lord Wellington 
with his English, Spaniards and Portugese, are invading 
France from the Pyrenees. " * * * 

J. Q. A. to Mrs. John Adams. 

St. Petersburg, 17 January, 1814. 

* * * * * u your letter of 14 July is still the latest date 
that I have directly from the United States. The only intelli- 
gence that we receive from home is that which comes to us in 
the English Newspapers; and how much of that is falsehood 
or misrepresentation we infer not only from the general charac- 
ter of all paragraph-news in the British Prints, but from the 
lies which they have told about ourselves. Some time ago, 
they stated that the American Envoys had asked to go to the 
Emperor Alexander's Head-Quarters, and had been refused— 
the Emperor alledging that there were no suitable accommo- 
dations for their Excellencies. Since then they have asserted 
that Lord Walpole had declared to this Government that the 
British Ministry having rejected their Mediation would be 
well pleased that the American Envoys should be dismissed, 
and that he was instructed to say so. Both these paragraphs 
are totally unfounded. We have good reason to conclude that 
almost all their news from America is equally distorted from 
the truth. They have not been able however to suppress the 
Event of the naval Action upon lake Erie. 31 I have not seen 
Commodore Perry's account of that affair, but it has been pub- 
lished in the English Papers, and Sir George Prevost's letter 
announcing it to his Government contains a Circumstance 

81 The naval battle on Lake Erie, known as "Perry's victory," took place September 
10, 1813. 

164 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

certainly not intended by him to honour his Enemy, but to 
which the annals of English Naval glory will not readily fur- 
nish a parallel. He says that he has the knowledge of the 
facts, only from the American Commodore's Dispatch, pub- 
lished in the American Papers. — That he himself has no official 
Report of it, and can expect none for a very long time, the 
British Commander and all his officers having been either killed 
or so disabled that there was not one left to tell the tale. 

This same Sir G. Prevost, and Sir James L. Yeo, the Brit- 
ish Commander on Lake Ontario, in their official Reports, have 
charged Commodore Chauncey's squadron with want of spirit. 
I believe it to be a mere Hectoring Bravado on the part of 
Yeo, and I pray as fervently as Sir George himself that Yeo 
may have had his opportunity of meeting Chauncey, and not 
the opportunity of running away from it. We have the ac- 
count of Proctor's retreat, and a Report that his whole force 
excepting himself and about fifty of his men had been destroyed 
or taken. But of this hitherto no official confirmation. 

From the style and tone of Sir G. Prevost' s dispatches I 
suspect he has very much exaggerated the forces of Gen. Wil- 
kinson, Hampton and Harrison, opposed against him. If he 
has not, they ought before this to have given a good account 
of him and his Province. But experience has taught me to 
distrust our land-operations, and I wait with an anxiety pre- 
dominating over my hopes, the further accounts that must 
soon be received concerning them. 

One of the advantages which we may derive from this War, 
(and from so great an evil we ought to extract all the good we 
possibly can) is that of acquiring military skill, discipline, and 
experience. No Nation can enjoy Freedom and Independence 
without being always prepared to defend them by force of 
Arms. Our military incapacity when this War commenced 
was so great that a few more years of Peace would have ex- 
tinguished every spark of martial ardour among us. All our 
first attempts upon Canada were but sources of humiliation 
to us. The performances of the year just now elapsed, so far 
as we know them, have certainly been less disgraceful, and in 
some particulars have been highly honourable; — there is yet 
much room and much occasion for improvement. God grant 
that it may not be lost. 

If I fill the pages of my letters to you with American Neivs, 
it will indicate to you the subject nearest my heart. The great 
Scenes of action in Europe are now so remote from this Coun- 
try that the knowledge of them will reach the United States 
nearly as soon as we receive it here. After all the bloody 
Tragedies which have been acting on the face of Europe these 
two and twenty years, France is to receive the Law and Con- 


1913.] Letters of John Quincy Adams. 165 

stitution from the most inveterate of her Enemies. She abused 
her hour of Prosperity to such Excess, that she has not a friend 
left to support her in the reverse of her Fortune. What the 
present Coalition will do with her is yet very uncertain; but 
there is no question in my Mind that they will do with her 
what they please. ********* a \v r e have 
during the last three weeks a thorough sample of the Russian 
Winter; and one of the coldest days ever known at St. Peters- 
burg. Fahrenheit's Thermometer was 35J/2 degrees below 
(67H below the freezing point) at 6 in the Morning. 32 below 
at 2 P. M. with a bright Sunshine, and 37 below at 10 in 
the Evening. Mr. Bayard begins to think it colder here than 
at Wilmington. We are all well." 

J. Q. A. to A. A. 

St. Petersburg, 1 February, 1814. 
***** "Just before Messrs. Gallatin and Bayard 
took their departure the weather became moderate, and has 
continued so ever since. As they are travelling South, to- 
wards more merciful climates they have had the most favour- 
able time that this Winter has afforded to get beyond the reach 
of its rigours. For five and twenty days before they left us, 
with the exception of six or eight hours, one day, the ther- 
mometer had been lower than the extremest cold that I had 
witnessed in three Winters at Washington. It was the longest 
and the severest succession of Cold that I have ever known 
even here. I hope and trust that it was the Heart of the 
present Winter, and that henceforth we may expect a milder 
temperature. The Month of January has indeed according 
to our uniform experience been the most trying part of the 
Season in respect to the cold; because it is then unremitting. 
Before and afterwards there are many sharp nights, and 
occasional severe days. But not for three weeks at a time. In 
December there is more darkness than Cold; and in February 
the influence of the Sun begins to be felt. For the two Cir- 
cumstances which make it possible for human life to exist in 
a State of the atmosphere which freezes quick-silver, are that 
the sky at such times is invariably clear, and the air a perfect 

Since I wrote you last we have no American news whatso- 
ever. But of European news there is a great abundance, and 
a very rapid succession. The allies after making Propositions 
to France for the Negotiation of Peace, and acknowledging the 
neutrality of Switzerand have nevertheless entered France by 
the way of Switzerland; taken possession of Geneva, and un- 
doubtedly, before this, of Lyons. They are also in possession 
of the whole Province of Alsaca, and Lord Wellington main- 

166 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

tains himself in the neighbourhood of Bayonne. The decrees 
for raising the new Conscriptions in France have in many 
placed failed of Execution, and that Country after having been 
twenty years the terror of Europe, appears now so destitute of 
all means of self-defence that it is falling almost without an 
effort of resistance into the hands of the coalesced Powers. As 
they have adopted among themselves one of the most inflam- 
matory of the Revolutionary heores, they have learnt from him 
to talk the language of the Revolution, and while they are 
carrying fire and the sword into the heart of France, they pro- 
claim themselves the best of all possible friends to the French 
People, and making the extermination of Bonaparte the great 
and only pretence for continuing the War. Denmark has been 
compelled to make her Peace, by the Cession of Norway to 
Sweden, in return for which she receives Swedish Pomerania. 
It is something like the exchange of armour between two of 
Homer's Heroes — a shield of brass for a shield of gold. Homer 
says that the one who gave the golden shield was struck at the 
moment with a fit of Folly. But his translator, Pope, makes 
it a fit of generosity. Denmark however in this transaction 
has to charge herself neither with folly nor generosity. Neces- 
sity, dire Necessity, has been her motive and must be her 
justification. She has been plundered for the benefit of 
Europe's Independence. " * * * * 

J. Q. A. to Thomas Boylston Adams. 

St. Petersburg, 24 January, 1814. 
***** "The Events of the last two years opened 
a new prospect to all Europe, and have discoyeied the glassy 
been acquired by Wisdom, it might have been consolidated 
by Time and the most ordinary portion of Prudence. The 
Emporer Napoleon says that he was never seduced by Pros- 
perity; but when he comes to be judged impartially by 
Posterity, that will not be their sentence. His Fortune will 
be among the Wonders of the age in which he has lived. His 
Military Talent and Genius wjll place him high in the Rank 
of Great Captains; but his intemperate Passion, his presump- 
tuous Insolence, and his Spanish and Russian Wars, will 
reduce him very nearly to the level of ordinary Men. At all 
Events he will be one of the standing examples of human 
Vicissitude — ranged, not among the Alexanders, Caesars and 
Charlemains, but among the Hannibals, Pompeys and Charles 
the 12ths. I believe his Romance is drawing towards its close; 
and that he will soon cease even to yield a pretext for the War 
against France. England alone will be "afraid of the Gun- 
powder Percy, though he should be dead." 32 

« Henry iv, Part i, Act v, Scene 4. 


Letters of John Quincy Adams. 


J. Q. A. to Mrs. John Adams. 

St. Petersburg, 30 March, 1814. 
* * * * * "From the continual chain of unexpected and 
unexampled success, which has been attending the British 
Cause in Arms, and in Negotiation from the hour that their 
War with us commenced, we have any tiling to anticipate but 
a spirit of concession in them. They have little to boast of 
in the progress of their War with us hitherto, but the chances 
of War have all turned up prizes to them everywhere else. 
France after having been twenty Years the Dictatress of Eu- 
rope has now in the course of two Campaigns been brought 
completely at the feet of those Enemies whom she had so often 
vanquished and so long oppressed. Six weeks ago an allied 
army of at least three hundred thousand men was within two 
days easy march of Paris, and by the latest Accounts received 
from thence, was again within the same distance, or nearer. 
In the interval they had met with some opposition which oc- 
casioned a momentary check upon their Operations, and a 
short retreat to concentrate their forces. There is little reason 
to doubt that they are at this moment in possession of Paris, 
and that the Empire of Napoleon is in the Paradise of Fools. 
While the Allies were in the Heart of France a Negotiation as 
hypocritical and fallacious as the Congress of Prague, was 
affected to be opened at Chatillon, without any intention per- 
haps on any side, certainly not on the side of the Allies, that 
it should result in a Peace. Their object is in giving Peace to 
France to make her at the same time a present of the Bour- 
bons, but even in the extremity to which France is reduced 
there have been very few and trifling manifestations of a dis- 
position in any part of her People to receive them. . 

As I am in daily expectation of receiving the order to repair 
to Gothenburg, I may possibly be there as soon as this Letter, 
or be obliged to take it on there with me. It is now of the 
whole year the worst time for undertaking the Journey, and 
the passage of the Gulph between this and Sweden will prob- 
ably for some weeks be impracticable. It is however very 
doubtful whether I shall be able to go before the breaking up 
of the Sea; in which case I shall endeavour to get a passage 
directly by Water. But the Navigation from hence is very 
seldom open before the first of June." * * * * 

J. Q. A. to Mrs. John Adams. 

St. Petersburg, 26 April, 1814. 
* * * * * "It was but yesterday that the official news 
of the taking of Paris by the allies was received and this Even- 
ing there is a splendid Illumination of this City for that Event. 

168 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

The Emperor Alexander has proclaimed for himself and the 
allies that they will never treat again for Peace with Napoleon 
Bonaparte or any of his Family. That they will acknowledge 
and guarantee the Constitution which France shall give her- 
self; and will grant more favorable terms of Peace to her under 
Government than they would have done to Bonaparte. It 
is impossible to deny that this man has deserved his fate, and 
that no fate can be too severe for what he has deserved. The 
humiliation that he has so wantonly brought down upon this 
Nation may be a useful lesson to them, and a security for the 
rest of Europe. But I take no pleasure in witnessing the last 
Agonies of a Great Man, hunted to Death by Millions of little 
ones; nor in seeing a Nation like France forced to take a Con- 
stitution and a Sovereign at the dictate of her most inveterate 
Enemies. And I wait for some confirmation of fact, to judge 
in what the Moderation, the Generosity and the Magnanimity 
of the Allies towards France will terminate. " 

J. Q. A. to Mrs. John Adams. 

Reval, 12 May, 1814. 
* * * * * "The Coalition of all Europe against France 
has at length been crowned with complete success. The 
annals of the World do not I believe furnish an example of such 
a reverse of Fortune as that Nation has experienced within the 
last two years. The interposition of Providence to produce 
this mighty change has been so signal, so peculiar, so distinct 
from all human co-operation, that in ages less addicted to 
superstition than the present it might have been considered 
as miraculous. As a Judgment of Heaven, it will undoubtedly 
be considered by all pious Minds now and hereafter; and I 
cannot but indulge the Hope that it opens a Prospect of at 
least more Tranquility and Security to the civilized part of 
Mankind than they have enjoyed the last half Century. 
France for the last twenty-five Years has been the scourge of 
Europe; in every change of her Government she has manifested 
the same ambitious, domineering oppressive and rapacious 
Spirit to all her Neighbours. She has now fallen a wretched 
and helpless victim into their hands — dethroning the Sovereign 
she had chosen, and taking back the family she had expelled, 
at their command ; and ready to be dismembered and parceled 
out as the Resentment or the Generosity of her Conquerors 
shall determine. The final Result is now universally, and in 
a great degree justly imputable to one Man. Had Napoleon 
Bonaparte, with his extraordinary Genius, and transcendent 
military talents, possessed an ordinary portion of Judgment 
or common Sense, France might have been for ages the pre- 
ponderating Power in Europe, and he might have transmitted 

1913.] Letters of John Quincy Adams. 169 

to his Posterity the most powerful Empire upon Earth, and a 
name to stand by the side of Alexander, Caesar and Charle- 
magne — A name surrounded by such a blaze of Glory as to 
blind the eyes of all humankind to the baseness of its origin 
and even to the blood with which it would still have been pol- 
luted. But if the Catastrophe is the work of one Man, it was 
the Spirit of the Times and of the Nation, which brqught for- 
ward that Man, and concentrated in his person and character 
the whole issue of the Revolution. "Oh! it is Sport, 
(says Shakespear) to see the Engineer hoist by his own petard. " 
The sufferings of Europe are compensated and avenged in the 
humiliation of France. It is now to be seen what use the 
avengers will make of their Victory. I place great reliance 
upon the Moderation, Equity, and Humanity of the Emperor 
Alexander, and I freely confess I have confidence in Nothing- 
else. The allies of the Continent must be governed entirely 
by him, and as his resentments must be sufficiently gratified 
by the plenitude of his success and the irretrievable downfall 
of his Enemy, I hope and wish to believe that lie has discerned 
the true path of Glory, open before him, and that he will 
prove inaccessible to all the interested views, and rancorous 
passions of his associates. The great danger of the present 
moment appears to me to be that the policy of crippling France 
to guard against her future power will be carried too far. Of 
the dispositions of England there can be no question; of those 
which will stimulate all the immediate neighbours of France 
there can be as little doubt; and France can have so little to 
say or to do for herself that she begins by taking the Sovereign 
who is to seal her doom from the hands of her Enemies. The 
real part for the Emperor Alexander now to perform is that of 
the Umpire and Arbitrator of Europe. To fill that part ac- 
cording to the exigency of the Times, he must forget that he 
has been the principal party to the War; he must lay aside 
all his own Passions, and resist all the instigations of his co- 
operators. He must discover the true Medium between the 
excess of liberality which would hazard the advantages of the 
present opportunity to circumscribe the power of France 
within bounds consistent with safety and tranquillity of her 
neighbours, and the excess of Caution, which the Jealousy 
of those neighbours, and perhaps his own would suggest, to 
secure them at all Events, by reducing France to a State of 
real Impotency; and thus leaving her future situation depend- 
ent upon their discretion. 1 have no doubt that the Emperor 
will see all this in the general principle; and I wait not without 
anxiety to observe its application to his measures." * * * 

1913.] Proceedings. 171 



The annual meeting of the Society was called to 
order in Antiquarian Hall by President Lincoln at 10.45 
o'clock, on Wednesday morning, October 15, 1913. 

The members present were: 

Edmund M. Barton, Samuel Swett Green, Andrew 
McF. Davis, Henry H. Edes, James Phinney Baxter, 

A. George Bullock, William E. Foster, Francis H. 
Dewey, Simeon E. Baldwin, Henry A. Marsh, George 
H. Haynes, Charles L. Nichols, Waldo Lincoln, Edward 
S. Morse, Rev. Austin S. Garver, Samuel Utley, Benja- 
min T. Hill, Alexander F. Chamberlain, William Mac- 
Donald, Clarence W. Bowen, Clarence S. Brigham, 
Lincoln N. Kinnicutt, Charles McL. Andrews, Henry E. 
Woods, Julius H. Tuttle, Charles G. Washburn, Samuel 

B. Woodward, George H. Blakeslee, Max Far rand, 
Arthur P. Rugg, Wilfred H. Munro, Justin H. Smith, 
Henry W. Cunningham, Frank F. Dresser, Rev. Shep- 
herd Knapp, George Francis Dow, Homer Gage, Living- 
ston Davis. 

In the absence of the Recording Secretary, Dr. Nichols 
was chosen Secretary, pro tempore, and read the call for 
the meeting. 

The reading of the records of the last meeting was 
omitted by motion. 

172 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

The report of the Council, prepared by the President, 
was read, the report of the Treasurer was presented by 
Mr. Bullock, and the report of the Librarian was read 
by Mr. Brigham. On motion of Mr. Morse these reports 
were accepted and referred to the Committee of Pub- 

Nominations for resident and foreign members were 
made and a committee consisting of Messrs. Woods, 
Tuttle, and Livingston Davis was appointed to collect 
and count the ballots. The following were elected to 
membership : 

Resident Member a: 

Herbert Eugene Bolton, Berkeley, Cal. 
Herbert Edwin Lombard, Worcester, Mass. 
Bernard Christian Steiner, Baltimore, Md. 
Woodrow Wilson, Washington, D. C. 

Foreign Mem hers : 
Vere Langford Oliver, Sunninghill, England. 

A committee consisting of Messrs. Cunningham, Dow, 
and Garver collected the ballots for President and an- 
nounced the unanimous election of Waldo Lincoln. 

The committee to present nominations for the other 
officers of the Society, consisting of Messrs. Edes, Cham- 
berlain and Bowen, reported the following list, which 
being accepted, they were declared elected. 


Samuel Abbott Green, L.L.D., of Boston, Mass. 
Andrew McFarland Davis, A.M., of Cambridge, 



Nathaniel Paine, A.M., of Worcester, Mass. 
Samuel Swett Green, A.M., of Worcester, xMass. 


Proceed trigs. 


Granville Stanley Hall, LL.D., of Worcester, 

Samuel Utley, [VLB., of Worcester, Mass. 
Arthur Prentice Rugg, LL.D., of Worcester, Mass. 
Charles Grenfill Washburn, A.B., of Worcester, 

Francis Hensh aw Dewey, A.M., of Worcester, Mass. 
Henry Winchester Cunningham, A.B., of Boston, 

Clarence Winthrop Bo wen, Ph.D., of New York, 

N. Y. 
George Parker Winship, A.M., of Providence, II. I. 

Secretary for Foreign Correspondence: 
James Phinney Baxter, Lm\D., of Portland, Me. 

Secretary for Domestic Correspondence: 
Charles Francis Adams, LL.D., of Lincoln, Mass. 

Recording Secretary : 
Charles Lemuel Nichols, M.D., of Worcester, Mass. 


Augustus George Bullock, A.M., of Worcester, 


Committee of Publication: 

Franklin Pierce Rice, of Worcester, Mass. 
George Henry Haynes, Ph.D., of Worcester, Mass. 
Charles Lemuel Nichols, M.D., of Worcester, Mass. 
Julius Herbert Tuttle, of Dedham, Mass. 

A uditors : 

Benjamin Thomas Hill, A.B., of Worcester, Mass. 
Henry Alexander Marsh, of Worcester, Mass. 

It was voted that the Society ratifies and approves the 
action of the Council in providing suitable cases for the 
Emma DeForest Morse collection of Staffordshire pot- 

174 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

tery at a cost of about twelve hundred dollars, and here- 
by authorizes the Treasurer to add the cost to the Build- 
ing or Real Estate account and charge it to the principal 
of such fund as the Finance Committee may approve. 

The following resolutions were read by the Secretary 
and approved by vote of the Society: 

By the notable gift of Mrs. Emma DeForest Morse, 
this Society has acquired a rare collection of American 
historical Staffordshire pottery, one of the finest and 
most important ever gathered in America and the Society 
is to be congratulated upon its possession. 

This is the most valuable gift ever made by a non- 
member, and, with few exceptions, the most valuable 
ever presented to the Society from its foundation in 

As evidence of the Society's gratitude to the donor, 
and as a fitting acknowledgment of her thoughtfulness 
the following resolutions are offered: 

Resolved, That the American Antiquarian Society 
gratefully accepts the generous gift of Mrs. Emma 
DeForest Morse, and will arrange the Staffordshire 
pottery in such a manner as will adequately display 
it to the public and preserve it for the future. 

Resolved, That these resolutions be spread upon the 
records of the Society and that a copy be transmitted 
to Mrs. Morse by the Secretary. 

Papers were then read as follows: 

1. "Andrew Craigie and the Scioto Associates," by 
Archer B. Hulbert, of Marietta, Ohio. In the absence 

^ of Mr. Hulbert, his paper was read by Andrew McF. 

2. "The Papers of the Johnson Family of Connec- 
ticut," by Max Farrand, of New Haven, Conn. 

1913.] Proceedings. 175 

Remarks were made by ex-Gov. Simeon E. Baldwin 
of New Haven upon this interesting family and the val- 
uable papers and letters noted in the address. 

3. "A New Basis Needed for the Monroe Doctrine," 
by George H. Blakeslee, of Worcester, Mass. This 
paper was read by Mr. Blakeslee as a substitute for one 
which had been expected, and was not intended for pub- 
lication by this Society. After due discussion it was 
voted to refer the other papers to the Committee of 

The meeting then dissolved. 


Secretary, pro tempore. 

After the meeting the members of the Society were 
entertained at luncheon by the President, at his house 
on Elm street. 

176 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 


During the last six months the present building has 
continued to prove its fitness for the Society's work. 
The skill of the architects and the foresight of the li- 
brarian and the building committee are shown in the 
fact that few changes in the plans, and those of minor 
importance, would be recommended were it possible to 
rebuild. There is some reason to fear that, if the news- 
paper collection continues its rapid growth of the past 
two years, a shortage of shelving may develop in that 
department sooner than was estimated, but, as it has 
yet been impossible to arrange properly the present 
shelving for lack of time and assistants, the actual ca- 
pacity of the newspaper stack is still undetermined. 

The method adopted a year ago for maintaining, dur- 
ing the summer, a moderate temperature in the upper 
story of the stack which, as was explained at the last 
annual meeting, consists merely in painting the roof with 
a cheap white paint, was repeated this year with a still 
more satisfactory result. It is found that the paint is 
completely washed off during the fall and winter rains, 
allowing the sun to assist in heating the building during 
the cold months, and four dollars worth of asbestine paint 
applied at the beginning of the hot weather, at the cost 
of a few hours labor of the janitor, lasts until colder 
weather renders it unnecessary. It has been interesting 
to note that this principle has been applied to a large 
ice-house in Worcester, though with what result and 
whether the application was due to this experiment the 
writer has not learned. Leaks which appeared in the 
marble dome soon after the building was completed, in 
spite of careful planning by the architects and conscien- 

1913.] Report of the Council 1 77 

tious construction by the builders under watchful super- 
vision by the clerk of the works, have been apparently 
stopped by treating the dome with a preparation known 
as "minwax." The expense of this treatment, which 
could not fairly be placed upon the contractors for the 
building, was unpleasantly large, but lias been paid out 
of the past year's income. The additional land acquired 
last year has not yet been improved for lack of means. 
It has been suggested that it be planted with shrubbery 
and trees, which would be less expensive to maintain 
than a lawn and more attractive. 

At a meeting of the Council in April, 1912, the Presi- 
dent was instructed to appoint a committee of three 
members, to report to the Council on the future welfare 
of the Society, for its guidance in future conduct of the 
Society's affairs. In accordance with these instructions 
the President appointed Messrs. William MacDonald, 
Justin H. Smith and George F. Dow and that committee 
presented the result of their deliberations last spring. 
The Council and the Societ}' are much indebted to these 
gentlemen for the very careful study they made of the 
situation. The Council does not deem it necessary to 
report the findings of the committee to the Society, but 
wishes it understood that no radical changes were recom- 
mended and that, on the whole, the report was com- 
mendatory of the present system. Many of the recom- 
mendations suggested must await an increase of the 
Society's endowment and income, but the Council, at 
a special meeting held in May to consider the report, 
voted in accordance with its suggestion to authorize the 
issue, as often as material offered, of a bulletin or leaflet 
by which the members can be kept more in touch with 
the work of the Society, its acquisitions and its needs. 
As a result of this vote the first number of the " Bulletin 
of the American Antiquarian Society" was issued July 
19, 1913, and was sent to all the members of the Society. 
It contained an introductory note; an account, at some 
length, of recent acquisitions of southern newspapers; 
an announcement of the valuable gift by Mrs. Emma 

178 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

DeF. Morse of her remarkable collection of American 
historical pottery; an appeal for financial assistance; 
a brief notice of the government document collection; 
and a death notice. It was the intention of the librarian 
to issue a second number about September 1st, but an 
unfortunate accident which kept him confined to the 
house for about a month prevented; and it is now pro- 
posed to issue the second number about November 15th. 
It was probably due to the fact that this first number 
was mailed when most of the members were away on 
their vacations, thereby delaying their receipt of the 
Bulletin, that so little notice was taken of this new 

About a hundred years ago it was the custom of the 
Staffordshire potters to decorate sets of china for the 
American market with American scenery and views of 
American buildings. This. pottery, now become very 
scarce, has long been an object for collectors of Ameri- 
cana and possesses considerable historic value, as many 
of the views have been preserved only in this form. 
The most successful collector of this pottery is Mrs. 
Emma DeF. Morse of Worcester, whose almost perfect 
collection lacks but a few pieces to make it complete 
and of which Alexander M. Hudnut in " American 
Homes and Gardens" says: "I do not hesitate to say 
that, within my knowledge, this is the finest collection 
of dark blue Staffordshire in America." Finding its 
preservation in her own home too much of a burden, 
Mrs. Morse, in spite of tempting offers of eager purchas- 
ers and with rare public spirit, decided to keep the col- 
lection intact if a suitable place could be found for its 
public display, and a society willing to assume its care. 
She selected this Society for this favor and the gift was 
gratefully accepted. Mrs. Morse has thus made herself 
the most generous benefactor, outside of its members, 
the Society has ever had; for while it would be invidious, 
and perhaps impossible, to place a money value upon 
this gift, it is quite safe to say that no collection has 
ever been presented to the Society of greater value at 

1913.] Report of the Council 179 

the time of its presentation. A vote appreciative of 
Mrs. Morse's generosity has been prepared for adoption 
by the Society at the proper time. To carry out Mrs. 
Morse's wishes and properly and safely display this gift 
it has been necessary to incur considerable expense, which 
it is quite impossible to meet from the income of the 
Society's funds. To conform to the absolutely fireproof 
character of the building, steel and glass seemed to be 
the only acceptable materials of which to make the cases 
to hold this collection. The Council, however, has no 
authority to employ the principal of the Society's funds 
for such a purpose; but, desiring to have the collection 
ready for exhibition at this annual meeting and confiding 
in the Society's liberality, it has, at its own risk, author- 
ized the President to contract for suitable cases and to 
ask authority of the Society to add the cost to the expense 
of the building and to charge the amount to such prin- 
cipal fund as may seem best to the finance committee. 
A vote for this authority has therefore been prepared and 

Swill be presented today for action. After a careful study, 
the southwest room on the second floor was selected as 
the most available place for the preservation of the col- 
lection; the walls have been lined with suitable cases of 
steel and glass, built by Krasser & Company of Boston 
at a cost of about $1,200; and the pottery, somewhat 
hastily arranged therein, is now on exhibition. 

Since the last meeting three Resident Members have 
died. William Addison Smith of Worcester, oldest in 
years and fourth in membership, died at Worcester, 
September 25, 1913. He was elected in October, 1867, 
and served as auditor from 1884 to 1901, but held no 
other office. Frederick Albion Ober of Hackensack, N. J., 
died June 1, 1913. He was best known as a student of 
ornithology, especially that of South America and the 
West Indies. Francis Henry Lee of Salem died there 
October 7, 1913. He was elected a member of this 
Society October 21, 1904, but, although intensely inter- 
ested in antiquarian and genealogical studies, failing 
health prevented any active participation in the work 


180 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

of the Society. In accordance with custom, obituary 
notices of these members will appear in the printed 
Proceedings of this meeting. As notice of the death of 
Foreign Members has sometimes not been received until 
long after the event, it has not been usual to print obitu- 
ary notices of them. The Council should, however, 
notify the Society of such deaths as soon as learned, and 
in the case of the more distinguished members may prop- 
erly record more than the mere dates. The Right Hon- 
orable Sir John Lubbock, Baron Avebury, D. 0. L., of 
London, England, and a Foreign Member of this Society 
since October 12, 1893, died May 28, 1913. He was 
born April 30, 1834, was educated at Eton and succeeded 
to the Baronetcy of Avebury in 1865. He was a mem- 
ber of Parliament from 1870 to 1900 in which year he 
was raised to the peerage as 1st Baron Avebury. He 
was head of the banking house of Robarts, Lubbock & 
Company; but devoted most of his time to authorship 
and the study of natural history and published many 
books which reached a prodigious circulation. He is 
perhaps best known in this country as author of "The 
Pleasures of Life," which has already attained 259 
editions, and for his investigations of insect life. He 
was president of the Society of Antiquaries of London 
and of many allied societies too numerous to mention 

The Council has learned with regret that Mr. Winship, 
who is now travelling in Europe, declines re-election as 
Recording Secretary. Mr. Winship's interest in the 
objects of the Society is so great, his advice is so valuable 
and his presence so agreeable that the Council has only 
pleasure in advising the Society, while releasing him 
from the duties of Secretary, to retain his services as 
a member of the Council. 

The Library has grown healthily during the past year, 
but the increase in early newspaper fdes is worthy of 
especial notice. The remarkable file of the Alexandria 
Gazette, covering over one hundred years of consecu- 
tive publication and practically perfect, was described 

1013.1 Report of the Council 181 

in the "Bulletin." During a visit last winter to the 
British West Indies, the President was so fortunate as 
to secure for the Society nearly one hundred volumes of 
newspapers, published in Trinidad, Grenada, St. Lucia, 
Barbados, Antigua and St. Christopher between 1790 
and 1880, which it would be very difficult if not impossible 
to duplicate, and which have placed this Library far 
ahead of any other, in this countiy at least, in early 
West Indian newspapers. There is reason to hope that 
files of Jamaican, Porto Rican, Cuban, and other island 
newspapers may yet be found to enrich the collection 
still further. 

Little interest seems to be taken in most of the islands 
in their bibliography, and while there is a public library 
in each of the British Islands no attention has been paid 
to the collection of West Indian imprints, save the very 
creditable work which has been done by Mr. Frank Cun- 
dall in the Institute of Jamaica at Kingston. This lack 
of interest, which makes the search for early imprints, 
difficult and often discouraging, is probably due to sev- 
eral causes but is well nigh universal; and though it is 
certain that printing presses were established in many 
of the islands before the middle of the eighteenth century, 
the writer was unable to find, except in the Institute of 
Jamaica, a single book, pamphlet or broadside printed 
in the islands previous to 1850, save two almanacs and 
a book of the Laws, air printed in the island of St. Chris- 
topher, and of these the two almanacs could not be lo- 
cated. The small percentage of white population, which 
in the British Islands is only about two per cent., and the 
temporary residence of the white officials, who are fre- 
quently moved from colony to colony, are contributing 
causes; but perhaps the chief reason for this scarcity 
of early imprints is the difficulty, one might almost say 
impossibility, of preserving them in a climate where 
literally moth and rust do corrupt. Moreover, nearly 
every town has been the victim of earthquakes or of one 
or more disastrous conflagrations, when, in the absence 
of adequate protective equipment, everything within 

182 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct, 

reach of the flames has been entirely consumed. Wars, 
too, which one hundred years and more ago were con- 
stant between England, France and Spain, have devas- 
tated many of the islands more than once, and change 
of masters was not conducive to the preservation of 
property so easily destroyed as books and papers. At 
one time or another nearly every newspaper office has 
been burned and with it the office iile, and only such 
newspapers escaped as through change of ownership 
were removed by the retiring editors and were thereafter 
preserved in their own houses. Such are the volumes 
fortunately discovered during the past winter and now 
in the Society's library. It is probable that England, 
or even the older coast towns of the United States, many 
of which had an active trade with the West Indies one 
hundred years ago, will offer a better hunting ground 
for Caribbeana than the islands themselves. 

A brief description of the conditions found in the 
several islands visited may be of interest; and since, with 
the opening of the Panama Canal, the Greater and the 
Lesser Antilles will probably become easier of access and 
more frequently visited, perhaps other members will 
soon be able to supplement this account with a descrip- 
tion of the conditions in the other islands. Jamaica, 
third in size of all the Antilles, possesses in Mr. Frank 
Cundall, now a member of this Society, the one man in 
the British West Indies who is interested in their bib- 
liography. He is manager and librarian of the Institute 
of Jamaica whose building was destroyed by the earth- 
quake of 1907, but whose library was saved from the 
destruction caused by the ensuing conflagration. The 
Institute has recently built a new building of brick and 
concrete, unfortunately not so fireproof as its valuable 
contents deserve. The library con cams excellent files 
of nineteenth century Jamaican newspapers, mostly 
well bound and in good preservation ; a very good collec- 
tion of books relating to the West Indies including many 
West Indian imprints; and a remarkable collection of 
portraits of colonial officials. Afl these are due to the 

1913] Report of the Council 183 

activity and exertion of Mr. Cundall and it is feared are 
hardly appreciated by the members and supporters of 
the Institute who are mostly interested in the circulating 
department of the library which is devoted to the ephem- 
eral literature of the day. The writer did not visit the 
record office and cannot report on the condition of the 
records therein. He was informed, however, that they 
are well cared for. 

Trinidad has, at Port of Spain, a well-selected circu- 
lating library, adequately housed in a new building, 
brick, but not fireproof. No attention has been paid to 
collecting West Indian imprints, although through the 
exertions of Miss Hart, the capable librarian, the library 
has a good file of nineteenth century Trinidad news- 
papers, the earliest number dated Jan. 18, 1817, most 
of which are in good order. The public offices were 
burned in the riots of 1903, but have been replaced, with 
substantial stone buildings and the records are said to be 
in good order. The writer was informed that no one in 
the island was particularly interested in its history and 
bibliography, and though it is evident that a printing 
press was set up as early as 1804 no example of its work 
was found earlier than the newspaper of 1817. 

Grenada possesses at St. George a small public library 
of modern literature. It is installed in one room of the 
public buildings and no attention is paid to collecting 
Grenada imprints of which no examples exist in the 
library save a partial file of a Grenada newspaper, the 
earliest number of which is considerably later than 1800, 
though the newspaper was first published in 1784 and 
the writer secured a partial file for the year 1790. The 
public record office was not visited. Though a file of 
St. Lucia newspapers was secured, it was obtained in 
Grenada of a descendant of the editor; and the island 
was unvisited save for a brief stop at midnight on a 
voyage to the northern islands. 

The library at Bridgetown, Barbados, is installed in 
a handsome limestone building, the §rift of Andrew Car- 
negie, but it has no historical collection and but an 

184 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

imperfect file of rather late nineteenth century news- 
papers. In the public offices are some early Barbados 
maps in fine condition and the public records are said 
to be well cared for. The writer learned that there was 
a complete file of the Agricultural Reporter, which was 
established between 1830 and 1840 and is still being pub- 
lished, in the possession of the present editor. He was 
also told that there was a good private collection of 
Barbadian imprints in the island, to which visitors were 
not welcome and which he was therefore unable to see 
and cannot report upon. The native white Barbadians 
are a patriotic people and take great pride in their 
island and in its history, but up to the present time have 
not been generally interested in the productions of its 
press, though Thomas claims that one was established 
as early as 1730. 

In Dominica there is a small library building, at 
Roseau, also the gift of Mr. Carnegie, containing an 
' unimportant circulating library. There is no interest 

in local imprints and no attempt has been made to 
collect and preserve them. There was, however, a 
very good loan collection of Carib tools of stone and 
bone. Speaking generally, much more interest is taken 
in many of the islands in archaeological research than 
in bibliography and history, and there are several really 
good private collections. Owing to the absence of 
carriage roads in Dominica a search through that island 
would be conducted with much discomfort and prob- 
ably with poor result. 

St. John's, Antigua, possesses an unimportant library 
with nothing of historical note save an interesting 
autograph letter from Queen Anne relative to troubles 
which occurred in the island during her reign. Some 
newspapers of comparatively late date have been pre- 
served, but they were unbound and in bad order and 
entirely useless for consultation. The papers in the pub- 
lic record office were in shocking condition; no attempt 
apparently having been made to preserve them from 
damage by insects and dampness. It was really painful 

1913.1 Report of the Council 185 

to consult them as it was impossible to handle some of 
the volumes without inflicting further injury. The Gov- 
ernor's attention was called to this sad condition of 
the record books; and he promised to take the matter 
in hand and to see that money was provided for their 
better care — a promise which he undoubtedly kept, since 
he took so much interest in the writer's quest for old 
newspapers that, learning of a collection for which the 
writer had made an oiler, he promptly raised the bid 
and bought them for the island library, a course which 
this Society can only praise since it seeks to encourage 
local interest in historical and bibliographical matters. 
Although St. Christopher, or St. Kitt's as it is com- 
monly called, is said to have possessed the first printing 
press in the lesser Antilles, its library has been estab- 
lished but a few years and possesses nothing of historic 
interest. It is kept in an upper room of the Court House. 
The sister island, Nevis, which is separated by a narrow 
strait from St. Kitt's and which until fifty years ago was 
of considerable importance, has no library and a very 
trifling white population. The public records of these 
two islands are well kept. Considerable time was 
devoted to a search of the two islands for early imprints, 
which yielded several volumes of newspapers; the dis- 
covery of a volume of Laws printed at St. Kitt's in 1791, 
which the owner would not part with; and the report of 
the existence of two numbers of almanacs printed before 
1810 which, after diligent search, could not be found. 

The writer learned of the existence of early files of 
newspapers published in the island of St. Bartholomew and 
in the Danish island of St. Croix; but, as he visited neither 
of these islands he obtained only a single copy of an early 
• St. Croix paper through the kindness of an English 
travelling salesman, who reported that the local govern- 
ment had been clearing out its offices of accumulated 
rubbish and that he had picked up this copy out of 
curiosity. This simply shows that early files are still 
in existence and that a systematic search through the 
islands might return a rich reward. 

186 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

The Council wishes to impress on the members a fact 
which does not seem to be sufficiently appreciated, 
namely that the Society's first and greatest specialty 
is the collection of American newspapers and to urge 
the members to bear that fact in mind at all times and 
everywhere. That interesting and valuable files of 
newspapers still exist in attics and garrets all over the 
country is constantly made evident to the Librarian, 
yet it is very seldom that his attention is called to them 
by a member. These accumulations frequently can 
be obtained for little or no consideration; and members 
can render a great service to the Library, if they will be 
on the lookout for such material and, when found, either 
secure it themselves and forward it to the Library as a 
gift, or call the Librarian's attention to it. 

Another of the Society's specialties, not so well known 
as the newspapers but which is equally deserving of 
assistance, is American school books, of which there is 
now in the upper hall a very interesting exhibition of 
about seventy specimens, most of which were published 
before 1800 and which will repay a careful examination. 
They have all been selected from the Society's collection, 
which, though numbering about 8,000 volumes, may 
not be the largest but is certainly one of the most im- 
portant in the country and contains several exceedingly 
rare specimens. 

Since the last report of the treasurer the Centennial 
Fund has received an addition of $1,000 by the gift of 
Albert H. Wliitin and $500 by the gift of Mrs. Del- 
oraine P. Corey in memory of her late husband and in 
addition to a previous gift of the same amount. Leg- 
acies have been paid to the total amount of $5,000 by 
the estates of the late Edward 1.. Davis, Daniel Merri- 
man and Miss Jane A. Taft, as noted in the treasurer's 
report. The Council has been informed that a legacy 
of $4,000 has been left to the Society by the late Miss 
Katharine Allen, daughter of the Hon. Charles Allen 
of Worcester, a member of the Society from 1827 to 1869. 
These gifts and legacies will yield a most welcome addi- 


Report of the Council. 


tion to the present income, though the Society will still 
remain so poor as to be unable to make the best use of 
its collections. Binding, repairing, publishing, collect- 
ing and all the necessities of a valuable consulting li- 
brary are sadly curtailed. Safety has been secured and 
room for work and growth, but the Society cannot do the 
work of which it is capable, for want of sufficient means. 
This has been the President's cry so often that he fears 
by repetition it may lose force, yet while the need 
remains it seems to be his duty to call attention to it. 


For the Council. 

188 American Antiquarian Society, [Oct., 



Francis Henry Lee was born in Salem, Mass., Decem- 
ber 23, 1836, and died in the house in which he was born, 
October 8, 1913. His father was John Clarke Lee, one 
of the founders of the well-known firm of Lee, Higginson 
& Co. of Boston. In the Civil War he served as a private 
in Company F of the 23d Massachusetts Regiment, 
being unwilling to accept a commission, but he was so 
impressed by the horrors of war that he seldom discussed 
the experience of those years. He was a trustee of 
many benevolent and literary institutions of local inter- 
est, including what is said to have been the first Boys' 
Club of America. Constant, devoted service and liberal 
contributions were given by him without stint to public 
and private charity. In 1871 he married Sophia E. 
Willson of Salem who survives him. He was elected a 
member of this Society in 1904. s. u. 


Frederick Albion Ober died in Hackensack, N. J., 
June 2, 1913. He was born in Beverly, Mass., February 
13, 1849, was educated in the public schools and while 
young began ornithological studies which he pursued 
until he became one of the leading authorities in , the 
country upon bird life. From 1872 to 1874 he explored 
Florida, finding many species of birds not before known. 
From 1876 to 1878 and again in 1880 he made an ornith- 
ological exploration of the Lesser Antilles, found 
twenty-two new species of birds, and added many types 
to the collections of the Smithsonian Institution in the 
Proceedings of which he made a full report of his work. 
He made journeys to Mexico, Spain, Africa, and South 

i ■ • 

1913.] Obituaries. 189 

America, finding new birds, collecting information con- 
cerning the people and publishing about forty books as 
the results of his investigation. He was a membqr of 
many learned societies including this Society to which 
he was elected in 1893. In April, 1894, he contributed 
to its Proceedings a paper on "The Aborigines of the 
West Indies." s. it. 


William Addison Smith, the oldest member of this 
Society and the fourth in seniority of membership, died 
in Worcester, Mass., Sept. 25, 1913. He was born in 
Leicester, Mass., March 2, 1824, the son of John A. and 
Sarah Sargent Smith. He was graduated from Harvard 
in 1843, was admitted to the bar in 1846 and in 1850 
was appointed Assistant Clerk of Courts. On the failure 
of his health in 1865 he resigned and went abroad and 
on his return engaged in business. In 1870 he was 
elected clerk and treasurer of the Worcester County 
Mechanics Association, holding these offices thirty-seven 
years till age and infirmity compelled him to retire. 
He was elected a member of this Society in 1867, was a 
regular attendant at its meetings and served as Auditor 
from 1884 to 1901. In 1868 he made a catalogue of 
the Indian relics owned by the Society. He was much 
interested in Masonry and for several years was the only 
33d degree Mason in Worcester. He married, April 18, 
1849, Eliza A. Howe, of Worcester, and is survived by 
two sons, Charles E. Smith and William E. Smith. 

Throughout his lifetime Mr. Smith was an assiduous 
collector of Worcester County literature, and possessed 
an extensive library valuable chiefly for the large amount 
of ephemeral local material which he preserved. The 
great mass of books and pamphlets, which has been 
generously presented to the Society by his heirs, has aided 
immeasurably in filling in gaps in our Worcester County 
files, and in supplying the library with material which 
except for him would undoubtedly never have been 
preserved. s. u. 

190 American Antiquarian Society, [Oct., 


The Treasurer presents his Annual Report of receipts and 
expenditures for the year ending September 30, 1913, and a 
statement of the investments of the Society. 

The net assets October 1st, 1913, are $490,558.50, invested 
as follows: 

Mortgage Loans $ 15,100.00 

Real Estate 188,656.00 

Bonds 250,246.00 

Stocks 39,004.00 

Cash in Rank 7,308.50 

Less Liabilities 3,756.00 


Of this amount $496,454.27 represents the principal and 
$104.23 the unexpended balances. 

The Centennial Fund has been increased by the following 
gifts and legacies: 

Albert H. Whitin $1 ,000 . 00 

Estate of Daniel Merriman 1 ,000 . 00 

Mrs. D. P. Corey in memory of 

Deloraine P. Corey 500 . 00 

Estate of Jane A. Taft 1,000 . 00 

The Isaac and Edward L. Davis Fund has been increased 
by legacy from Edward L. Davis, S3, 000. 


J rea surer. 

1913.] Report of the Treasurer. 191 


Principal Oct. 1, 1912 $489,957 .32 

Principal received since Oct. 1, 1912. 
Estate of Edward L. Davis, addition to Isaac 

and Edward L. Davis Fund $3,000.00 

Income Special Gifts added to principal 18.62 

Purchasing Fund income balance added to 

principal 20 . 10 

Albert II. Whitin for Centennial Fund 1,000.00 

Estate of Daniel Merriman for Centennial 

Fund 1,000.00 

Mrs. D. P. Corey in memory of Deloraine P. 

Corey for Centennial Fund 500.00 

Estate of Jane A. Taft for Centennial Fund. . 1 ,000 . 00 

James L. Whitney Fund 45.35 

Sale of stock rights 15.36 

Expended for books from Special Gifts Fund 102.48 6,490.95 

$496,454 . 27 


Unexpended income Oct. 1, 1912 $ 1,484.19 

Income from investments . . . . : 14,434.33 

Assessments 330 . 00 

Sale of Books 127.63 $ 16,376.16 



Incidental Expenses , . $ 269 .88 

Salaries 7,039 .88 

Treasurer and Office Expense 544. 11 

Light, Heat, Water & Telephone 837 .44 

Supplies. 209 . 42 

Repairs on Buildings 1,161 .00 

Books (Less $102.48 charged to Special Gifts) 2,748.84 

Publishing 2,457.52 

Binding 507.95 

Care of Grounds 71 . 46 

Centennial Celebration 385.70 

Income transferred to principal 38.72 $ 16,271 .92 

Net Assets, $490,558.50 


American Antiquarian Society. 



Mortgage Loans $ 15,100.00 

Real Estate 188,050 .00 

Bonds 250,240.00 

Stocks. 39,004.00 

Cash on deposit in Bank 7,308 . 50 $500,314 . 50 

Worcester Art Museum Mortgage Note 

Net Assets, 
Unexpended balances Oct. 1, 1913, 

Principal Oct. 1, 1913, 


$496,558 . 50 


Condition of the Fund Accounts. 


Principul Unexpended Income Expended Balance 








$47 . 50 

$47 . 50 







George Chandler 


1 . 59 




Collection & Research 



807 . 50 

Isaac & Edward L. Davia 


364 . 29 



John & Eliza Davis 






Francis H. Dewey 






George E. Ellis 




Librarians & General 










Library Building 


Life Membership 




Lincoln Legacy 


332 . 50 






Salisbury Legacy 








Benjamin F. Thomas Local 







Special Gifts 




Frances W. Haven 









Charles Francis Washburn 



237 . 50 

Centennial Fund 

25,520 . 33 

895 . 20 



Eliza D. Dodge 




James F. Huunewell 




James Lyman Whitney 




$1,484.19 $15,026 69 $16,406. 


♦Balance of Income added to Principal. 


Report of the Treasurer. 


Statement of the Investments. 

Bonds. Per Cent. Pah. 

Am. Telephone & Telegraph Co 4 $1 1,000 

Atchison, Topeka & Santa F6 R. R 4 2,000 

Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe R. R 4 1,000 

Baltimore & Ohio R. II VA 5,000 

Boston & Maine R. R 3^ 5,000 

Boston Elevated Railway Co 4 2,000 

Boston Elevated Railway Co 4. A 8,000 

Baltimore, Md., City of. 4 15,000 

Boston, Mass., City of V/i 15,000 

Brockton, Mass., City of 4 2,000 

Chicago, 111., City of 4 8,000 

Duluth, Minn., City of 4 2,000 

Chicago, Burlington & Quincy R. R. . . 4 5,000 

Chicago & Eastern Illinois R. R 5 9,000 

Chicago, Indiana & Southern R. R 4 12,000 

Congress Hotel Co 6 5,000 

Ellicott Sq. Co., Buffalo, N. Y 5 5,000 

Fitchburg R. R ZY 2 10,000 

Illinois Central R. R VA 2,000 

Jersey City, N. J., City of 4 5,000 

Lake Shore & Michigan Southern R.R. 4 5,000 

Lowell, Lawrence & Haverhill Ry 5 7,000 

Marlboro & Westboro Ry. Co 5 1,000 

Memphis, Tenn., City of 4 5,000 

Middlctown, Conn., City of SA 5,000 

New York, City of 4 A 20,000 

N. Y., N. II. & H. R. R 4 10,000 

N. Y., N. II. & II. R. R V/ 2 50 

N. Y., N. H. & II. R. R 6 2,200 

Old Colony R. R 4 3,000 

Omaha, Neb., City of. VA 15,000 

Penobscot Shore Line R. R. Co 4 5,000 

Pere Marquette R.R 4 5,000 

Quincy, Mass., City of 4 2,000 

Seattle Electric Co 5 5,000 

Southern Indiana R. R 4 2,000 

Union Pacific R. R A 500 

Waterbury, Conn., City of 4 10,000 

Western Electric Co 5 5,000 

West End St. Ry. Co 4 1 ,000 

Wilkcsbarre & Eastern R. R 5 2,000 

Woonsocket, R. I., City of 4 12,000 

Worcester & Marlboro St. Ry. Co 5 3,000 

Worcester & Webster St. Ry. Co 5 2,000 






























1 15,000 















194 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Stocks. Par Book 

Shares Value. Value. 

24 Am. Tel. & Tel. Co $ 2/100 $ 2,400 

11 Atchison, Topeka & Santa F<5 R. R 1,100 087 

32 National Bank of Commerce, Boston. . . 3,200 3,200 

6 Fitchburg National Bank GOO GOO 

50 Fitchburg Railroad Co 5,000 5,000 

35 Mass. Gas Light Companies (Pref.) 3,500 2,900 

68 N. Y., N. H. & H. R. R. Co G,80() 8,450 

30 Northern R. R, (N. H.) 3,000 3,000 

3 Old Boston National Bank 300 300 

11 Old South Building Trust (Pref.) 1,100 981 

30 Union Pacific R. 11. (Com.) 3,000 3,000 

16 Webster & Atlas National Bank 1,600 1,800 

25 West End St. Ry. Co. (Pref.) 1,250 1,250 

12 Worcester Gas Light Co 1,200 1,000 

25 Worcester National Bank 2,500 2,500 

6 Worcester Trust Co 000 GOO 

8 Southern Pacific Co 800 736 


Mortgage Loans. 

J. Burwick, Worcester, Mass $2,100 

L. L. Mellen, Worcester, Mass 1,500 

B. F. Sawyer, Worcester, Mass 3,500 

J. P. Sexton, Trustee, Worcester, Mass 8,000 

— — $15,100 
Real Estate. 

Library Building $184,900 

Lot of land adjoining Library Building 3,756 


The undersigned, Auditors of the American Antiquarian 
Society, beg leave to state that the books and accounts of the 
Treasurer, for the year ending September 30, 1913, have been 
examined by W. Thane Boyden, Accountant, and his certi- 
ficate that they are correct and properly vouched is herewith 

The Auditors further report that they have personally 
examined the securities held by the Treasurer and find the 
same to be as stated by him and the balance of cash on hand 
duly accounted fur. 


October 3, 1913. 

1913.] Re/port of the Treasurer. 195 

Worcester, Mass., Oct. 3, 1913. 

I hereby certify that I have examined the books and accounts 
of the Treasurer of the American Antiquarian Society, made 
up for the year ending September 30, 1913, and find same 
to be correct and properly vouched. 

(Signed) W. THANE BOYDEN, 


1 96 A merican A ntiqua Han Society . [Oct . , 


In making my fifth annual report to the Society, I 
shall give but a brief resume* of the accessions of the 
year and an outline of the progress accomplished. The 
total number of additions has been as follows: 

Bound volumes 2,719 

Pamphlets, 1,941 

Unbound early newspapers, 6,342 

Maps, broadsides and manuscripts, 204 


The larger part of this material has come by purchase, 
acquired through the perusal of numerous catalogues 
and book-lists. The books which we lack and are eager 
to obtain in order to fill in gaps in our special collections 
are not usually the books which are to be found in private 
libraries or which would come to us in the form of a gift 
from either members or friends of the Society. 

The most appreciated gifts which we receive from 
members are the historical books and publications of 
the present day. In some cases these have been written 
by members and duly presented to the Society. In this 
way we have received from Rev. Joseph Anderson his 
President's Address before the Mattaiuck Historical Society; 
from President James B. Angell his Selected Addresses 
and his Reminiscences; from T. Willing Balch his edition 
of his father's International Courts of Arbitration; from 
Hubert Howe Bancroft his Retrospection Political and 
Personal; from Hiram Bingham his Monroe Doctrine 
and several pamphlets illustrating the work of the Yale 
Peruvian Expedition; from William K. Bixby his 
facsimile issue of the Swinburne Manuscript; from 


1013.] Report of the Librarian. . 1 07 

Clarence M. Burton his edition of the Journal of Pon- 
tiac's Conspiracy; from Franklin B. Dexter the sixth 
volume of his Biographical Sketches of the Graduates 
of Yale College; from Charles Evans the seventh volume of 
his American Bibliography; from Max Farrand his edi- 
tion of A Journey to Ohio in 1810; from Carl Russell Fish 
his Civil Service and the Patronage; from Frederick L. 
Gay the list of his Collection of Transcripts relative to New 
England; from Samuel Swett Green his Public Library 
Movement in the United States; from Archer B. Hulbert 
his Message of the Mound Builders and two pamphlets on 
Rufus Putnam; from Clarence B. Moore his two mono- 
graphs, Some Aboriginal Sites o?i tied River and Some 
A boriginal Sites in Louisiana and Arkansas; from William 
Nelson his Discovery and Early History of New Jersey; 
from the Rev. Henry A. Parker his pamphlet entitled 
Before Swine; from Ezra S. Stearns his contribution on 
Old Clocks of Eitchburg; from the Rev. Calvin Stebbins 
his volume on Henry Hill Goodell; and from Edward L. 
Stevenson his Maps reproduced as Glass Transparencies. 
Several other members have sent us reprints or have 
published material which has been issued by various his- 
torical societies and has come to us by way of exchange. 

Other members supply us regularly with current 
historical and political periodicals, enabling us to divert 
income which would be spent for such publications to the 
purchase of books along the line of our early specialties. 

One of the most interesting gifts of the year is the 
* large reproduction of Christian Remick's water-color 
view of Boston Harbor, engraved by Sidne}' L. Smith, 
in 1004. This came to us from the Club of Odd Vol- 
umes through the kindly offices of Mr. Henry W. Cun- 

The most important purchase of the year has been the 
acquisition of the Reports of the Historical Manuscripts 
Commission of Great Britain, in eighty volumes, a set 
which has been long needed in the library. 

The collection of early American imprints has grown 
considerably during the year, 1064 titles having been 

198 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

added. This is a slightly smaller number than the 
average for the past four years, partly because there has 
been no large auction sale such as the Pennypacker 
sale, and partly because our list of desiderata is gradu- 
ally becoming smaller. Most of the imprints have been 
acquired from lists submitted by bookdealers, and we 
generally have about three-fourths of the early titles 
submitted on any lists. This proportion would not 
hold, if we took into account the whole number of titles 
known to have been published. If that were the basis, 
the library may now be said to contain over forty per 
cent, of the known titles printed in the United States 
before 1820. Recently we checked the titles entered 
in Evans' American Bibliography for the year 1789, and 
the result shows that the library has 297 out of 674 
titles, or forty-four per cent. If we exclude the titles 
which Evans never located but only found evidence 
of having been published through newspaper adver- 
tisements, the proportion in favor of the library would be 
fifty per cent. 

Among the more interesting titles acquired during the 
year is a hitherto unrecorded pamphlet Some Observa- 
tions upon the French Tongue , Boston, printed by B. 
Green, 1724. Although the name of the author does 
not appear on the titlepage, the preface is signed by 
A. L. M., and Mr. Albert Matthews, to whom the 
pamphlet was submitted, conjectures that the initials 
were those of Andrew LeMercier, the pastor of the 
French Protestant Church in Boston. Next to Thomas 
Blair's pamphlet on the True Pronunciation of the French 
Language, Boston, 1720, it is the earliest American work 
on the subject. 

Three other early New England pamphlets not noticed 
in Sabin or Evans are Dives and Lazarus, or rather 
Devilish Dives, by R. J., An Awakening Call from the 
Eternal God, by Samuel Corbin, and A New Years 
Gift for Fainting Souls, by Richard Standfast. These 
are all printed at Boston in 1702 by-T. Green for Nicholas 
Buttolph at his shop at the corner of Gutteridge's Coffee- 

1913.] Report of the Librarian. 199 

house. An interesting book is the Heidelbergh Catechism, 
printed at New York by John Holt in 1764, and another, 
the gift of Henry W. Cunningham, is Daniel Bayley's 
New and Complete Introduction to the Grounds and Rules 
of Music, 1764. This was printed for Daniel Bay ley 
of Newbury port and has twenty-eight pages of music 
engraved by J. W. Oilman. A rare volume purchased is 
Richard Snowden's American Revolution, printed at 
Clinton, Ohio, by Smith & M'Ardle at the Office of the 
Ohio Register, 1815, including at the end his Columbiad, 
or Poems on the American War. This is an early Ohio 
imprint and was quite a pretentious volume to have 
been issued by so small a press. 

Only one volume has appeared for sale during the year 
which could be added to the Mather collection, Increase 
Mather's Diatriba de signo Filii Hominis, Amsterdam, 
1682. The collection of type-specimen books lias 
received a valuable addition in a copy of A Specimen 
of Printing Types, by William Caslon, London, 1766. 
The list of our type-specimen books, published in 
Printing Art for August, 1910, shows that this new 
acquisition is next to the earliest English production 
of the kind in our collection. 

The almanac collection has been enlarged to the extent 
of 403 issues before 1850. Among the more important 
accessions were a series of Webster's Albany almanacs 
from 1786 to 1799 and some two hundred Philadelphia 
almanacs of the first half of the nineteenth century. 
One of the most famous of early New England almanac 
makers was John Tulley, who published an almanac at 
Boston from 1687 to 1702. The Society possessed a 
complete set of these rare issues with the exception of 
the years 1694 and 1701. It has recently acquired the 
issue of 1701, thus making its file complete except for 
the issue of 1694. It was John Tulley who in his almanac 
for 1687 restored January to the first place in the calen- 
dar months, according to the custom of the English 
calendars. His almanac for J698 was the first to con- 
tain the list of roads and distances from Boston to other 

200 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

towns, an innovation which was an important feature 
of the usefulness of these books. 

The Society acquired at the same time four of the 
almanacs by Daniel Travis, the issues for 1707, 1710, 
1711 and 1713. Travis published his series from 1707 
to 1723, and the Society's set is now complete except for 
the years 1708, 1709, 1714 and 1716. 

At the end of the 1711 Travis Almanac is bound a 
four-page pamphlet without a titlepage or imprint 
but headed " Books Printed for, and are to be Sold by 
Nicholas Boone, at the Sign of the Bible in Cornhill, 
Boston." It contains a list of books printed at Boston 
between 1708 and 1710, including some that are new 
to bibliographers. 

The newspaper collection has received many valuable 
additions during the year, among them several long 
nineteenth century files covering from forty to over a 
hundred years. It is in the period of the first half of 
the nineteenth century that we have recently been 
obtaining most of our files. Seldom in auction or dealers' 
catalogues are journals of the eighteenth century offered 
that we lack. There are many which we do want, but 
they are mostly uncommon papers published in the small- 
er towns and rarely turn up for sale. Apparently Isaiah 
Thomas preserved and bound many files of papers until 
about the year 1801, when he relinquished the publish- 
ing of the Massachusetts Spy to his son. Except for 
a few important files, there was thenceforth little effort 
to preserve currently issued papers until about 1845 
when files of several New York and Boston papers were 
taken and preserved. 'During the first half of the nine- 
teenth century, therefore, our files are deficient, and not 
nearly so complete as for the period either before or 
since. During the past few years this deficiency has to 
some extent been remedied, and the Society especially 
solicits files of early nineteenth century papers. 

The number of early papers acquired during the past 
year totals to 435 bound volumes and 6,342 unbound 
issues. A list of the more important files follows: — 

1913.] Report of the Librarian, 201 

' Windham Herald, 1792-1805. 

New Haven Register, 1863-1872. 

Free Press, 1832-1833. 

Cherokee Phoenix, 1832-1834. 

Louisville Courier Journal, 1845-1852. 

Argus of Western America, 1808. 

New Orleans Picayune, 1848-1854. 

New Orleans Observer, 1835. 

True Delta, 1853-1855. 

Concordia Intelligencer, 1844-1854. 

Portland Tribune, 1843-1844. 

Maine Democrat, 1843-1863. 

Boston Bee, 1842-1843. 

Boston Mercantile Journal, 1837-1838. 

Boston Transcript, 1833-1836. 

Olive Branch, 1837-1810. 

Russell's Gazelle, 1800. 

Hingham Patriot, 1847-1848. 

Free 'J 1 coder, 1846-1854. 

Natchez Ariel, 1826-1828. 

N a tch cz Weekly Co wrier, 1 849- 1854. 
New Hampshire 

Concord Herald, 1790-1791. 

Concord Register, 1824-1820. 

Patriot, 1821-1822. 
New York 

Albany Argus, 1841-1812. 

Long l'sla nd Star, 1812-1814. 

New Yorker Criminal Zeitung, 1852-1866. 

Cincinnati Gazette, 1844-1877. 

Cincinnati Commercial, 1860-1873. 

Philadelphia Mirror, 1830-1837. 

Philadelphia Recorder, 1527-1830. 
South Carolina 

Charleston Courier, 1839-1852. 

Cheraw Intelligencer, 1823-1820. 

202 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 


Alexandria Gazette, 1800-1910. 

Argus, 1844-1852. 

Shde Journal, 1852-1898. 

Among these tiles there are several of considerable 
interest. The Windham Herald from 1792 to 1805 
nearly completed our early file of this Connecticut paper 
and enabled us, from the duplicates, to add to the file 
owned by a Connecticut library. The Cherokee Phoenix 
from 1832 to 1834 fitted peculiarly into the hie which we 
previously owned, and gave us an almost continuous run 
of this remarkable paper from its beginning in 1828 to 
1834. The Louisiana and Mississippi files provided 
the library with papers for a section of the country 
about which we have had frequent inquiry and in which 
we were not especially well represented. The file of 
the Cher aw Intelligencer and Southern Register dates 
from the first to the last number, June 5, 1823 to March 
10, 1826. It is the file which belonged to the editor, 
James F. Conover, in which he entered the names of the 
writers of the editorials and original contributions. 

Two especially long files which will prove useful to 
those studying the development of the Middle West are 
the Cincinnati Gazette from 1844 to 1877, and the Wis- 
consin Argus, and the State Journal, from 1844 to 1898. 

The file of the Alexandria Gazette, from its commence- 
ment in 1800 to the year 1910, is one of the most remark- 
able files of newspapers that has been preserved in this 
country. There are few American journals which have 
existed for a continuous period of well over a century, 
and scarcely any which have survived in such perfect 
condition. Since it is the only complete file, it seems 
opportune to give a detailed description of it in this 

The Alexandria Gazette was one of the earliest dailies 
in the country, established in Alexandria, Va., by Sam- 
uel Snowden in the year 1800. It was at first named the 
Alexandria Advertiser and Commercial Intelligencer, 

1913.] Report of the Librarian. 203 

which was shortened to the Alexandria Daily Advertiser, 
September 19, 1803. On July 11, 1808, the name was 
changed to the Alexandria Daily Gazette. The paper 
was strongly Federal, and because of its proximity to 
Washington, chronicled much of the congressional pro- 
ceedings at considerable length. The accounts of the 
War of 1812 are especially full, not only in the narration 
of events near Washington, but also in the extracts from 
the American journals. Alexandria was occupied by 
the British in August 1814, and the paper, in conse- 
quence, was suspended from August 22 to September 8. 

Minor changes in its name were as follows: " Daily" 
omitted from name, September 21, 1812; Alexandria 
Gazette & Daily Advertiser, May 14, 1817; Alexandria 
Gazette, April 2, 1822; Alexandria Gazette & Advertiser, 
June 11, 1822; Phenix Alexandria Gazette, January 1, 
1825; Alexandria Gazette, January 1, 1834; by which 
name it was thereafter known. 

Throughout all the middle part of the century, under 
the conservative editorship of its proprietor, Edgar 
Snowden, the Gazette took high place as a State journal 
and even made its influence felt throughout the southern 
section of the country. At the outbreak of the Civil 
War, its daily circulation ran close to four thousand, 
largely because it was in a position to obtain and publish 
all the press dispatches and present the latest military 
news before it could be obtained by other papers. 

During the War, the Gazette had a hazardous existence. 
On May 24, 1801, Alexandria was captured by the 
Federal troops, and on the following day, the Gazette 
announced the fact and suspended publication. A little 
single sheet, called Local News was issued, merely to fill 
a temporary want, from October 7, 1861 to February 
10, 1862, upon which latter date, the paper was discon- 
tinued by the Federal troops, and its office burned. 
Fortunately the early file of the paper had been removed 
to the residence of the editor. The Gazette resumed 
publication on May 13, 1862 and ran until October 31, 
1864, when the editor announced that he had been 

204 A mer ica n A n tiqua rian Soc iely. [ ( ) c t . , 

arrested by the military authorities and that the paper 
would be suspended. It again resumed publication on 
January 3, 1865 and thereafter ran continuously. 

For over a century, the paper was conducted by the 
members of one family — a remarkable record. Samuel 
Snowden was its founder and editor until his death, 
July 14, 1831. He was succeeded by his son, Edgar 
Snowden, who remained in charge until his death, 
September 24, 1875. He was followed by his son, 
Edgar Snowden, who was senior editor until December 
16, 1889, and was succeeded by his younger brothers. 
The paper remained in the proprietorship of the family 
until 1911, when it was sold and passed out of their 
possession after a period of 111 years. 

The acquisition of this valuable file gives the Society 
a long run of a southern newspaper, something which 
it has hitherto lacked. Of eighteenth century Alex- 
andria papers, the library has an excellent collection, 
such as the Virginia Journal & Alexandria Advertiser, 
1786-1787, the Virginia Gazette and Alexandria Adver- 
tiser 1789-1792, the Columbian Mirror and Alexandria 
Gazette, 1792-1800, and the Times and Alexandria Ad- 
vertiser, 1797-1799. There is no question that northern 
students of southern history will in the future derive 
much assistance from this newly acquired file, which 
so far as is known is the only comprehensive file of a 
Southern newspaper covering the 19th century which 
exists in New England. 

The report of the Council has referred at length to the 
files of West Indian newspapers obtained by the Presi- 
dent last winter and presented by him to the Society. 
As a matter of record a list is appended. Some of the 
years listed are only partially covered, but most of them 
are practically complete: — 


Weekly Register, May 1, 1827, to April 14, 1829. 


Agricultural Reporter, 1868, 1869, 1870, 1871, 1872, $73, 1874, 1882, 
1883, 1884, 1885. 

1913.] Report of the Librarian. 205 

Globe, 1808, 1869, 1871, 1872, 1873, 1874, 1875, 1882, 1883, 188-1, 1885. 

Herald, 1882, 1883. 

Times, 1868, 18C9, 1870, 1871, 1872, 1873, 1871, 1875, 1882, 1883, 1884. 

Free Press, 1828, 1829, 1830, 1831, 1832, 1833, 1838, 1839, 1843. 

Chronicle and Gazette, 1790, 1791, 1798, 1799, 1801, 1810, 1815, 1819, 
1826, 1827, 1835, 1836, 1837, 1840. 

Guardian, 1871 . 
St. Christopher 

Advertiser, 1822, 1824, 1825, 1826, 1827, 1829, 1856, 1858, 1859, 1860, 

1861, 1862, 1863, 1865, 1866, 1867, 1869. 
Gazette, 1822, 1824, 1825, 1826, 1827, 1829, 1856, 1858, 1859, 1860, 1861, 

1862, 1863, 1865, 1866, 1867, 1869. 
St. Lucia 

Gazette, 1834, 1835. 

Palladium and Public Gazette, 1844, 1847, 1848. 

Palladium and Free Press, 1838, 1839, 1842, 1843, 1814. 

In addition to the above, the following West Indian 
newspapers have recently been presented to the Society 
by Mrs. Francis II. Lee: 


Antigua Gazette, 1798-1799. 

Antigua Journal, 1798-1799. 

Antigua Weekly Register, 1849-1857, 1862-1861, 

Antigua Herald and Gazette, 1849-1852. 

Antigua Weekly Times, 1851-1853. 

Antigua Observer, 1846-1850, 1859-1862. 

Dominica Colonist, 1846-1847. 

The income from the various funds, the Isaac and 
Edward L. Davis Fund, the John and Eliza Davis Fund, 
the Francis II. Dewey Fund, the George Chandler Fund, 
the Benjamin F. Thomas Fund, and the Frances AV. 
Haven Fund, have all been used to purchase books in 
accordance with the expressed provisions of each fund. 

The process of rearranging the uncatalogued material 
has been nearly finished. The reports and publications 
of societies, a large collection of many thousand pam- 
phlets which includes all institutional literature excepting 
the reports of learned societies, has been entirely re- 
arranged on a geographical basis. These reports, which 

206 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

are frequently consulted, are now readily accessible and 
have an added value since they are occasionally of use 
to those studying local history. 

The great mass of United States Government Doc- 
uments in the possession of the Society has been ar- 
ranged in conformity with the classification adopted 
in the recently issued Check-list of Public Documents. 
The rearrangement has brought out the fact that not 
only is the collection large and comprehensive, but that 
in the early period it possesses many titles not in the 
Government list. Since the Society was made the 
recipient of all documents by a special act of Congress 
in 1814, and since the effort was made to fill in its early 
files over eight}' years ago, it is needless to say that the 
documents of the first fifteen congresses are well rep- 
resented. There is a large collection of the printed 
documents noted in Greeley's Public Documents of the 
First Fourteen Congresses, dating between 1789 and 1817 
and numbering about 1,500 pieces. There are also 
many titles not entered in Greeley's list, and several 
broadside publications which seem quite scarce. 

The only serious gap in the whole series of govern- 
ment documents is between 1906, when the library was 
omitted from the distribution list by the Superintendent 
of Documents then in charge, and 1911, when it was 
returned to the list. With the assistance of the present 
Superintendent of Documents, the effort is now being 
made to remedy this defect. Numerically, the collection 
contains about 9,000 volumes and 20,000 pamphlets. 
During the past few days, an exhibit of early American 
school-books has been installed in the cases on the second 
floor. It has been the intention to show a representative 
selection of the school-books of American interest before 
1800, whether those printed in the colonies or those 
produced by American authors, also including a few 
titles after 1800 which seemed worthy of particular 
consideration. From our collection of 8,000 school- 
books, it was no easy task to select the seventy speci- 
mens that go to make up this exhibit. There was too 

1913.] Report of the Librarian. 207 

great an abundance of riches. Some characteristic 
in a certain book which to one person might seem worthy 
of display to another would seem commonplace. The 
effort, therefore, has been to show primarily the school- 
books which were first printed in the colonies and those 
which were first produced by American authors. Yet, 
even in this latter field, there is often chance for doubt. 
Authors, with laudable patriotism, have frequently 
claimed that their productions were the first creations 
of native genius on this or that subject. But we of the 
present day, with our opportunity of access to far greater 
libraries than they enjoyed, find that their claims are 
sometimes antedated by years, or even by many decades. 
Nicholas Pike's famous Arithmetic of 1788 has generally 
been accredited to be the first native production on the 
subject, presumably because the author states in his 
preface that "this work is the first of the kind composed 
in America." And yet, down at Norwich, Connecticut, 
Alexander lYTDonald, a young school-teacher at the 
town academy, published a Plain Easy and Comprehen- 
sive Guide to Practical Arithmetic three years earlier, in 
1785, a book which was prefaced with the printed ap- 
proval of Joel Barlow, Nathan Daboll and other Con- 
necticut scholars. And six years earlier, in 1782, at 
Portsmouth, N. IT., Benjamin Dearborn had issued his 
Rides in Arithmetic; and many years before, in 1729, 
Isaac Greenwood had issued at Boston his Arithmetickj 
Vulgar and Decimal. It is always difficult to make 
positive claims regarding the priority of this or that 
book, for the number of books published is legion, and 
no one eye is all-seeing. 

In this exhibit specimens are shown of arithmetics, 
dictionaries, geographies, English grammars, the study 
of French, Greek, Hebrew and Latin, readers, speakers, 
spellers, and shorthand and writing-books. A list of the 
titles exhibited is appended: 


Daniel Adams, "Scholars Arithmetic," Leominster, 1801. (A popular 
arithmetic for many years in New England.) 

208 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Nathan Daboll, "DabolPa Schoolmaster'a Assistant," 3rd edition, New 
London. (The first edition printed in 1799. Thia work, which was more 
practical than its predecessors, achieved great popularity. The library 
has 29 editions to the year 1843.) 

Thomas Dilworth, "The Schoolmasters Assistant," 17 edition, Phila., 
1773. (The most popular arithmetic of the colonial period and one which 
lasted well into the 19th century. The library has 2(5 editions to the year 

"Federal or New Ready Reckoner," Chestnut Hill, 1793. (Published 
to show the value of the new Federal Money established by the authority 
of the United States, which, however, did not come into common use until 
several years later.) 

Alexander M'Donald, "The Youth's Assistant,. . . .Guide to Practical 
Arithmetic," Norwich, 1785. (One of the earliest arithmetics produced 
in America. Dedicated to the "Venerable and Worthy Instructors of 
Youth, in the United States of America," and vouched for in the preface 
by Joel Barlow, Nathan Daboll and others, as preferable to any arith- 
metic hitherto used in the common schools.) 

Nicholas Pike, "New and Complete System of Arithmetic," Newbury 
port, 1788. (The author states that "this work is the first of the kind 
composed in America," but this claim would disregard at least three 
earlier arithmetics printed in the colonies. The first comprehensive 
work, however, including algebra, geometry and trigonometry.) 

Thomas Sarjeant, "Elementary Principles of Arithmetic," Phila., 
1788. (The third arithmetic by an American author. Copper-plate 
engraving on title-page.) 

C. and J. Sterry, "The American Youth. . . a course of Introductory 
Mathematics," vol. I, Providence, 1790. (An early American production 
of merit, which, however, never reached its second volume.) 


Thomas Dilworth, "The Young Bookkeeper's .Assistant," Phila., 
1794. (One of the? earliest works on bookkeeping to be reprinted in 

William Mitchell, "New and Complete System of Book-keeping," 
Phila., 1796. (Presumably the first work on book-keeping by an Ameri- 
can author.) 


Caleb Alexander, "Columbian Dictionary of the English Language," 
Boston, 1800. (The first English dictionary by an American author.) 

William Perry, "Royal Standard English Dictionary," Worcester, 
1788. (The first English dictionary printed in America. This book was 
very popular and went through nearly a dozen editions before 1820.) 

Thomas Sheridan, "Complete Dictionary of the English Language," 
Phila., 1789. (The second English dictionary to be reprinted in America. 
A 16 mo. edition also issued this year.) 

1913.] Report of the Librarian. 209 

Noah Webster, "Compendious Dictionary of the English Language," 
New Haven, 1806. (The first edition of the most famous of American 


"Some Observations upon the French Tongue, " Boston, 1724. (Writ- 
ten by A. L. M., evidently Andrew Le Mercier, the pastor of the French 
Protestant Church in Boston. The second earliest work on the French 
language in the colonies.) 


"Atlas to Adams' Geography, for the use of Schools and Academies," 
Boston, 1814. (One of the earliest school atlases. Titlepage and maps 
engraved by Wightman. Between 1814 and 1830 Daniel Adams' Ge- 
ography was issued in more than a do/en editions.) 

Caleb Bingham, "An Astronomical and Geographical Catechism," 
Boston, 1795. (The first edition of a little book, the sales of which even- 
tually reached over one hundred thousand copies. The Society has 
several editions, as far as the thirteenth in 1813.) 

Victorianus Clark, "A Rhyming Geography, or, a Poetic Description 
of the U. S. A." Hartford, 1819. (The poetic description of "Religion 
and Morals" in Rhode Island would not have induced a large sale of the 
book in that State.) 

"Geography Epitomized." Printed for Chapman Whitcomb. (This 
rare book attempts to describe the world in verse, in order "to smooth 
one of the paths of Science, and render it inviting to the Sons and Daugh- 
ters of America." It was printed at Leominster, Mass., about 1796. 
An earlier edition, credited to Robert Davidson, was printed at Philadel- 
phia in 1784.) 

"Geography of the United States— upon a new plan." By a Profes- 
sor of geography. 3d edition, New York, 1833. (A large chart upon 
which geographical and statistical fads are entered in tabular form. 
The author admits regarding his system that "All that might be said 
in its praise would be superfluous."/ 

S. G. Goodrich, "A System of School Geography," Hartford, 1830. 
(The first edition of this work, illustrated with wood-cuts by Tisdale. 
Cuts shown represent a coal mine and a Philadelphia street-scene.) 

Jedidiah Morse, "The American Geography," Elizabethtown, 178'J. 
(The first comprehensive geographical account of the United States.) 

Jedidiah Morse, "Geography Made Easy," New Haven, 1784. (The 
first geography by an American author.) 

"A Synopsis of Geography. . . intended for the Benefit of Youth, 
especially that of the Students in the Public Grammar School in Wil- 
mington." Wilmington, 1785. (The second school-book on geography 
by an American author. In his preface, the author says that he has 
"crowded a great deal of geographical knowledge within the compass 
of a few pages," and that his performance "is at once the shortest and the 
compleatest extant.") 

210 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

W. C. Woodbridge, "Rudiments of Geography," 5th edition, Hartford, 
1825. (This work, first issued in 1821, was one of the first to use illus- 
trations in the text.) 

J. E. Worcester, "Elements of Geography," Boston, 1824. (The 
earliest edition of this work, first printed in 1819, to use illustrations.) 

Benjamin Workman, "Elements of Geography," 3d edition, Phila., 
1790. (The first edition of this work, one of the earliest American pro- 
ductions, appeared in 17S9. Three editions were published in a few 
months and sixteen editions by 1816. 


Caleb Alexander, "Grammatical System of the English Language," 
Boston, 1792. (An early grammar by an American author. Over a 
dozen editions were issued by 1820.) 

Caleb Bingham, "Young Lady's Accidence," Boston, 1785. (English 
grammar by an American author which became very popular. By 1815 
the "Accidence" had passed through twenty editions.) 

Thomas Dilvvorth, "New Guide to the English Tongue," Boston, 
1764. (A reprint of an English grammar, speller and reader largely 
used before the Revolution. First printed in this country at Phila., 
1747. Crude wood-cuts.) 

J. Mennye, "English Grammar," New York, 1785. (Next to Web- 
ster's book, the earliest English grammar by an American author.) 

Lindley Murray, "English Grammar," Boston, 1800. (Although by 
an English author, this work displaced Webster, and became the most 
popular grammar of the period. Including also his "Abridgement" 
and his "Exercises," the Library has 125 editions of Murray's Grammars 
published between 1800 and 1838.) 

Noah Webster, "Grammatical Institute of the English Language," 
Hartford, 1784. (The first edition of the first English grammar by an 
American author. The "Grammatical Institute" was issued in three 
parts, part I the Speller, part II the Grammar, and part III the Reader.) 


Caleb Alexander, "Grammatical System of the Grecian Language," 
Worcester, 1796. (The first Greek grammar composed by an American 

Edward Wettenhal, "Graecae Grammatical " Phila., 1776. (The ear- 
liest Greek grammar to be printed in this country.) 

Judah Monis, "Grammar of the Hebrew Tongue," Boston, 1735. 
(The first Hebrew grammar printed in this country, and composed by an 
Italian Jew, who was instructor in Hebrew at Harvard University.) 


Caleb Alexander, "New Introduction to Latin Language," Worcester, 
1795. (In his preface, he says that flu? work is "the first of the kind that 

1913.] Report of the Librarian . 211 

has been written and published in the United States." Several, however, 
had been published by American authors before this date.) 

Comenius, "Orbis Sensualium Pictus," translated by Charles Iloole, 
1st American edition, New York, 1810. (Wood-cut illustrations, showing 
arts and crafts of the period. The first edition of Comenius' work was 
published at Nuremberg in 1657.) 

Leonard Culman, "Sententiae Pueriles, " translated by Charles Hoole, 
Boston, 1723. (One of the earliest Latin books printed in the colonies.) 

James Greenwood, "Philadelphia Vocabulary," Phila., 1787. (Curi- 
ous cuts illustrating the various words, after the style of Comenius.) 

"Nomenclatura Brevis Anglo-Latino," by F. G., Boston, 1735. (An 
* early Latin-English vocabulary, ascribed to Francis Gregory.) 

James Otis, "Rudiments of Latin Prosody," Boston, 17G0. (This 
volume, although published anonymously, was written by James Otis, 
who later became famous as the defender of the rights of the colonies.) 

John Read, "Latin Grammar," Boston, 1736. (The second earliest 
Latin school-book by an American author.) 

i ''Short Introduction to Latin Grammar, for the use of the University 

and Academy of Pennsylvania," Phila., 1781. (The first edition of a 
book which became very popular throughout the middle states.) 


John Jenkins, "Art of Writing," Boston, 1791. (An elaborate work 
on penmanship, illustrated with copper-plates by Joel Allen.) 

"Writing Scholar's Assistant," Worcester, 1785. (An interesting and 
early example of an American writing-book.) 


Bildad Barney, "Introduction to the Art of Reading," Hudson, 1706. 
(An early American reader by a Brown University graduate of the class 
of 1792. The original owner's poetic address to a possible borrower is 
of interest.) 

Caleb Bingham, "American Preceptor," 2d edition, Boston, 1795. 
(First published in 1794, by 1832 more than 640,000 copies of this work 
are said to have been issued. The library has 30 different editions.) 

T. H. Gallaudet, "Child's Picture Defining Reading Book," Hartford, 
1830. (Illustrations in the text. Preface states that "this little volume, 
although originally prepared for the Deaf and Dumb, will be found to be 
equally adapted to the instruction of other children.") 

"Miscellanies, moral and instinctive, in Prose and Verse," Phila., 
1787. (Compiled by a Philadelphia woman, who preferred to remain 
anonymous. Preface includes a letter of approbation from Benjamin 

Lindley Murray, "English Reader," Phila., 1800. (By an English 
author, but one of the most popular of early readers. The library has 
over fifty editions of this work.) 

"The Protestant Tutor for Children," Boston. Printed by Samuel 
Green, 1685. (Authorship credited to Benjamin Harris. The pre- 

212 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

deceasor of the New England Primer. Although mutilated, this is the 
only known copy.) 

Noah Webster, "Grammatical Institute of the English Language/' 
part III, Hartford, 1785. (The first edition of Webster's Reader, the 
earliest school reader by an American author. The title was soon changed 
to the "American Selection of Lessons in Reading and Speaking." The 
library has 31 editions up to the year 1810.) 

Noah Webster, "Little Reader's Assistant," 2d edition, Hartford, 
1791. (Contains crude wood-euts, for the instruction of children. Pic- 
ture showing General Putnam killing the wolf in the cave.) 


Thomas Sarjeant, "Easy and Compendious System of Shorthand," 
Phila., 1789. (One of the earliest American shorthand-books, based on 
Gurney's system.) 


"The Art of Speaking," Fourth Edition, Phila., 1775. (One of the 
early reprints of an English book of elocution. No American selections 

Caleb Bingham, "Columbian Orator," 2d edition, Boston, 1799. 
(First edition published in 1797. Includes many American selections.) 

William Scott, "Lessons in Elocution," Phila., 1794. (Contains en- 
gravings illustrating the elements of gestures. Although a reprint of 
an English author and containing no American selections, it was a most 
frequently published book. The library contains 33 editions printed 
in this country between 1788 and 1820.) 


Caleb Alexander, "Spelling Book," Worcester, 1799. (Illustrated 
with cuts. Curious frontispiece.) 

"Exercises in Orthography," by Peter P. Goode, Providence, 1826. 
(This most peculiar book, which appears to be a specimen of modern 
simplified spelling, is based on the principle that the scholar should rectify 
the false orthography, and hence learn to spell correctly.) 

Abner Kneeland, "Brief Sketch of a New System of Orthography," 
Walpole, 1807. (The earliest printed plea for simplified spelling.) 

W. Perry, "Only Sure Gniw. io the English Tongue," 8th edition, 
Worcester, 1785. (A reprint from an English author and one of the most 
commonly used spellers after the Revolution. The Library has 21 
editions up to 1823. Isaiah Thomas, in 1804, stated that he had then 
sold more than 300,000 copies of the book.) 

Robert Ross, "New American Spelling Book," New Haven, [1796]. 
(One of the earliest spellers by an American author.) 

Isaiah Thomas, "New American Spelling Book," Worcester," 1785. 
(One of the earliest spelling-book* by an American author. Thomaa 
abandoned publishing this work, however, in favor of Perry's Speller.) 

1913.] Report of the Librarian . 213 

Noah Webster, "American Spelling Book," Boston, 1789. (The 
revised name of Webster's earlier book, aa published by Thomas & 
Andrews, who purchased the copyright for Mass., N. 11. and U. I.) 

Noah Webster, "Grammatical Institute of the English Language," 
Part I, Hartford, [1783]. (This part, which is the speller, is the fust 
edition of Webster's famous spelling book, which was destined to be Bold 
to the extent of many million copies. The Libniry has more than 40 
editions of this work.) 

"The Youth's Instructor," Boston, 1757. (Henry Dixon's speller 
frequently reprinted in America during the colonial period.) 

Thomas Abel, "Subtensial Plain Trigonometry," Phila., 1701. (The 
earliest American book on trigonometry.) 

One of the most valuable gifts ever received by the 
Society has recently come into its possession through 
the generosity of Mrs. Emma DeForest Morse who has 
presented to it her noted collection of American historical 
china. It is particularly appropriate that the Society, 
which already possesses such a fine collection of Ameri- 
can prints and engravings, should now acquire this 
remarkable series of early views preserved in old Staf- 
fordshire ware. Some of the century-old pictures of 
American cities are known only through the medium of 
this blue ware and hence are eagerly sought by collectors. 
-As Mr. II. T. H. flalsey lias pointed out in the preface 
to his book on Staffordshire pottery, it is chiefly because 
of its value as Americana that this ware is so largely 
collected and brings such extraordinary prices. 

The best estimate of the value of Mrs. Morse's collec- 
tion is given in the article by Alexander M. Hudnut 
in " American Homes and Gardens." He says: "One 
of the most energetic and successful collectors of the past 
decade is Mrs. Emma DeF. Morse, of Worcester, Mass. 
She has accomplished the almost impossible task of 
getting together 280 varieties of dark blue historical 
ware. She is. the fortunate possessor of an 'Albany 
Theater' view and I do not know of anyone else who 
has it. She also has the little 'Hurl Gate, East River' 
plate and the six-inch 'Mark Theater' plate — both of 
them exceedingly ran- pieces. The old 'Capitol, at 


214 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Albany, is without doubt one of the most valuable 
specimens of this superb collection. There are only 
about ten pieces scattered among the different collections 
of the country which Mrs. Morse needs to make her 
collection complete. I do not hesitate to say that, with- 
in my knowledge, this is the finest collection of dark 
blue Staffordshire in America." 

In addition to these pieces, Mrs. Morse has also pre- 
sented about forty other pieces of American interest, such 
as ware containing medallion heads of Washington, 
Adams and Lafayette. It is to be hoped that in some 
way the few pieces lacking in the collection may be 
obtained, and a complete and comprehensive check-list 
of all the pieces be issued. 

The collection has been installed in one of the exhi- 
bition rooms on the second floor, where steel cases, de- 
signed by R. Clipston Sturgis of Boston, one of the 
architects of the building, have been erected. Here, 
with a guarantee of safe-keeping, this remarkable col- 
lection of early American views will not only be an artis- 
tic delight to the cursory visitor and to the student, but 
will also forever serve as a memorial to the name of the 
generous donor. 

Respectfully submitted, 








Adams, Charles Francis 
Anderson, Joseph 
Angell, James B. 
Balch, T. Willing 
Ballivian, Manuel V. 
Bancroft, Hubert H. 
Barton, Edmund M. 
Bates, Albert C. 
Bingham, Hiram 
Bixby, William K. 
Blakeslee, George II. 
Brigham, Clarence S. 
Burton, Clarence M. 
Cundall, Frank 
Cunningham, Henry W. 
Davis, Andrew McF. 
Davis, Horace 
Davis, Livingston 
Dexter, Franklin B. 
Farrand, Max 
Fish, Carl Russell 
Gay, Frederick L. 
Green, Samuel A. 
Green, Samuel Swett 
Hoyt, Albert H. 
Hulbert, Archer B. 

Jameson, J. Franklin 
Kinnicutt, Lincoln N. 
Knapp, Shepherd 
Lincoln, Waldo 
Loubat, Joseph F. 
Matthews, Albert 
Moore, Clarence B. 
Nelson, William 
Nichols, Charles L. 
Paine, Nathaniel 
Parker, Henry A. 
Peiiaiiel, Antonio 
Pezet, Federieo A. 
Rice, Franklin P. 
Rugg, Arthur P. 
Stearns, Ezra S. 
Stebbms, Calvin 
Stevenson, Edward L. 
Taylor, Charles II., Jr. 
Updike, D. Berkeley 
Yedder, Charles S. 
Vignaud, Henry 
Washburn, Charles G. 
Winship, George P. 
Woods, Henry E. 


Adams, O. H. 
Allen, Gardner, W. 
Allen, Nathan H. 
Barney, Everett H. 
Barry, Phillips 
Baskervill, Patrick II. 
Bates, Mrs. Theodore C. 

Baxter, Charles N. 
Benjamin, Walter R. 
Blake, Francis E. 
Bowker, Richard R. 
Bullon, Henry L. 
Bushnell, Ford is 0. 
Chandler, Alice G. 


American Antiquarian Society. 


Clark, J. C. J,. 
Cole, Theodore L. 
Conway, M. Vivian 
Cook, Elizabeth C. 
Corey, Mrs. Deloraine P. 
Coulthard, H. R. 
Darrow, Carolynde B. 
Derby, Samuel C. 
Dubuque, Hugo A. 
Eastman, John R. 
Easton, Fergus A. 
Echagaray, S. 
Emerson, William A. 
Fackenthal, B. F., Jr. 
Flagg, Norman G. 
Forehand, Frederick 
Fox, Irving P. 
Gage, T. Hovey 
Gates, Burton N. 
Gesner, Anthon T. 
Gilman, Mrs. Warren R. 
Goodspeed, Charles 111. 
Graham, Henry T. 
Green, James 
Green, William 0. 
Greene, Richard W. 
Greeno, Follctt L. 
Hart, Charles Henry 
Hart, Samuel 
Hawes, James W. 
Helie, William R. 
Hoadley, George E. 
Hotchkiss, Justus S. 
lies, George 
Irish, Jane T. 
Jackson, Cordelia 
Judkins, Edward E. 
Kilroe, Edwin P. 
Kurtz, Alice W. 
Lavalle, Juan B. de 
Lindley, Harlow 
Lombard, Herbert E. 
Loud, George D. 
Lovell, Arthur T. 
layman, Payson W. 
McFarland, Horace 
Markens, Isaac 

Metcalf, Frank J. 

Moffat, R. Burn ham 

Morse, Mrs. Emma Del''. 

Munro, William B. 

Murray, Daniel 

Osborn, Henry F. 

Otis, M. Elizabeth 

Pabodie, Benjamin P. 

Paine, Robert T. 

Palmer, William P. 

Ramsay, Mrs. Jeannette A. W. 

Rantoul, Robert S. 

Reed, Alanson H. 

Reynolds, Mrs. Henry A. 

Rider, Sidney S. 

Rivet, Paul 

Ropes, James Hardy 

Sampson, Francis A. 

Sanborn, John P. 

Schmalz, John B. 

Scott, Charles N . 

Searle, W. T. 

Sellers, Edwin J. 

Siebert, Wilbur H. 

Sin elder, E. G. 

Smith, Woodbury C. 

Speidel, Merritt C. 

Spooner, Mrs. Jennie C. 

Stokes, Anson Phelps, Jr. 

Stokes, I. N. Phelps 

Stone, George E. 

Thayer, William R. 

Thomas, Alfred A. 

Thurston, Elizabeth P. 

Turner, Jul in II. 

Virgin, Edward H. 

Warner, Clarance M. 

Weatherhead, Frank M. 

Webb, M. Seward 

Weeks, Stephen B. 

White, Mrs. C. E. 

Why ham, W. H. 

Wilmot, George J. Sons 

Woodward, Lemuel F. 

Wright, George M. 

Wright, Henry P. 

Yeates, Sarah J. 

1913.] Donors. 217 



Abbot Academy. 

Academie Royale d'Archeologie de Belgique. 

Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 

Academy of Sciences of St. Louis. 

American Academy of Arts and Sciences. 

American Association for International Conciliation. 

American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. 

American Catholic Historical Society. 

American Geographical Society. 

American Historical Association. 

American Irish Historical Society. 

American Oriental Society. 

American Philosophical Society. 

American Seaman's Friend Society. 

American Society for Judicial Settlement of International Disputes. 

American Type Founders Company. 

Andover Theological Seminary. 

Antiquarian and Numismatic Society of Montreal. 

Australian Museum. 

Biblioteca Nacional de Mexico. 

Biblioteca Nazionale centrale di Firen/.e. 

Boston Athenaeum. 

Boston Board of Health. 

Boston Book Company. 

Boston Cemetery Department. 

Boston City Hospital. 

Boston, City of. 

Boston Daily Globe. 

Boston Port Society. 

Boston Public Library. 

Boston Transcript. 

Boston Transit Commission. 

Bostonian Society. 

Bowdoin College. 

Brockton Public Library. 

Brookline Public Library. 

Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences. 

Brooklyn Public Library. 

Brown University. 

Buffalo Historical Society. 

Buffalo Public Library. 

Bureau of Railway Economics. 

Bureau of Railway News and Statistics. 

California Genealogical Society. 

California State Library. 

218 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

California, University of. 

Cambridge Antiquarian Society. 

Cambridge Historical Society. 

Canada Department of Mines. 

Canadian Institute. 

Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. 

Carnegie Institution of Washington. 

Chicago Historical Society. 

Chicago School of Civics and Philanthropy 

Christian Science Monitor. 

Clark University. 

Club of Old Volumes. 

Colgate University. 

Colonial Society of Massachusetts. 

Colorado, University of. 

Columbia University. 

Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences. 

Connecticut, Diocese of. 

Connecticut Historical Society. 

Connecticut, State of. 

Connecticut State Library. 

Cornell University. 

Detroit Public Library. 

Dighton Public Library. 

Doubled ay, Page & Co. 

Enoch Pratt Free Library. 

Essex Institute. 

Field Museum of Natural History. 

Fitchburg, City of. 

Fitchburg Public Library. 

Forbes Library. 

Georgia Historical Society. 

Groton Public Library. 

Hartford Theological Seminary. 

Harvard University. 

Haverhill Public Library. 

Helena Public Library. 

Historischer Verein von Oberfalz und Kegensburg. 

Holy Cross College. 

Illinois Association Opposed to Woman Suffrage. 

Illinois State Historical Library. 

Illinois State Historical Society. 

Illinois, University of. 

Indiana State Library. 

Iowa Historical Department. 

Iowa, State Historical Society of. 

Jamaica, Institute of. 

1913.] Donors. 219 

Jersey City Public Library. 

John Carter Brown Library. 

John Crerar Library. 

Johns Hopkins University. 

Kansas State Historical Society. 

Lake Mohonk Conference. 

Library of Congress. 

Libreria general de Victoriano, Suarez. 

Los Angeles Public Library. 

Louisiana State Museum. 

Louisville Free Public Library. 

Lowell Historical Society. 

Maine, Congregational Conference of. 

Maryland Historical Society. 

Maryland Peace Society. 

Massachusetts, Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company of. 

Massachusetts Ancient Free and Accepted Masons. 

Massachusetts, Commonwealth of. 

Massachusetts General Hospital. 

Massachusetts Historical Society. 

Massachusetts Library Club. 

Massachusetts Medical Society. 

Massachusetts Public Record Commission. 

Massachusetts, Secretary of Commonwealth. 

Massachusetts Society of Mayflower Descendants. 

Massachusetts State Board of Health. 

Massachusetts State Library. 

Massachusetts State Normal School, Worcester. 

Mattatuck Historical Society. 

Messenger Printing and Publishing Company 

Metropolitan Water and Sewerage Board. 

Milton Public Library. 

Ministere de L'Instruction Publique, France. 

Minnesota Historical Society. 

Minnesota, University of. 

Missouri Historical Society. 

Missouri, State Historical Society of. 

Museo Nacional de Arqueologia, Historia y Etnologia. 

Museo Nacional de Mexico. 

National Society of Sons of American Revolution. 

Nebraska State Historical Society. 

Nevada, University of. 

New England Historic Genealogical Society. 

New England Society in the City of New York. 

New Hampshire Historical Society. 

New Hampshire State Library. 

New Haven Colony Historical Society. 

New Jersey Historical Society. 

220 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

New Mexico, Historical Society of. 

New York Academy of Sciences. 

New York Genealogical and Biographical Society. 

New York Public Library. 

New York State Education Department. 

New York State Historical. Association. 

New York State Historical Society. 

New York State Library. 

New York, University of the State of. 

Newberry Library. 

Newport Historical Society. 

North Carolina, Historical Commission of. 

North Carolina Historical Society. 

North Dakota, State Historical Society of. 

Nova Scotian Institute of Science. 

Oakland Free Library. 

Oberlin College. 

Ohio Archaeological and Historical Society. 

Ohio, Historical and Philosophical Society of. 

Oklahoma Historical Society. 

Peabody Institute of Baltimore. 

Peabody Museum of American Archaeology. 

Pennsylvania, Historical Society of. 

Pennsylvania Society of New York. 

Pennsylvania, University of. 

Perkins Institution. 

Philadelphia, Library Company of. 

Philippine Bureau of Education. 

Portland Board of Trade. 

Pratt Institute Free Library. 

Princeton University Library. 

Providence Journal Company. 

Providence Public Library. 

Queen's University. 

Real Academia de Ciencias de Madrid. 

Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. 

Rhode Island Historical Society. 

Rhode Island State Library. 

Rosenberg Library. 

Royal Academy of Belles Lettres, History and Antiquities of Stockholm 

Royal Colonial Institute. 

Royal Historical Society. 

Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. 

Royal Society of Arts. 

Royal Society of Canada. 

St. Louis Mercantile Library Association. 

St. Louis Public Library. 

San Diego Chamber of Commerce. 

1913.] Donors. 221 

Sentinel Printing Company. 

Smithsonian Institution. 

Soeiete" de Geographic de Paris. 

Soci6t6 des Americanistes de Paris. 

Societe" Nationale des Antiquaires de France. 

Soci6f6 Royale d'Archeologie de Bruxelles. 

Society for the Preservation of New England Antiquities. 

Society of Antiquaries of London. 

Sons of the Revolution in New York. 

South Carolina Historical Society. 

Springfield City Library. 

State House Bookshop. 

Tennessee State Board of Entomology. 

Texas State Historical Association. 

Toronto, University of. 

United States Brewers' Association. 

United States, Superintendent of Documents. 

Vermont Historical Society. 

Vermont State Library. 

Virginia Historical Society. 

Virginia State Library. 

Warren Academy of Sciences. 

Washington University. 

Washington University State Historical Society. 

Wesleyan University. 

Western Reserve Historical Society. 

Williams College. 

Wisconsin, State Historical Society of. 

Worcester Academy. 

Worcester Art Museum. 

Worcester Baptist Association. 

Worcester Board of Health. 

Worcester Board of Park CommisMioners. 

Worcester Board of Trade. 

Worcester Chamber of Commerce. 

Worcester, City of. 

Worcester Club. 

Worcester Gazette. 

Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

Worcester Telegram. 

Worcester Woman's Club. 

Worcester County Law Library. 

Worcester County Mechanics Association. 

Worcester County Musical Association. 

Worcester County Trader. 

Wyoming Historical and Genealogical Society 

Yale Peruvian Expedition. 

Yale University Library. 


222 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 



The American Antiquarian Society is fortunate in 
possessing in its archives three large volumes containing 
the correspondence of Andrew Craigie of New York 
and Cambridge with a large circle of business acquaint- 
ances, especially during the first years of the life of the 
Republic, 1787-1790. The most important of these 
correspondents were William Duer, the speculating 
friend of Hamilton's, who may be called, in modern 
phraseology, the first American plunger, William Con- 
stable, Christopher Gore, Joel Barlow, Fisher Ames, 
Brissot de Warville, the French traveller and financier, 
and a score of less well-known men active in the financial 
life of the country at this interesting period. These 
"Craigie Papers," as they are called, are the more 
valuable because they constitute a very mine of infor- 
mation regarding the details which occupied the atten- 
tion of an alert investor and speculator in the early days 
of our economic and financial history at the time when 
Hamilton was establishing the financial basis of our 
Nation. Possibly the correspondence of no other man 
of the period engaged actively on the market (not occu- 
pying official position) equally voluminous exists today. 

Andrew Craigie was the typical speculator and rep- 
resents accurately the New England attitude toward the 
Hamilton scheme of funding the national debt and the 
creation of the powerful United States Bank. He had 
the shrewdness of the Yankee, all the versatility of 
resource, all the far-sightedness and with this the ardent 

1913.] Andrew Craigie and the Scioto Associates. 223 

desire to be true to his friends and fair to all with whom 
he dealt. You will remark that I said he had the 
" desire" to be true and fair; it is easy to criticize, espe- 
cially at a distance of a century and in matters of which 
we can at best have but a very imperfect knowledge. 

The "Craigie Papers" contain very few letters to or 
from William Duer; living together in New York, the 
office of Duer was the scene of their relationship and 
Craigie was at home in the house and family of the 
first noted New York speculator. Their relationship 
must have begun soon after the close of the Revolution, 
for we find Craigie in the summer of 1787 going to Lon- 
don as Duer's confidential agent to Daniel Parker. His 
letter of August, 1787 is more valuable in showing his 
relation with Duer than Parker's relations with Duer. 
"I hope you have written to me," reads this letter, 
"fully respecting the several Objects of Speculation which 
we have so often conversed on. You and I have gone 
some great lengths in giving each other proofs of Con- 
fidence and I do not believe either of us will ever have 
occasion to repent of it. I do not pretend however to be 
answerable for the success of my conduct but only for 
the principles which govern it, these being always con- 
sistent with the assurances I have made you will secure 
me your friendship whatever be the Event of our Oper- 
ations — but it is with great satisfaction I inform you 
that every thing appears favorable to our views. Do 
my friend devote as much of your time as you can 
possibly spare to the Objects we have in view — give me 
clearly the plans you have digested — and then blame 
me if from inattention they are not executed." This 
letter is of commanding interest because showing the 
lack of information Craigie had; it portrays very clearly 
the kind of a man William Duer was and his secretive 
methods even with intimate business acquaintances. 

The " Craigie Papers" give us little knowledge con- 
cerning the Duer-Parker combination, but Craigie's 
acquaintance with Parker resulted in the meeting in 
America of Craigie and the French traveller and financier 

224 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Brissot, whose investments in American securities were 
financed by Craigie with ability if not without great 
difficulty and anxiety. The papers relating to the 
Brissot investments in the United States Liquidated 
Debt seem to lie between the American Antiquarian 
Society archives and the New York Historical Society 
Library; some of the latter seem to have been taken 
from the Craigie letter books. As a specimen of specu- 
lation in the exciting days when the funding of our debt 
was a great national question, these letters and mem- 
oranda are of great value and it is fortunate, in view of 
the fact that Duer died in jail, and Craigie and Flint 
both failed and Brissot lost his head in the days of 
guillotine activity in Paris, that these are not more scat- 
tered than they are. 

Again, Craigie had important relations with Robert 
Morris and Phelps and Gorham concerning the purchase 
of New York lands. It is unfortunate that only a few 
of the " Craigie Papers" relate to these notable land 
speculations; those which do are of priceless value. 
There are a mass of letters between Craigie and his 
brother-in-law Foster concerning the purchase and 
furnishing of the now famous Craigie house in Cam- 
bridge, where the almost penniless speculator spent 
his last years and from which, rumor still has it in Cam- 
bridge, he often dared not stir because of the lynx-eyed 
sheriff's careful watch. This interesting house has 
been carefully described, evidently with these papers 
as the basis of investigation, in the American Antiqua- 
rian Society Proceedings for April, 1900. 

About 1784 Craigie was turning from the wholesale 
apothecary trade to the general field of speculation. 
In the year following, for instance, he was sending 
gunpowder tea to China and elsewhere and broadening . 
his interests generally until by 1790 his account books, 
also fortunately preserved, show a multitudinous busi- 
ness connection and a correspondence with upwards of 
fifty persons, of which some six hundred letters still 
exist. The bulk of this correspondence may be divided 

1913.] Andrew Craigie and the Scioto Associates. 225 

into three classes: first, private business and family 
letters; second, letters concerning speculations carried 
on by the Trustees to the Proprietors of the Scioto 
lands; and third (really a sub-division of the second), 
letters relating to the French emigrants en route from 
France to the Scioto lands. 

I have elsewhere treated the general speculations of 
the Trustees in a paper entitled "The Methods and 
Operations of the Scioto Group of Speculators," fully 
one-third of the facts being derived from the "Craigie 
Papers." In the present paper I wish to point out the 
value of the Craigie letters concerning the French 
r emigrants; for although hundreds of articles, books and 
pamphlets have covered their unique story, a new series 
of concrete facts are to be found in the "Craigie Papers. " 
The national service which the American Antiquarian 
Society offers to perform in historical fields is well 
illustrated in the present instance, for a true history of 
one of the unique phases of Ohio history can only be 
written within these walls. 

One hundred and twenty-seven years ago last Jan- 
uary in a Worcester County farm house, that of General 
Rufus Putnam in Rutland, General Putnam and Gen- 
eral Benjamin Tupper issued a call for a meeting of 
Revolutionary soldiers holding Continental certificates 
to elect representatives who should meet and form an 
Association to purchase from the United States a great 
tract of land on the Ohio River. On March 1, 1786, 
the meeting of delegates took place at the Bunch of 
Grapes Tavern in Boston, where on March 3, was formed 
the Ohio Company of Associates. By July of the year 
following, the agents of this Association, notably the 
Rev. Manasseh Cutler of Ipswich, secured both the con- 
tract for the purchase of western lands and an organic 
law, the Ordinance of 1787, to govern the region between 
the Ohio and Mississippi rivers and the Great Lakes. 
This was a diplomatic feat of no small magnitude and it 
could not have been accomplished without the aid of 
the shrewd New York speculator, William Duer. The 

226 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Associates could not agree to purchase more than a 
million and a half acres at 06 % cents per acre. The 
Committee of Congress held that the policy to sell the 
ceded western lands to pay the Revolutionary debt 
needed the eclat of a more notable transaction than the 
sale of a paltry one-and-one-half million acres. Duer 
agreed, however, (provided the Associates would contract 
for six million acres) to take the residue, four and one- 
half millions, as a speculation, paying for it at the same 
rate in six installments. Two contracts therefore were 
signed by Manasseh Cutler and Winthrop Sargent, one 
for the lesser acreage on behalf of the Ohio Company 
of Associates, and one on behalf of themselves and un- 
named associates for four and one-half million acres. 

Thus there came into existence what has without 
authority been called the Scioto Company from the fact 
that the acreage called for in the option included rich 
Scioto Valley prairie lands. All that had existence in 
fact was the option on the lands. The Trustees to the 
Proprietors of the Scioto Lands owed the long terms 
of payment secured to the high character and known 
honesty of the men who represented the Ohio Company 
of Associates who signed the original contract and who 
paid half a million dollars down, a quarter of which Duer 
supplied. These trustees were William Duer" and 
certain of his friends, notably, Andrew Craigie and 
Royal Flint, also a Boston merchant living in New York. 

Selling western lands to foreigners or securing foreign 
labor to clear and till western land was a popular policy. 
From the time of William Penn the colonies and the 
eddying frontier had heard alien tongues; Washington 
seriously considered the importation of Palatines to 
people his own western lands. The speculation entered 
into by Cutler and Sargent in co-operation with Duer, 
Flint and Craigie as the active partners, was originally 
planned as a colonization scheme; a European agency 
was mentioned prior to the securing of the contract of 
sale from Congress. 1 The Scioto speculation was, of 

1 Life of Manasseh, Cutler, I, ch. xii. 


1913.] Andrew Craigie and the Scioto Associates. 227 

course, one of the schemes familiarly discussed between 
Duer and Craigie, and Parker participated not only in 
the tricky plan of borrowing money abroad by giving 
title to unpaid-for-lands as security, but in securing 
emigrants. Flint first, then Joel Barlow, was suggested 
as agent to Europe, and Barlow at length sailed in the 
spring of 1788. The leading facts of Barlow's experi- 
ences have been brought out by Belote, Todd, Sibley 
and others; by dint of exceeding. his instructions through 
lack of proper advice from America, some six hundred 
French emigrants were crossing the Atlantic in the 
spring of 1790, arriving at Philadelphia, Alexandria, 
Va., and elsewhere, from March to May. Undoubtedly 
a quantity of false sympathy has been wasted on these 
emigrants. It is probable that the Compagnie du 
Scioto, formed in Paris, exaggerated the prospects of 
emigrants to the Scioto region, but those who have 
examined the information have done so with the purpose 
of exposing exaggeration; the result being equal exagger- 
ation. For instance, few or no accounts spare pathetic 
adjectives in commenting on the fact that the emigrants 
had invested their earthly all in their adventure, where- 
as, we have absolute proof that little or no actual money 
was needed to purchase the land-claims which they 
acquired. 2 

Barlow did not seem to grasp the idea that he rep- 
resented speculators who only desired to turn over their 
money; Duer never for an instant had the notion of co- 
operating in good faith with the Ohio Company of 
iVssociates by developing his purchase. It is a very 
pretty illustration of the age to see on the one hand the 
plain Worcester County farmers composing the Ohio 
Associates go ahead and send their ox-teams across the 
Allegheny snows, float their boats on the ice-filled Ohio, 
found their city of Marietta and organize a government 
on the basis of their option on a million and a half acres 
and make a reasonable success of their venture, while, 
on the other hand, the New York speculator, not intend- 

*Patriote Francais, Apr. 29, 1790 

228 A merican A ntiquarian Society . [ Oc t . , 

ing to create a dollar of wealth, schemes his schemes like 
an 18th century Get-Rieh-Quick-Wallingford and floun- 
ders about in the net of his selfish speculations until 
the prison cell and death complete his gigantic failure. 

Barlow decided that if he could not sell the option 
en bloc he had better make a lodgment of Frenchmen 
at any price on the lands in question. If the oppor- 
tunity offered that likelihood of success which its pro- 
motors prophesied, the result of the experiment would 
prove it instantly once and for all. If the six hundred 
emigrants were once settled happily on the Scioto soil 
and were satisfied, he estimated that their report to 
France would inaugurate an emigration the like of which 
the Old World had never seen — and he was right. I 
am holding no brief for Joel Barlow, nor do I seek excuse 
or palliation for his eccentricities of a business nature 
or his misjudgment of men. But I do hold that his 
course proves that he believed in the honesty and 
practicability of the scheme of colonization which he 
represented to the French people; he was willing to 
submit the whole project to a test; he was sure that if 
the test was met and resulted favorably there was no 
end to the profit to be realized. You may think what 
you may of Barlow, but you cannot believe that he 
knew he was foisting a hoax on the French people and 
yet at the same time was willing to put the whole thing 
to the only real test possible, actual emigration. Nor 
can we hold the oft-repeated opinion that he was an 
impracticable visionary in view of the proof that in only 
four years after giving up the Scioto land scheme he 
made and safely invested a fortune equivalent in our 
day to more than three hundred thousand dollars. At 
any rate the French six hundred sailed from Havre to 
meet their Balaklava in America. 

I will not venture on the resiliency of your imagination 
to ask you to consider William Duer's amazement to 
iind six hundred excitable French men and women on 
his hands, each carrying a deed to Scioto lands of which 
Duer did not own a single inch. In his alarm, chagrin, 

1913.] Andrew Craigie and the Scioto Associates. 229 

and amazement, he lost sight of the poetic Barlow's 
vision. In point of fact he had an opportunity such as 
is granted to few men. His contract with Congress was 
invaluable. Those Scioto lands were as rich as any 
exaggerated account of them ever printed. Instead of 
rising to his opportunity like a man of genius, Duer sank 
to the depths of pettifogging procrastination. Oddly 
enough the story of this extraordinary episode is con- 
tained in good part in the " Craigie Papers," supple- 
mented by the "Gallipolis Papers" in the archives of 
the Historical and Philosophical Society of Ohio. 

Craigie's connection with the land speculation side of 
the operations of the Scioto Group and Barlow's mission 
was very slight, although his participation on the 
general speculation side had been active. He had gone 
into "the concern," he wrote Parker, for the purpose of 
strengthening his " union with Duer. "^ I find nothing 
relating to Barlow or his mission in Craigie's corre- 
spondence until the expected arrival of the French in 
America; he then wrote Barlow (in reply to a letter 
upbraiding him for failure to keep Barlow advised) 
typically denying any sense of responsibility in the 
affair. But the arrival of the French brought amazing 
responsibilities to the whole coterie of Scioto speculators. 
Why Craigie should suddenly have become so involved 
in their affairs I am at a loss to explain; it may be he 
agreed to act the r61e of a foil for Duer; it is more likely 
that the actual agents on the spot, Major Guion, Franks 
and Porter, found Craigie a more responsive and con- 
sciencious trustee than anyone else and acted accord- 
ingly. The choosing of this latter alternative does not 
necessarily preclude the partial acceptance of the 

Barlow had recognized the crux of the situation and 
felt an instinctive fear that all would not be well. He 
realized at once that for practical emigration purposes 
the Marietta pioneers were his main hope. As early 
as November 29, he wrote Duer advising what directions 

'Craigie Papcrti, I, 11. 


230 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

should be sent to the Ohio colonists under Putnam. 4 
Early in December he wrote beseeching letters to Duer 
and Flint, enclosing an open letter to any of the prom- 
inent members of the Ohio Company of Associates.^ 
But the Ohio Company itself was in great straits to meet 
the second payment due on its contract with Congress 
at this moment, having no legal right to the lands 
already settled until complete payment was made. 
Craigie's letter to John Holker of March ll 6 shows that 
a compromise effort was being made with members of 
Congress. To Frazier on the same date Craigie warns 
his correspondents to secrecy pending the a arrange- 
ments" being "made here" INew York]. 7 Already the 
vanguard of some eighteen who sailed from Havre late 
in the previous year 8 were in Philadelphia and Col. 
David S. Franks was engaged to go to Alexandria with 
some of these and prepare for the arrival of the remain- 
der. Holker is urged to secrecy. Each emigrant, he 
is told, is in possession of "a book or map of the land"; 
these he is to secure if possible lest " impertinent people" 
get hold of them. Certainly this was a justifiable 
curiosity on the part of the Scioto Trustees to learn what 
lands these foreigners had bought from them, especially 
in view of the fact that they possessed none at all. The 
reference here is doubtless to the publication issued 
by the Compagnie du Scioto and which is described by 
numerous writers as an exaggerated account of the rich- 
ness and desirability of the Scioto region. Members of 
the Antiquarian Society will recall the article on Dr. 
Anthony Saugrain in the Proceedings of April, 1897. 
Saugrain, who had toured the Ohio Valley, was a mem- 
ber of the Scioto emigration party. That deception 
could have influenced such a man and his friends is 
unreasonable. And surely no exaggeration could exceed 
the preposterous letter sent to Clavi&re by Brissot from 

« Barlow to Duer, Scioto Papers in N. Y. Public Librnry. 

* Craigie Papers, II, -12. 

•Idem, I, 50. 

■•Idem, I, 52. 

» GallipoliB Papers, I, 40, 139. 


1913.] Andrew Craigie and the Scioto Associates. 231 

Philadelphia, stating that 80,000 families in America 
by making 1,500 lbs. of maple sugar per year each could 
ruin the sugar trade of slave-ridden St. Domingo by 
supplanting it. 

By March 17, Franks had gotten all but two of his 
Frenchmen off for Baltimore; the Musician and the 
Saddler preferred Philadelphia and Franks had had diffi- 
culty already reconciling disputes among themselves 
and disengaging some who had bound themselves to 
master tradesmen. 9 Members of the French colony in 
Philadelphia took pains to decry the swindling that the 
Compagnie du Scioto had been guilty of in France. But 
Brissot's scathing criticisms of the French in Phila- 
delphia, a year previous, inclines one to believe that 
Franks and Porter were dealing with an unruly crew, 
itself under the bad influences of acclimated French 
very much opposed to things American. 10 

At the same time, the Craigie correspondence shows 
the New York speculating trustees, Duer, Craigie and 
Flint in a remarkable light. Could access be had to 
Duer's correspondence with Franks the matter would 
appear more plainly; the reader is dumbfounded rather 
than informed by the Craigie-Porter letters. Franks 
was engaged by Duer, and Porter, the Alexandria mer- 
chant, acted rather as a representative of Craigie. 
Business relations between him and Daniel Parker & 
Co. of London made it useful to him to befriend Craigie 
in the matter of the emigrants in order to deserve a 
friend at Court in the adjustment of Parker's affairs. 
Porter's experience with Craigie, as Craigie' s must have 
been with Duer, is beyond explanation. For instance, 
the endeavor was made to cover the entire transaction 
with a veil of secrecy. The emigrants, even in Phila- 
delphia, were sworn to secrecy as to destination, prices 
paid for lands, relationship with the Compagnie du Scioto, 
etc. This, of course, became a jest and made matters 
more awkward for Franks and Porter. More success 

"Craigie Papers, III, 27. 
" Idem III, 28. 


232 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

was attained in shielding Duer and Craigie. Writing 
to Craigie of his disappointment over the circulation in 
Philadelphia of copies of the prospectus issued to the 
emigrants at Paris, Franks adds: ''One thing which 
may take off from the disagreeableness of the above 
mentioned Circumstance is, that no Man, to whom I hold 
myself accountable at New York is known or even sur- 
mised. Mr. Barlow's name and agency are also utterly 
unknown to the Public." 11 Though Craigie may not 
have been concerned financially with Duer in the Scioto 
Association, there can be no question that he would have 
profited largely had the speculation succeeded; he had 
everything to gain and nothing to lose. The moral 
obligation he owed, at least to Porter who bore the 
brunt of exasperating labors at Alexandria, he very 
largely ignored. He let numerous letters lie unanswered 
when circumstances made inaction on Porter's part 
morally impossible. Porter was Craigie's prospector 
at the end of the rope over the cliff; if he found gold he 
would be pulled up, if not he would be dropped. Duer 
treated Franks with the same inconsequentiality that 
was given Barlow in France. Throughout March he 
received not a line of advice or direction from New 
York; " every post," he writes, "has brought me nothing 
but disappointment. " n The silence extended over April 
12, in all some 42 days without a line of advice. 13 Duer's 
treatment of General Putnam was flagrantly inconse- 
quential even while the latter was advancing four 
thousand dollars which he was never refunded. It is 
exasperating to know that Duer was even now promoting 
a Maine land speculation and putting into it seventeen 
thousand dollars for a three hundred per cent, profit, 
while Putnam was sinking four thousand dollars and 
Porter and Franks were left to be sued by waggoners 
for transportation of the emigrants. 14 This shows 
Duer's character. Craigie was not a partner in the 

11 Franks to Craigie, 20 March, 1790. Craigie Papers, III, 28. 

»2 Franks to Craigie. 31 March. Idem, HI, 29. 

"Franks to Craigie, 12 April. Idem, III, 30 

" Franks to Craigie, 20 April, 1792. Idem, III, 31. 

1913.] Andrew Craigie and the Scioto Associates. 233 

Maine land scheme and evidently knew nothing of it; 
Flint, however, was an active agent. Franks plainly 
took all steps to shield the Trustees from discovery; 
whether because the latter feared to be held responsible 
for the terms of sale granted by the Compagnie du Scioto 
or because they feared being compelled to fulfill the 
French company's promise concerning placing the 
immigrants on their land, or both, is not perfectly clear. 
In Franks' letter of the 9th we learn for the first time 
that the character of the mysterious negotiations being 
carried on with Congress was in the form of a Memorial 
from Franks himself to Congress which was in the hands 
of Colonel Wadsworth. No copy of this document or 
any committee report on it appears in the Papers of the 
Continen tal Congress . 

Porter's and Franks' difficulties were two-fold: to 
keep the company intact and to aid Guion in forwarding 
the emigrants across the mountains. In a number of 
cases Franks had to employ "douceur" to disengage some 
of the emigrants from agreements made with master- 
tradesmen. As to the moving westward, Franks, and 
Porter finally, effected an agreement. The emigrants 
had demanded that the Company pay their board at 
Alexandria until the day of departure; that they and 
their baggage be transported to the Scioto, board and 
lodging to be included en route at the rate of twenty-one 
shillings per head; that the women and children be trans- 
ported in carriages and the sick taken in ambulances 
accompanied by physician and nurse; that all proprietors 
be furnished with two horses, two cows, and a plough, for 
250 livres. With unimportant exceptions Franks agreed 
to the stipulation; the emigrants were granted another 
year in which to make their second payment on their 
lands; extra lots and the pacification of the Indians were 
promised. Major Guion left Alexandria with the 
vanguard (150) on June 29. 15 

lf> Sibley affirms that «>n the acceptance of the terms of treaty with Franks all claima 
against the Company, made in Paris, were annulled. The French Five Hundred and 
Other Papers, 38; Craigie Papers, TI, 153. 

234 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

The usual statement made that the French emigrants 
were not met on their arrival in America by represen- 
tatives of the Scioto Trustees is modified by a study of 
the "Craigie Papers"; we have seen that Franks met the 
advance party in Philadelphia and conducted them 
southward; by Porter's letter of May 5, we learn of his 
assiduity in caring for the shiploads that came up the 
Potomac to Alexandria. Putting the facts together it 
is plain that the French were met and provided for, but 
that the agents obeyed their employers in New York by 
keeping their names and sponsorship secret. Porter's 
anxiety appears in his remark to Craigie, " 'Tis eno' 
[enough] to say that they are here and that if some per- 
son is not immediately exhibited to them who will under- 
take to conduct them the design of the Company will 
be extremely injured." With reference to my previous 
statement concerning Barlow's faith in the result of a 
successful trial of the emigration experiment, I quote 
again from Porter to Craigie on May 5: "It only 
remains for the Company to effect a good settlement of 
these and those coming, to bring out as many as are 
wished for." Several side-lights are thrown on the 
character of the French emigrants ; some are said to have 
been taken out of jails; Count Du Barth desired to secure 
some formal protection of himself and property by Con- 
gress nominally against the Indians but really against 
the emigrants themselves. "You must smother this 
idea," writes Porter to Craigie, "and let the Indians 
be the ostensible reason of granting the aid." The 
correspondence under review shows the Scioto emigrants 
came in smaller parties and a larger number of ships than 
has been reported. The following ships are not men- 
tioned in previous accounts: the "Endeavor," "Re- 
covery," "Patriot," and "Liberty." At least fifty 
emigrants came bound for three years to the Company 
and numbers were bound for a year to the ship owners. 
Misrepresentations regarding the length and cost of the 
journey from the Potomac to the Scioto in the printed 
documents put in their hands in Paris first aroused the 




1913.] Andrew Craigie and the Scioto Associates. 235 

ire of the emigrants, and the fact that they sensed the 
inconsistency of not being met by official representatives 
is shown by their suspicious treatment of the interpreter 
provided. No wonder Porter wrote that the "English 
tongue" makes "but a miserable figure among 500 
French Men." 

On the 14th day of May, Porter learns finally that 
General Putnam is not coming to lead the emigrants 
to the Ohio. As early as March 26th a letter to Porter 
shows that Putnam was promised as the leader of the 
Colony and there is nothing to show in the whole range 
of Ohio or Scioto correspondence an intention of his 
leading the Company; yet the emigrants had hardly 
landed ere he was held out to them as the cure-all for 
their troubles and the Moses of their pilgrimage. The 
correspondence for this month of May is a very comedy. 
Porter, who assumed at Craigie's request the office of 
general factotum at Alexandria out of friendship for 
Craigie, writes seven letters, some three pages in length, 
imploring that an authorized agent be sent there, that 
measures be taken to quell the rebellious spirit of the 
emigrants by meeting their demands half-way, that the 
promised leader in the migration be sent on, that ar- 
rangements be made for the wilderness voyage to the 
Ohio — and every letter begs for a reply to the last. In the 
face of all this Craigie writes Joel Barlow on the 24th 
of the month : "Every exertion has been made to realize 
in the fullest manner the expectations of the Settlers and 
they are generally as happy as men can be. The treat- 
ment thay have received here has not in any respect 
been short of what your most sanguine wishes could 
have aimed at." 16 No wonder Porter should write 
Craigie in the next fortnight; "I declare to you, my 
friend, that my present situation is extremely unpleasant 

and my not hearing from you 

speaks a certain something thai mortifies and wounds 
me to the very Soul. " And on the last day of the month 

Porter sends the following frank statement which sums 

M Craigie PaperB, I, 60. 


236 American A ntiquarian Society . [Oc fc . , 

up the point I wish to make in this paper. After chiding 
Craigie for sending cautious advice not to become too 
involved in the Scioto affair (which, if sent at all, should 
have reached Porter three months earlier) Porter re- 
marks, "How far the Conduct of the agents in France 
has been marked with regularity or propriety — I know 
not — but in this Country the business has been conducted 
in a very improper manner." Thirty-five days later 
Craigie writes Porter: "You wonder that my caution 
should come so late — -it was as I thought in season, as 
soon as I discovered the arrangements you were entering 
into I wrote you enough is said — the least said is 
enough to the wise and I am happy in writing to such 

I thank you for your good opinion of my 

prudence. I wish it may carry me through and fix me 
down at least in a tranquil situation — I was not made 
to battle — it is high time I was in port." 

The "Craigie Papers" prove conclusively that the 
ancient claim that Barlow's irregularities and the 
alleged embezzlement of his Paris confreres cannot longer 
shield the American trustees from behavior as atrocious 
as that attributed to any European representatives. 
Either Duer, Craigie and Flint should have disowned 
the actions of the Compagnie du Scioto frankly and fairly 
before the world, or should have acted as Craigie rep- 
resented to Barlow in the letter of May 24th that they 
had acted. Craigie's letters put the whole Scioto fiasco 
in a new light which is interesting and valuable so far 
as it illustrates the conscience of the American speculat- 
ors of the eighteenth century. 

1913.] The Papers of the Johnson Family. 237 



The Johnson family, the disposition of whose papers 
is to be described, is one of which the people of the United 
States and of New England in particular have reason to 
be proud. It is a family distinguished for the services its 
members have rendered to the community in which they 
may happen to have settled, to their colony and state, 
whichever that might be, and to their nation. It is a 
family whose tradition lias been that of public service. 

Robert Johnson with his wife and four sons first ap- 
peared in New Haven in 104.1. The branch of the fam- 
ily with which we are concerned identified itself first 
with Guilford where Robert's sou William and his son 
Samuel were leading men of the town and of the Con- 
gregational Church . 

In the next generation Samuel Johnson, a graduate of 
Yale in 1714 and later a tutor in that institution, was 
ordained in the Congregational Church in 1720. There 
were evidently doubts in his own mind, however, for 
two years later he announced his conviction of the superi- 
or claims of the Episcopal ordination, and the following 
year, after studying in England, he was ordained in the 
Anglican Church. Upon his return to this country he 
was the first Episcopal clergyman in Connecticut, and 
as such he was a man of consideration and of power in 
New England. He built the hist Episcopal church in 
the colony at Stratford, in which town he settled and 
which has remained the place with which this branch of 
the Johnson family has been most closely associated. 

238 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

With his Church interests and connections it was 
inevitable that Samuel Johnson should be associated 
with men and affairs in New York, and with his ability 
it was natural that he should be concerned with the pro- 
ject of the establishment of a college under the auspices 
of the Church and that he should be the first president 
of King's College in New York City. This position lie 
retained from 1754 to 1703. 

His son, William Samuel Johnson, was rightly regarded 
as one of the most learned men of his time in this country. 
A lawyer of ability and reputation he became a member of 
the colonial legislature, he was a delegate to the Stamp 
Act Congress, and a special agent of Connecticut, in 
London in 1766-1771. He could not bring himself to 
take an active part against England and after the Dec- 
laration of Independence he withdrew from public life. 
This did not, however, cost him the respect of his fellow 
countrymen, for at the close of the Revolution he 
represented Connecticut in Congress, he was one of the 
delegates from Connecticut to the convention which 
framed the Constitution of the United States, and he 
was elected the first United States senator from Con- 
necticut. At the time of the Federal Convention in 
Philadelphia he was elected president of the college over 
which his father had presided, and he resigned his 
United States senatorship that he might devote his time 
to the presidency of Columbia, which he did until his 
retirement in 1800. 

It is not the province of this paper to present a detailed 
genealogical record of the Johnson family, or even of its 
more distinguished members. Suffice it to say, that while 
the two men whom we have considered may have been 
the most prominent, other members of the family have 
rendered services as unselfish and as efficient, though 
perhaps less conspicuous, in every learned profession as 
well as in business, and they have been highly respected 
and honored members of their communities. Enough 
has been given to identify the family for present pur- 

1913.] . The Papers of the Johnson Family. 239 

The history of such a family is a part of the history of 
our nation,, and the family papers are a part of our 
country's records. It seems well, therefore, that a 
statement should be made for the benefit of students 
or other persons interested as to where these papers can 
be found, and no more fitting medium of communication 
exists than in the Proceedings of this local and yet 
national organization, the American Antiquarian Society. 

At one time or another by various means some of the 
papers had found their way into several depositories, but 
the bulk of the family papers remained until a few years 
ago at the Johnson homestead in Stratford, Connecticut, 
where Mrs. Susan E. Johnson Hudson, a great, great 
granddaughter of Samuel Johnson, has resided. 

Some two or three 3'ears ago an opportunity was given 
to the writer to examine these papers and, because of 
his interest and professional connection, his opinion was 
requested as to the best disposition to he made of them. 
One naturally thinks that a collection of family papers 
should be kept together in one place, but there were seri- 
ous if not insuperable obstacles in the present instance. 
As already stated some of the papers had already been 
scattered, and the claims from different sources upon the 
guardians of the family papers were conflicting and con- 

It seeming impossible to deposit the papers in any one 
place without creating more dissatisfaction than could 
be compensated for by the gain of a single collection of 
such as remained, it was determined to recommend a 
division of the papers upon lines which had been indicated 
by those papers which had already passed out of the fam- 
ily control. Such papers as were of great national im- 
portance should be deposited in the Library of Congress; 
such as related to Columbia and the early history of 
the Episcopal Church in this country should be deposited 
in the library of Columbia University; while the bulk 
of the family papers, inasmuch as they related particu- 
larly to Connecticut, should be deposited in that State, 
and the natural place of deposit would be the Connec- 

240 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

ticut Historical Society at Hartford. This disposition 
was approved by the guardians of the papers, and in 
accordance with their instructions, the papers were so 

Personal letters later than 1805 were returned to the 


Attention should be called to the fact that some of the 
Johnson Papers have already heen printed in T. B. Chandler, 
Life of Samuel Johnson, New York, 1805, and in E. Edwards 
Beardsley, Life and Correspondence of Samuel Johnson, New 
York, 1874, and in the same author's Life and Times of William 
Samuel Johnson, New York, 1876. 

There were also printed in Documents relating to the Colonial 
History of New York, vols, vi and vii, over twenty letters, 
mostly taken from the Lambeth Place Manuscripts, of cor- 
respondence between Reverend Samuel Johnson and the 
Archbishop of Canterbury (1753-1703). 

Forty-three letters from William Samuel Johnson, agent 
for Connecticut in London, 1701-1771, addressed to Govern- 
ors Pitkin and Trumbull, are in the possession of the Massa- 
chusetts Historical Society and were printed in that Society's 
Collections, 5th series, vol. ix, pp. 211-490, Boston, 1885. 

The rest of the papers are at present distributed as follows: 


Thirteen papers relating to the Stamp Act Congress of 1765 
and to the controversy between Great Britain and the colonies, 
one of which is a draft of a petition to the king in the writing 
of John Rutledge, and quite different from either of the 
petitions adopted. 

Two manuscripts of July 23 and July 26, 1787, relating to 
proceedings in Congress on a sale of lands in Ohio. 

Three documents relating to the Federal Convention of 

Printed draft of the Virginia Plan, with annotations in the 

handwriting of William Samuel Johnson. 
Printed draft of August 6, with all the changes made in 
the convention through September 3, in the hand- 
writing of the secretary of the convention, William 
Printed draft of September 12, 1787, being the report of 
the Committee on Style, with annotations in the hand- 
writing of William Samuel Johnson, chairman. 

1913.1 The Papers of. the Johnson Family. 241 

A few miscellaneous letters, including letters to and from 
William Samuel Johnson, of minor importance, some letters 
of Millard Fillmore, and quite a number of broadsides and 
manuscripts relating to the later Continental Congress and 
to the first Congress of the United States. 


Manuscript works by Samuel Johnson, 37 

Letters from him (1713-1767), 328 

Letters to him (1715-1773), 138 

Among the letters to President Johnson arc several from 
Myles Cooper, the second president of King's College, Ben- 
jamin Franklin, and others. 

Manuscript sermons and prayers, 101) 

Manuscripts relating to King's College and Columbia, lb 
There are some 50 letters from and to William Samuel 
Johnson, (1747-1813) relating bo Columbia, together with vari- 
ous manuscripts and pamphlets relating to the early history 
of King's College and the College of Physicians and Surgeons. 


Papers presented in 18J/): 

Vol. I. Letters written by William Samuel Johnson, 1707 
to 1770, with a few as late as 1793. They number 115. 

Among them are letters to Elipbalet Dyer, Thomas Fitch, 
Samuel Cray, Matthew Griswold, Jabez Huntington, Jared 
Ingersoll, Jeremiah Miller, William Pitkin, Jonathan Trum- 
bull, Nathan Whiting, William Williams. 

Vol. 2. Letters written to William Samuel Johnson, 1700 
to 1790. They number 130. 

Among them are letters from Dyer, Fitch, Griswold, Pitkin, 
Trumbull, Whiting and Williams (above); also from Joseph 
Chew, Silas Deane, Timothy Dwight, Benjamin Gale, Samuel 
Huntington, Jesse Hoot, Roger Sherman, Jeremiah Wads- 

Vol. 3. Papers and letters relating to the Mohegan Indians 
and the controversy over their lands, originals and copies, 
some of them of considerable length. Some of the copies 
are of documents dated as early as 1658. The original letters 
are from 1742 to 1773. They number 98. 

Among them are letters written by Dyer, Fitch, J. Hunting- 
ton, Pitkin, Trumbull, Williams (above); also by Richard 
Jackson and by William Samuel Johnson. Not all of the 
letters are written to Johnson. 

Vol. 4. Letters, with a few documents, relating to the 
controversy over the Susquehannah Lands, 1751 to 1787. 
They number 45. 

242 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Among them are letters written by Dyer, Griswold, S. 
Huntington, Trumbull, Sherman (above); also by Ethan Allen, 
Joseph Trumbull, and by William Samuel Johnson. Not 
all oi* the letters are written to Johnson. 

Papers recently presented: 

Journals Nov. 1766 to Oct. 1771. 

Journal brought from England (of little interest). 

Letter books 1746-1748, 1754-1762, about 70 letters. 

Letter books 1764-1765, 1771-1774, 268 sm. f° pp. 

Letter Books 1751-1754, 1762-1764, 324 8° pp. 

Copies of 16 letters 1784-1792. 

Memorandum books 1759-1760, 1762-1765, 1785-1787. 

Accounts with State of Conn., 1784-1787. 

Catalogue of books read 1753-1764. 

Marriage contract 1800; and agreement with Samuel William 
Johnson and Robert C. Johnson because of said contract 

Col. Dimon's proceedings on occasion of accusation of treason 
against W. S. J. 1799. 

Memoranda for his life, communicated by him. 

Superior Court diary, 1772-1774. 

Volume of County Court dockets 1764-1766, 1771-1772. 

Volume of County and Superior Court dockets, 1775-1786. 

Law briefs, 1749-1758. 

Documents, papers, opinions,, etc., in various court cases, 
two packages. 

Deeds, personal accounts, book debts due him, etc. 

Tapers in settlement of his estate. 

Letters written by him about 1762 to 1795 to-various persons, 
numbering 241. 

Among these are letters to Rev. Abraham Beach, Jeremy 
Belknap, Dr. Burton, Archbishop of Canterbury, Dr. 
Chandler, Col. Chester, Joseph Chew, Cadwallader Colden, 
Rev. Myles Cooper, Tench Coxe, Rev. Daggett, Lord 
Dartmouth, James Duane, Timothy Dwight, Eliphalet 
Dyer, Benjamin Gale, Jared Ingersol, Richard Jackson, 
Jeremiah Learning, George Livius, Lord Bishop of London, 
Jeremiah Miller, James Otis, Bishop of Oxford, John 
Pownall, Gov. William Pitkin, Lawrence Reade, Richard 
Saltonstall, Roger Sherman, Gov. William Shirley, Eben- 
ezer Silliman, Robert Temple, Agur Tomlinson, Jonathan 
Trumbull, Jeremiah Wadsworth, Col. Nathan Whiting, 
Edward Winslow. 

Letters written by him to other members of the family. To 
Samuel William Johnson, 1785-1828, 79 

Susan Johnson, 1799-1853, 85 

1913.] The Papers of the Johnson Family. 243 

Ann Johnson, L766-1790, 35 

Robert C. Johnson, 1786-1795, 20 

Miscellaneous, 15 

Letters written to him about 1750 to 1795 by various 
persons, numbering 108. 

Among them are letters from William Bayard, Jeremy 
Belknap, D. Burton, George Chapman, T. B. Chandler, 
Joseph Chew, Tench Coxe, Admiral G. Darby, James 
Duaue, Pierpont Edwards, Benjamin Gale, Jared Lngersol, 
Richard Jackson, Cave Jones, Jeremiah Learning, John 
Ledyard, Bishop of London, Godfrey Malbone, Josiah 
Meigs, Stephen M. Mitchell, James Otis, Bishop of Oxford, 
Thomas Palmer, Samuel II. Parsons, Samuel Peters, Tim- 
othy Pickering, Thomas Pownall, Lawrence Eteade, Nathan- 
iel Rogers, Comfort Sage, Roger Sherman, William Smith, 
Benjamin Stiles, Jonathan Sturgis, Robert Temple, A.gur 
Tomlinson, Jonathan Trumbull, Jonathan Trumbull, Jr., 
Jeremiah Wadsworth, Chauncey Whittlesey, George WyP 
Letters written to him by other members ol the family. By 
Samuel William Johnson, 1785-1802, 37 

Miscellaneous, 15 


Letters written b> him to Cov. Hamilton of Bermuda, 
and to Ann F. Edwards, Elizabeth, Nancy, Robert ( !., Susan 
Johnson, and others, '12 

Journal of a journey from Stratford to Fayetteville, N. (I., 
and return, 1790-1800. 
Paper on war with Prance. 
Small receipt and account book, 1790-1803. 
His admission to the liar, 1783. 
Letters written to him, numbering 10. 

Among these are letters from Gov. William Browne, 
Gov. Hamilton of Bermuda, Samuel Peters, John Cotton 

(See William Samuel Johnson papers for letters written 
to him by Samuel William Johnson.) 

Susan Johnson. 
Letters written by her. 178 

Among these an; 87 written to Mrs. Faith Trumbull, 
and 56 to Samuel William Johnson, with others to Ann, 
Edwards and Sarah Johnson. 

Journal of a journey from Stratford to Fayetteville, N. C, 
and other places, 1801-1802. 
Letters written to her. 
Among these are 18 written by Mrs. Faith Wadsworth. 

244 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Ann F. Johnson. 
Letters written by her, 108 

Among these are 70 written to Susan Johnson and 

19 to Samuel William Johnson. 
Religious Journals, 1814-1839. 

Letters written to her, 8 

Other members of family, 24 


Deeds, leases, and other papers, both originals and copies, 
including several original documents signed by the Indians; 
briefs, notes, and memoranda on the case; letters, arguments, 
memoranda of evidence given, reports, petitions, etc. — some 
of the documents in William Samuel Johnson's handwriting — 
dating about 1058 to 1770. About 170. 

Manuscript [probably printer's ''copy"] of Governor and 
Company of Connecticut and Mohegan Indians. Certified 
copy of Book of Proceedings before Commissioners of Review, 
1743. [This was printed at London, 1769]. 

"A Plan of the east Part of the Colony of Connecticut in 
North America shewing the Situation of the Lands in Con- 
troversy between the Inhabitants of that Colony and the 
Mohegan Indians." [3 copies]. 
Papers relating to Stockbridge Indians, o 


Inscriptions on Johnson monuments. 

Johnson family pedigree. 

Papers in estate of Charity 'Kneetand. 

G.'C. Verplanck letter. 

Miscellaneous deeds and briefs, in part Johnson. 

Miscellaneous bonds, stocks, notes, etc. 

Family deeds, agreements, etc. 

Miscellaneous papers of Ann Woolsey. 

Copies of wills of William (1751) and Sarah Beach (1758). 

Laura AVoolsey's album, containing extracts, sentiments and 

original contributions written by well-known people of 

Hartford and elsewhere, about 1819. 
Johnson arms. 


Curdon Saltonstall to Henry Ashhurst, 1711. 
Sarah Edwards to Anna Huntington, 1758. 
C. Browne to her husband Gov. William Browne. 
Benjamin Gale to Dr. Huxharn, 1766. 

David Ramsey to , 1785. 

H. Ledlie to -, 1787. 

1913.] The Papers of the Johnson Family. 245 

Benjamin Hallock to Col. Richard Floyd, J 763. 
Col. Benjamin's claim (Revolution). 
Abraham Beach about Noah Hobart, 1812. 
William Smith to Jonathan Trumbull, 1783. 

Abijah Beach to . , 1775. 

Bishop of London to Dr. Auchmuty, (copy). 

II. S. Conway to Colony of Conn, about repeal of Stamp Act, 

Colony of Conn, to IT. S. Conway about repeal of Stamp Act, 

Colony of Conn, instructions to Richard Jackson. 
Instructions of freemen of New Haven to their Representatives 

in General Assembly about Stamp Act. 
Dr. Gale's remarks on innoculation. 


Stratford church about a minister, 1722. 

George Pigot to Stratford church, 1722. 

David Humphreys to church of England in Conn., 1722. 

Stratford inhabitants power of attorney to William Jaines, 

Papers relating to Episcopal Church and Glebe house in 

Stratford, 32. 
Samuel Peters' account of salary paid to Episcopal ministers 

at Stratford, 1771-1785. 
History of Episcopal church in Ulster Co., N. Y. 
Stratford church to Lord Bishop of London and Society for 

Propagating the Gospel (1771?). 


Papers relative to Ohio lands bought of Isaac Mills and 

George Hoadly and necessary to show title of said lands, 35 
Vermont claims of land against New Hampshire and 

New York [copies], 2 

Original grant of town of Pocock, N. H., 1762. 
Briefs relating to "Gore" land, about 1800, 2 

Papers relating to legal cases, controversies about lands, 

etc. 3 packages. 
Papers relating to W. Scarborough's voyage to Canton, 

1838, 20 

Records and accounts of Proprietors of bed of iron ore at 

Merry All in Kent, 1758-1705. 
Kent iron works papers, several. 

Sermon by Rev. Daniel Browne at Covent Garden, 1723. 
Catalogue of students at Litchfield Law School, 1817. 
G. G. Beckman papers, W. S. Johnson attorney, 1787-9. 11 

246 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Sketch of Richard Edwards by his son Timothy Edwards, 

written about 1718. 
Susquehannah claim stated, and notes arguments, etc., 

on the Susquehannah case. 14 documents, some of 

them long, one of 75 pages. 


Report of Commissioners to treat with Proprietaries of 

Pennsylvania. Norwich, 1774. 
The Susquehannah Case. [Norwich, 1774] 
Right of Governor and Company of Conn, to lands west of 

New York. Hartford, 1773. 
Trumbull, Benjamin. Plea in Vindication of Conn, title. 

New Haven, 1774. 
Avery, Samuel. Susquehannah Controversy Examined. 

Wilkesbarre, 1803. 
[Statement relative to Conn, claimants in Pennsylvania.) 

folio. 8pp. 
[Petition to General Assembly of Conn, about Susquehannah 

matters, 1774.] folio, 2pp. 
Governor and Company of Connecticut and the Mohegan 

Indians. Certified copy of Book of Proceedings before 

Commissioners of Review, 1743. London, 1769. 
Mohegan Indians against Governor and Company of Conn. 

Case of the Governor and Company. 1800. 
— [Same.] Appendix to Case of the Governor and 

Company [1770]. 
— [Same.] Summary of Case of the Governor and 

Company. [1770]. 

1913.] Bibliography of American Newspapers. 247 



The following bibliography attempts, first, to present a 
historical sketch of every newspaper printed in the United 
States from 1690 to 1820; secondly, to locate all files found 
in the various libraries of the country; and thirdly, to give 
a complete check list of the issues in the library of the 
American Antiquarian Society. 

The historical sketch of each paper gives the title, the date 
of establishment, the name of the editor or publisher, the fre- 
quency of issue and the date of discontinuance. It also 
attempts to give the exact date of issue when a change in title 
or name of publisher or frequency of publication occurs. 

In locating the files to be found in various libraries, no at- 
tempt is made to list every issue;. In the case of common news- 
papers which are to be found in many libraries, only the longer 
files are noted, with a description of their completeness. Rare 
newspapers, which are known by only a few scattered issues, 
are minutely listed. 

The check list of the issues in the library of the American 
Antiquarian Society follows the style of the Library of Con- 
gress "Check List of Eighteenth Century Newspapers," and 
records all supplements, missing issues and mutilations. 

The arrangement is alphabetical by states and towns. 
Towns are placed according to their present State location. 
For convenience of alphabetization, the initial "The" in the 
titles of papers is disregarded. Papers are considered to be of 
folio size, unless otherwise stated. There are no abbreviations, 
except in the names of the libraries where files are located, and 
these should be easily understood. A superior italic "m" is 

248 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

used in the listing of the Society's files to signify mutilated 
copy. The bibliography includes only newspapers, and does 
not list magazines; the distinction has sometimes been difficult 
to draw, but the test has generally been the inclusion of current 
news. Neither in the historical sketches nor in the listing of 
files is any account taken of the existence of the paper after 

All files, except hi a few instances, have been personally 
examined by the compiler of this list, and the facts stated have 
been drawn from an inspection of the papers themselves and 
not based on secondary authorities. 

The bibliography will be published in the Proceedings in 
about six installments, after which the material will be gath- 
ered into a volume, with a historical introduction, acknowl- 
edgment of assistance rendered, and a comprehensive index 
of titles and names of printers. Reprints of each installment 
will not be made, nor will the names of papers or printers be 
indexed in the Proceedings. Since the material will all be held 
in type until after the printing of the final installment, the 
compiler will welcome additions and corrections. 

1913.] Alabama. 249 

Biakeley Sun, 1818-1820+ . 

Semi-weekly. Established December 12, 1818, by 
Gabriel F. Mott, under the title of the "Biakeley Sun and 
Alabama Advertiser." Proposals for the establishment 
of the paper were published in the "St. Stephens Hal- 
cyon," dated October 15, 1818. Continued after 1820. 
Wis. Hist. Soc. has May 17, 1819. A. A. S. has: 
1819. Mar. 23, 30. 

[Cahawba] Alabama Watchman, 1820. 

Weekly. Established Aug. 8, L820, by A. Parsons, 
This issue, which is vol. 1, no, i, is the only one located. 
Wis. His. Soc. Aug. 8, 1820. 

Cahawba Press and Alabama Intelligencer, 1819-1820-f-. 

Weekly. Established June 12, 1819, by William B. 
Allen, judging from the date of the first issue located, 
that of July 17, 1819, vol. I, no. 6. Proposals for the 
paper, dated June J, 1819, were printed in the " Mobile 
Gazette" of June 30, 1819. The issue for July 15, 1820, 
was published by Alien & Lamar (William B. Allen and 
— Lamar). The issue for Dec. 30, 1820, was pub- 
lished by Allen & Brickell (William B. Allen and IJichard 
B. Brickell). Continued after 1820. 

Lib. Cong, has Dec. 30, 1820. A. A. S. has: 

1819. July 17. 

1820. July 15. 

[Claiborne] Alabama Courier, 1819-1820-f. 

Weekly. Established Mar. 19, 1819, by Tucker 4 

Turner (— Tucker and - Turner). Continued 

after 1820. 
A. A. S. has: 
1810. Mar. 19. 
Apr. 9. 
July 9. 
Aug. 20. 

250 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Florence Gazette, 1820. 

Weekly. In the Lib. of Cong, is a copy of the " Florence 
Gazette" of Aug. 19, 1824> vol. 5, no. 27, published by P. 
Bertrand, showing that this paper must have been estab- 
lished early in the year 1820. No earlier copy has been 
located, however, to prove the supposition. 
I Fort Stoddert] Mobile Centinel, 1811-1812. 

Weekly. Established May 23, 1811, by Samuel Miller 
and John B. Hood. The place of publication was Fort 
Stoddert, where the printers located before they were able 
to enter Mobile. Fort Stoddert was then in Mississippi 
Territory, but later in Alabama. Only a few issues have 
survived, two of which, May 30, 1811, vol. 1, no. 2, and 
Jan. 29, 1812, vol. 1, no. 16, are owned by Dr. Thomas 
M. Owen of Montgomery. 
[Huntsville] Alabama Republican, 1816-1820+. 

Weekly. Established in Aug. 1816, judging from the 
date of the first issue located, that of Aug. 5, 1817, vol. 1, 
no. 49, published by Thos. B. Grantland. Its title was first 
the "Huntsville Republican," which was changed to the 
"Alabama Republican," with the issue of Feb. 10, 1818. 
Beginning with Apr. 11, 1818, the paper was edited by J. 
[John] Boardman, and published by Thos. B. Grantland. 
This firm was dissolved Oct. 20, 1818, and beginning 
with the issue of Oct. 31, the paper was published by 
J. Boardman. Continued after 1820. 

Lib. Cong, has Jan. 9, 1819-Dec. 29, 1820. Ala. Dept. 
of Archives has Aug. 5, 1817; Sept. 2, 1817-Aug. 5, 1819; 
Sept, 15-Dec. 1820. A. A. S. has: 

1818. Apr. 18. 

1819. Apr. 3. 
Aug. 5. 

Huntsville Gazette, 1816. 

Weekly. The only issue located is that of Dec. 21, 1816, 
vol. 1, no. 25, published by John B. Hood. It was pub- 
lished in what was then termed Mississippi Territory, 
but in that portion which became Alabama Territory in 

Lib. Cong, has Dec. 21, 1816. 


1913.] Alabama. 251 

[Huntsville] Madison Gazette, 1812-1813. 

Weekly. The only copy located is that of Oct. 19, 1813, 
vol. 2, no. 73, published by T. G. Bradford & Co., showing 
that the paper must have been established in May or J une, 
1812. It was published in what was then termed Miss- 
issippi Territory, but in that portion which was organized 
into Alabama Territory in March, 1817. 
A. A. S. has: 
1813. Oct. 19. 

HuntsvilSe Republican, see [Huntsville] Alabama Republican. 

Mobile Centinel, see [Fort Stoddert] Mobile Centinel. 

Mobile Gazette, 1817-1820+ . 

Weekly and semi-weekly. The first issue located is that 
of Apr. 6, 1819, vol. 3, no. 3, semi-weekly and with the 
title "Mobile Gazette & Commercial Advertiser." it 
was published by Gotten & Miller (Godwin B. Cotton and 
Isaac Miller). Miller disposed of his interest to Daniel B. 
Sanderson on May 18, 1819, and the paper was then pub- 
lished by Cotten & Sanderson. Gotten announced in the 
issue of June 23, 1819, that he had sold out to Sanderson, 
and says that the paper was first established under his 
management in the infancy of the town. In the issue of 
May 4, 1819, it was announced that during the summer 
months the paper would be published weekly. Daniel B. 
Sanderson was the publisher of the issue for June 23, 1819, 
but from June 30 to Sept. 22, 1819, it was published by 
Sanderson & Dade. The paper was suspended with the 
issue of Sept. 22, until Oct. 27, 1819, on account of the 
fever. Sanderson died Sept. 29, 1819, and from Oct. 2, 
1819, to Jan. 1820, Dade published the paper alone. 
From Jan. to after Dec. 1820, it was published by Dade 

& Dameron ( Dade and Christopher Dameron). 

The title was changed to "Mobile Gazette & General Ad- 
vertiser" with the issue of July 27, 1820. With the issue 
of Oct. 3, 1820, it reverted to a semi-weekly, although a 
country paper, without heading, was also published week- 
ly. Continued after 1820. 

252 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Lib. Cong, has Apr. 6, 1819-Dec. 29, 1820, with only 
a few issues missing. 

[St Stephens] Halcyon, 1815-1820+ . 

Weekly. Established in 1815, judging from the date 
of the first issue located, that of Jan. 9, 1819, vol. 4, no. 34, 
although in the issue of May 1, 1820, Thomas Eastin, the 
editor, refers to his six years' conduct of the paper since 
its commencement. Its full title was the "Halcyon and 
Tombeckbe Public Advertiser." With the issue of Oct. 
16, 1820, Joseph DeJeane became the publisher. Con- 
tinued after 1820. 

Lib. Cong, has Jan. 9, 1819-Nov. 27, 1820. A. A. S. has: 
1819. Dec. 18. 

Tuscaloosa Republican, 1819-1820+ . 

Weekly. Proposals for this paper were published in the 
"Mobile Gazette" of April, 1819, and issues of it are 
referred to in the "Alabama Republican" of May 15, 1819, 
and the St. Stephens " Halcyon" of Oct. 16, 1820. 

1913.] Arkansas. 253 


Arkansas Gazette, 1819-1820+ . 

Weekly. Established Nov. 20, 1819, by William E. 
Woodruff, at the Post, or village, of Arkansas in Arkansas 
Territory. Robert Briggs was admitted to partnership, 
and beginning with the issue of March 4, 1820, the paper 
was published by Woodruff & Briggs. Continued after 

Lib. Cong, has Nov. 20, 1819-Dec. 30, 1820. A. A. S. 

1819. Nov. 20. 

1820. Apr. 8, 15,22,29. 
May 13, 20, 27. 
June 3, 10, 17, 24. 
July 1, 29. 

Aug. 5, 12, 19, 26. 
Sept. 9, 16, 23, 30. 
Get. 7. 
Dec. 2. 


American Antiquarian Society. 



Bridgeport Advertiser, 1806-1810. 

Weekly. Established in April, 1806, judging from the 
date of the first issue loeated, that of Nov. 13, 1806, vol. 
1, no. 32. Published by Hezekiah Ripley, and discon- 
tinued probably in the spring of 1810. 
Yale has Nov. 13, 1806. A. A. S. has: 
1808. Sept, 1. 

[Bridgeport] American Telegraphe, 1800-1804. 

Weekly. A continuation of the " American Telegraphe" 
of Newfield, the name of which village was changed to 
Bridgeport in October, 1800. The first issue with the 
Bridgeport imprint is that of Nov. 5, 1800, vol. 6, no. 44, 
printed by Lazarus Beach. In the "Fanner's Journal" 
of Danbury of Sept. 29, 1801, Beach announces, under 
the date of Sept. 23, 1801, that he has sold his paper at 
Bridgeport, of which he had served as editor for seven 
years. "The business now passes into other hands/' he 
states. An editorial in the " Farmer's Journal" of Jan. 26, 
1802, indicates that Beach had "retaken the establishment 
of the 'Telegraphe.' " In 1803, judging by the issue of 
July 20, 1803, the paper was conducted by Samuel Mal- 
lory. The "Republican Farmer" of Danbury, in the 
issue of Feb. 29, 1804, states, "Died, at Bridgeport, a few 
days ago, after a lingering illness, the 'American Tele- 
graphe,' in the tenth year of its age." 

Ct. St. Lib. has Nov. 5, 1800-Dec. 1800. A. A. S. has: 
1803. July 20. 

[Bridgeport] Connecticut Courier, 1814-1820 + . 

Weekly. Established in May, 1814, judging from the 
date of the first issue located, that of Aug. 28, 1816, vol. 3, 
no. 118. This issue, as well as that of June 21, 1820, was 
published by N. L. Skinner (Nathaniel L. Skinner). Con- 
tinued after 1820. 

Yale has Aug. 28, 1816. A. A. S. has: 
1820. June 21. 

1913.] Connecticut 255 

Bridgeport Gazette, 1810-1811. 

Weekly. Established May 16, 1810, by J. Bulkley, 
judging from the date of the first issue located, that of 
June 27, 1810, vol. 1, no. 7. Before Aug. 15, 1810, the 

paper was disposed of to Byrne and Webb ( Byrne 

and Webb), and was published by them as far 

as the last issue located, that of Jan. 9, 1811. 

Ct. Hist. Soc. has Jan. 9, 1811. Lib. Cong, has Oct. 24, 
1810. A. A. S. has: 
1810. June 27. 
Aug. 15. 
Oct. 21, 31. 

Bridgeport Herald, 1805-1806. 

Weekly. Established Feb. 28, 1805, by Samuel 
Mallory. References to its establishment and editorial 
policy may be found in the "Litchfield Witness" of Oct. 
30, 1805, and Mar. 26, 1800. Discontinued probably in 
the spring of 1806. 

Harvard has July 4, Aug. i, J 805. A. A. S. has: 
1805. Mar. 7. 
Oct. 25. 

[Bridgeport] Republican Farmer, 1810-1820-}-. 

Weekly. Established Apr. 25, 1810, by Stiles Nichols 
& Co. On Jan. 1, 1812, Stiles Nichols and Ephraim F. 
Nichols announced a dissolution of partnership, and the 
paper was thenceforth continued by Stiles Nichols until 
later in the year, when it was conducted by Nichols <fc 

Barnum (Stiles Nichols and Barnum). In 1813, 

the firm name again became Stiles Nichols <fe Co., which, 
between Sept. 21, 1814, and Mar. 8, 1815, was changed to 
Stiles Nichols & Son. In 1818, the paper reverted to the 
proprietorship of Stiles Nichols, and so remained until 
after 1820. 

N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Aug. 26, 1812. Lib. Cong, has 
Dec. 16, 1818; Dec. 1, 1819. A. A. S. has: 
1810. Apr. 25. 
May 9"'. 
June 20. 

256 A merican A ntiquarian Society. [Oct. , 

July 4. 

Aug. 1, 15, 22. 

Sept. 12, 19, 26 

Nov. 21. 


Jan. 9, 23. 

Feb. 6, 20, 27. 

Apr. 3. 

May 15. 

July 31. 

Aug. 7. 

Oct. 16-, 23. 

Nov. 6. 

Dec. 4. 


Jan. 15 m . 


Jan. 6. 

Nov. 3. 

Dec. 22. 


Jan. 12. 

Feb. 9. 

Apr. 20. 

July 20". 

Sept. 21. 


Mar. 8. 


July 2, 9. 

jDanbury] Connecticut Intelligencer, 1809-1810. 

Weekly. Established Dec. 6, 1809, by John C. Gray. 
The name was changed to the "Connecticut Intelligencer 
and Farmer's Aid" between Apr. 4 and June 6, 1810. 
The last issue located is that of Nov. 7, 1810. A. A. S. has: 

1809. Dec. 6-. 

1810. Jan. 31. 
Mar. 14. 
Apr. 4. 
June 6. 
Nov. 7. 

[Danbury] Day, 1812. 

Weekly. Established May 12, 1812, by John C. Gray. 
The issue dated Dec. 15, 1812, did not appear until Dec. 

1913.] Connecticut. 257 

22, because of the death of the proprietor's wife, Esther 
Gray, on Dec. 13. 

A. A. S. has: 
1812. May 19. 
June 9. 
Dec. 15. 

[Banbury] Farmers Chronicle, 1793-1796. 

Weekly. Established by Edwards Ely on June 17, 
1793, judging from the date of the first known issue, Aug. 
5, 1793, vol. 1, no. 8. On Apr. 20, 1795, Ely took Stiles 
Nichols into partnership and the paper was thenceforth 
published by Ely & Nichols. In the issue of Sept. 19, 
1796, the last located, it was announced that the firm of 
Ely & Nichols would be dissolved on Sept. 27, and that 
the business would be conducted by Nathan Douglas and 
Stiles Nichols. This firm started a paper on Oct. 3, 1796, 
with a new title, " Republican Journal," which see. 

Pequot Library, Southport, has Nov. 4, Dec. 23, 30, 
1793. Harvard has Dec. 8, 1794; Jan. 5, Feb. 23, Mar. 9, 

23, 30, May 25, June 22, July 6, 13, 20, Nov. 9, Dec. 28, 
1795; Jan. 4, Aug. 8, 29, Sept. 5, 19, 1796. Long Id. Hist. 
Soc. has Sept. 23, 1793; Dec. 15, 1794. Phil. Lib. Co. has 
Sept. 30, Oct. 14, 21, 1793; Nov. 9, 1795; June 13, 20, 
1796. Lib. Cong, has Mar. 16, 1795. A. A. S. has: 

1793. Aug. 5. 
Sept. 2. 
Nov. 4 m . 
Dec. 16". 

1794. Jan. 6. 
Apr. 28. 
May 19. 
June 30. 
Sept. 22". 

1795. Apr. 20. 
July 6. 

Aug. 3, 10", 24. 
Nov. 2, 16. 
Dec. 28". 

258 American' Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

1796. May 23, 30. 

Juno 6, 13, 20. 
July 11. 
Aug. 1. 
Sept. 5 m . 

Danbtiry] Farmer's Journal, 1790-1793. 

Weekly. Established Mar. 18, 1790, by Nathan 
Douglas and Edwards Ely. It was discontinued with the 
issue of June 3, 1793, and the partners established two 
rival newspapers, the "Republican Journal," and the 
"Farmers Chronicle." 

Danbury Lib. has Apr. 7, 1790-Feb. 25, 1793. N. Y. 
Hist. Soc. has Mar. 18, 1790-Mar. 8, 1791. Lib. Cong, has 
May 6, 1790-Aug. 18, 1792. A. A. 8. has: 

1790. Mar. 25. 

Apr. 1, 7, 15, 29. 
May 6, 13, 20, 27. 
June 3, 10, 24. 
July 1,8, 15,22,29. 
Aug. 5, 12, 19, 20. 
Sept. 2, 9, 23, 30. 
Oct. 7, 14, 21, 28. 
Nov. 4, 23, 30. 
Dec. 7, 14, 21, 28. 

1791. Jan. 4, 11, 18-, 25. 
Feb. 8, 15, 22. 
Mar. 1, 8, 15. 
Apr. 5, 12, 19, 26. 
May 3, 9, 16, 30. 
June 6, 13, 27. 
July 4, 11, 18,25. 
Aug. 1, 8, 15, 22. 
Sept. 5, 19, 26. 
Oct. 10, 31. 
Nov. 14, 28. 
Dec. 5, 19, 26. 
Supplement: Sept. 5. 

19*13.] Connecticut. 259 

1792. Jan. 2 to Dec. 29. 
Mutilated: Apr. 23, July 14, Dec. 29. 
Missing: Jan. 2, 16, 23, Feb. 6, 13, 20, 27, 

Mar. 26, Apr. 2, Juno 25, Aug. 25, Sept. 
1, Oct. 20. 

1793. Jan. 5, 12, 28. 
Feb. 4, it. 
Mar. 25. 
Apr. L, 8, 22. 
May 6, 27. 

[Oanbury] Farmer's Journal, 1800-1803. 

Weekly. Established by Stiles Nichols on Apr. 9, 
1800 (Trumbull, "List of Rooks Printed in Conn." p. 141, 
notes Apr. 9 as vol. 1, no. 1). By Apr. 1801, Nichols had 
taken Thomas Howe into partnership and the paper was 
published by Nichols & Howe. Between May 18 and 
Sept. 7, 1802, it reverted to Stiles Nichols, and he was the 
publisher as far as the issue of Feb. 1, 1803, vol. 3, no. 147. 
With the issue of Feb. 8, 1803, the title was altered to 
"Farmer's Journal and Columbian Ark," a new numbering 
was started, the size was changed from folio to quarto, and 
the publishers became Stiles Nichols *& Co. In May or 
June, 1803, the title was shortened again to "Farmer's 
Journal," and the size reverted to folio. The last issue 
located is that, of Sept. 6, 1803. The "Republican 
Farmer" was established Nov. 16, 1803. 

Harvard has Apr. 14, 1801-May 18, 1802; Jan. 4, Mar. 
1, July 26, 1803. Ct. Hist. Soc. has July 2, 1800. Long 
Id. Hist. Soc, has Oct. 1, 1800. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Sept. 
7,1802. Lib. Cong, has Feb. 1,1803. A. A. S. has: 
1803. Feb. 1". 

Apr. 26. 

July 5. 

Aug. 16, 23, 30. 

Sept. 6. 

Danbury Gazette, 1813-1814. 

Weekly. Established by Nathaniel L. Skinner, on June 
22, 1813, judging from the date of the first known issue, 


260 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

that of Aug. 3, 1813, vol. 1, no. 7. The last issue located 
is that of Mar. 29, 1814. Skinner removed to Bridgeport 
soon afterwards. 

Ct. Hist. Soc. has Oct. 5, Dec. 21, 1813; Feb. 22, Mar. 
1-29, 1814. Lib. Cong, has a scattering file from Aug. 3, 
1813, to Jan. 25, 1814. A. A. S. has: 

1813. Sept. 14»\ 
Nov. 23. 
Dec. 14. 

1814. Jan. 11, 25. 

(Danbury] New England Republican, 1804-1809. 

Weekly. Established July 18, 1804, by Gray & Steele 
(John C. Gray and Oliver Steele). John C. Gray became 
sole proprietor with the issue of January 23, 1805, and con- 
tinued the paper until late in the year 1809. In the first 
issue of the "Connecticut Intelligencer," Dec. 6, 1809, 
Gray stated that "some weeks since" he had announced 
his intention of discontinuing the "New England Repub- 

Harvard has Sept. 12, 19, 1804; Jan. 2, 1805; Jan. 22- 
Sept. 30, 1806, scattered. Yale has scattered issues in 
1805. Pequot Lib., Southport, has Sept. 26, 1804. Bridge- 
port Sci. Hist. Soc. has Aug. 14, 1805; Dec. 24, 1806. 
Long Id. Hist. Soc. has Oct. 19, Nov. 16, 1808. N. Y. 
Hist. Soc. has Sept. 19, 1804; July 13, Oct. 12, 1808. Wis. 
Hist. Soc. has July 1804-May, 1805, 30 issues. A. A. S. 

1804. July 18. 

1805. Apr. 17. 
Aug. 21. 

1806. Feb. 26. 
Mar. 5. 
Oct. 7. 
Nov. 12. 
Dec. 17. 

1808. Jan. 6. 

1913.] Connecticut. 261 

[Danbury] Republican Farmer, 1803-1809. 

Weekly. Established Nov. 16, 1803, by Thomas Rowe 
<fe Co. In June or July, 1804, Joseph Hutchinson became 
the proprietor, and was succeeded by Hutchinson & 
Nichols on Nov. 28, 1804, and this firm by Nichols & Rowe 
on Dec. 12, 1804. With the issue of Dec. 4, 1805, Stiles 
Nichols became sole proprietor. In Jan.-June, 1808, Stiles 
Nichols & Son became proprietors, being followed on 
Oct. 19, 1808, by Stiles Nichols and Milton F. Cushing. 
Stiles Nichols again assumed sole proprietorship in June, 
1809. The paper was discontinued soon after, but revived 
again with new numbering, vol. 1, no. 1, Aug. 16, 1809, by 
Ephraim F. Nichols & Co. The last issue located is that 
of Sept. 6, 1809. The paper was removed to Bridgeport, 
where on Apr. 25, 1810, it was re-established by Stiles 
Nichols & Co. 

Harvard has Dec. 21, 1803-Nov. 19, 1806; Sept. 6, 
1807-Dec. 7, 1808, both scattered files. Wis. Hist. Soc. 
has July, 1804-May, 1805. A. A. S. has: 

1803. Nov. 16, 23, 30. 

1804. Jan. 18. 
Aug. 29. 

1805. Jan. 2. 

Oct. 2. 

1806. Feb. 19. 
May 14. 
June 18. 
July 9. 
Aug. 6. 

1807. Dec. 16™, 30. 

1808. Oct. 12, 19. 
Dec. 7. 

1809. Feb. 22. 

Mar. 8, 15, 22, 29. 
June 28. 
July 5. 
Aug. 23, 30. 
Sept. 6. 

262 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

[Danbury] Republican Journal, 1793. 

Weekly. Established June 17, 1793, by Nathan 
Douglas. Discontinued with the issue of Dec. 9, 1793, 
according to Douglas 7 advertisement in the "Farmers 
Chronicle" of Dec. 16, 1793. 
A. A. S. has: 
1793. Aug. 5. 
Sept. 23. 
Nov. 4. 

[Danbury] Republican Journal, 1796-1800. 

Weekly. Established Oct. 3, 1796, by Douglas and 
Nichols (Nathan Douglas and Stiles Nichols). The last 
issue located is that of Jan. 6, 1800. Nichols became one 
of the editors of the "Farmer's Journal" of Danbury in 
April, 1800. 

Harvard has Oct. 3, 1796-Jime 3, 1799, scattered. 
Bridgeport ScL Hist. Soc. has Mar. 6, 1797. Long Id. 
Hist. Soc. has Nov. 2, 1796. A. A. S. has: 

1796. Oct. 10, 17, 31. 
Nov. 21™, 28. 

1797. Jan 16. 

Feb. 6, 13, 20, 27. 
Mar. 6. 
Apr. 3, 10, 17. 
May 15 m . 
JuneSS 12, 26. 
July 3, 10, 19, 24. 
Aug. 14, 28. 
Sept. 1, 11, 18,25. 
Oct. 2 m , 30. 
Nov. 6, 27". 
Dec. 11» 18* 25»\ 

1798. Jan. 1, 8, 15. 
Feb. 5, 12, 19, 26. 
Mar. 26. 

Apr. 2, 23'*, 30. 
May 7, 14, 21. 
June 4, 11, 18. 

I / 

1913.) Connecticut 263 

Oct. 1, 29. 
1799. Feb. 11. 

Mar. 18. 
July 15. 
' 1800. Jan. 6 m . 

[Banbury] Sun of Liberty, 1800. 

Weekly. Established in July, 1800, by Samuel Morse. 
The issue for Sept. 24, 1800, vol. 1, no. 11, announced that 
the paper would be removed to Norwalk after Oct. 8. 
; See under Norwalk, "Sun of Liberty." 
Yale has Sept. 21, 1800. 

Fairfield Gazette, 1780-1789. 

Weekly. Established in the summer of 1786; reckoning 
back from the first known number, the date of establish- 
ment would be Aug. 3, 1786. It was first published by 
Miller & Forgue ([Stephen?] Miller and Francis Forgue) 
who later took Peter Bulkeley into partnership under the 
firm name of Miller, Forgue and Bulkeley. The firm was 
dissolved in August, 1787, Forgue & Bulkeley thence- 
forth being the firm name. The name of the paper was 
lengthened soon after its establishment to the "Fairfield 
Gazette; or, the Independent Intelligencer.' ' The last 
issue located is that of Sept. 23, 1789. 
A. A. S. has: 
1786. Oct. 26". 
8787. Feb. 15, 22. 
Mar. 1, 8. 
May 10. 
June 7. 
July 25. 
Aug. 15, 29. 
Sept. 5'", 12. 
Nov. 15. 
1788. Jan. 30. 
Mar. 12. 
Apr. 9, 16, 30 
July 16, 23 
Oct. 1. 

264 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

1789. Feb. 25. 
June 17. 
Sept. 23. 

[Hartford] American Mercury, 1 784-1820+ . 

Weekly. Established July 12, 1784, by Barlow and 
Babcoek (Joel Barlow and Elisha Babcock). Barlow 
retired and beginning with the issue of Nov. 14, 1785, the 
paper was published by Elisha Babcock. From Jan. 6, 
1813, to 1820 and after, the publishers were Elisha 

/ Babcock & Son (the son being Charles Babcock). Con- 

inued after 1820. 

Practically complete files are in Yale, 1784-1820, and in 
Ct. Hist. Soc, 1785-1820. Many libraries possess scat- 
tered files, but the following are the longer files noted: 
Dartmouth has 1784-85. Bost. Pub. Lib. has 1784-85, 
1791-93, scattered. Harvard has 1791; 1795-1808 fair. 
Ct. St. Lib. has 1802-05; 1810-13; 1817-19. Otis Lib. 
Norwich, has Jan. 7, 1802-Dec. 29, 1803. Long Id. Hist. 
Soc. has 1790-91; 1796; 1800-07; 1809-17. N. Y. Hist. 
Soc. has 1785, scattered, 1803-05. Lib. Cong, has 1802-04; 
1819-20. Va. St. Lib. has 1788-95. Wis. Hist. Soc. has 
1794-95; 1801-03. A. A. S. has: 

1784. July 12 to Dec. 27. 

Missing: July 12. 

1785. Jan. 3, 10, 17, 24, 31. 
Feb. 7-, 14, 21. 
Mar. 7, 14, 21, 28. 
Apr. 4, 11,25. 

May 2, 9, 16, 23, 30. 
June 6, 13, 20, 27. 
July 4, 11,25. 
Aug. 8, 15. 
Oct. 3, 17, 31. 
Nov. 28. 
Dec. 19. 

1786. Jan. 16. 

Feb. 13, 20-, 27. 
Dec. 11, 18,25. 

1913.] Connecticut. 265 

1787. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 
Mutilated: Oct. 8. 
Missing: Jan. 8, Feb. 20, Mar. 5, July 2, 

Sept. 3, 24, Nov. 26, Dec. 10, 17, 24. 

1788. Jan. 7 to Dec. 29. 
Mutilated: May 5, June 2, Sept. 29. 
Missing: Jan. 7, 28, Apr. 28, Aug. 25, Nov. 

3, 10, 17, 24, Dec. 1, 15, 22, 29. 

1789. Jan. 5, 12, 19. 
Feb. 2, 9, 16, 23. 
Mar. 2, 9, 23, 30'*. 
Apr. 6, 13, 27. 
May 14, 11, 18. 
June 29. 

Aug. 10,24,31. 
Sept. 7, 14, 21, 28. 
Oct. 5, 12. 
Nov. 2, 9, 16, 23, 30. 
Dec. 7, 14, 21-. 

1790. Jan. 4 to Dec. 27. 

Mutilated: Jan. 18, June 14. 
Missiug: Apr. 26, May 10, 17, Nov. 8, Dec. 

1791. Jan. 3 to Dec. 26. 
Missing: Mar. 7, Apr. 29. 

1792. Jan. 2 to Dec. 31. 

1793. Jan. 7 to Dec. 30. 
Missing: Mar. 18. 

1794. Jan. 6 to Dec. 29. 
Missing: Jan. 6, 20, 27, Feb. 3, 17, Mar. 17, 

May 12, June 23. 

1795. Jan. 5, 12, 19, 26. 
Feb. 2, 9, 16, 23. 
Mar. 2, 9, 16, 23, 30. 
Apr. 6, 13. 
May 4. 
June 1. 
July 20, 27. 
Aug. 17, 24. 

266 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

Nov. 23. 

1796. May 16, 23 w , 30. 
June 27. 

July 4. 
Sept. 19, 26. 
Oct. 17, 24, 31. 
Nov. 7, 14, 21, 28. 
Dec. 5. 

1797. Jan. 2. 

Feb. 6, 13, 20. 

Mar. 6, 13, 20, 27. 

Apr. 3, 10, 17, 24. 

May 15, 22. 

June 19, 20. 

July 3, 10, 17, 24,31. 

Aug. 7. 

Sept. 4, 11, 25. 

Oct. 2, 9, 16. 

Nov. 6, 20-, 27. 

Dec. 4, 11, 18,25-. 

1798. Jan. 1,4,25. 
Feb. 8, 22, 
Mar. 8, 22'". 
Apr. 5, 12, 19, 26. 
May 10, 17, 24, 31. 
June 14,21. 

July 5. 
Sept. 13. 
Oct. 4, 18, 25. 
Nov. 1, 15, 29. 

1799. Jan. 17'", 24, 31. 
Feb. 7. 

Mar. 21. 
I8QO. May 1'". 
Oct. 30. 

1801. Jan. 15. 
Apr. 2-, 9. 

1802. Mar. 11. 
Apr. 22. 

1913.] Connecticut. 267 



Jan. 5, 20, 27. 

Feb. 24. 

Mar. 3, 10, 17, 31. 

Apr. 7, 14, 28. 

May 12. 

June 2 TO , 10 m . 

July 14. 

Aug. 18, 25. 

Sept. I™, 8. 

Dec. 1. 


Mar. 15. 

Apr. 19. 

June 7 m . 

July 19. 

Aug. 30. 

Nov. 29. 


Sept. 12. 


Aug. 7. 


Jan. 8. 


June 16. 

Dec. l m . 


Jan. 12. 


Feb. 1, 8. 

May 24. 

July 26. 

Aug. 2. 

Sept. 27. 

Dec. 6. 


Jan. 10, 24, 31. 

Feb. 21, 28. 

Mar. 7, 21. 

May 2, 16. 

June 20. 

July 11. 

Oct. 31". 

Dec. 5. 


Mar. 11. 

Sept. 9. 

Dec. 2. 

268 American A ntujuarian Society. [Oct 

1813. Apr. 7. 
Nov. 16. 

1814. Jan. 4. 

Feb. 8-. 
June 14. 
Aug. 23 m . 
Sept. 13, 20, 27. 
Oct. 18. 
Dec. 27. 

1815. Mar. 29. 
May 3. 
Aug. 30. 
Sept. 6. 
Oct. 11,25. 
Nov. 15, 22. 

1816. Jan. 9, 23. 
Feb. 13. 
Mar. 20. 
Apr. 23. 
June 4. 
July 16. 

1817. Apr. 8"\ 
Oct. 21"'. 
Nov. 4"', 18'". 

Supplement: Oct. 14, Nov. 25". 

1818. July 14"'. 
Aug. 11*. 
Oct. 20 m . 
Nov. 17. 
Dec. 1. 

1819. Jan. 26. 
Mar. 30'". 
May 25. 
July 13. 

1820. May 10. 
Nov. 21. 

1913.] Connecticut. 269 

[Hartford] Connecticut Courant, 1764-1820+ . 

Weekly, Established Oct. 29, 1764, although this issue 
was a specimen or prospectus, numbered 00. This pro- 
spectus stated that the first issue would appear on Nov. 19, 
1764, but since the first known issue, that of Dec. 3, 1764 
(no. 2) makes no mention of being delayed in any way, it is 
probable that the first issue appeared on Nov. 26. The 
changes in the title were as follows: "Connecticut 
Courant" from Oct. 29, 1764, to May 31, 1774; " Con- 
necticut Courant and Hartford Weekly Intelligencer" 
from June 7, 1774, to Feb. 10, 1778; " Connecticut 
Courant" on Feb. 17, 1778; "Connecticut Courant and 
Weekly Intelligencer" from Feb. 24, 1778, to Mar. 14^ 
1791; "Connecticut Courant" from Mar. 21, 1791, to 
1820 and after. 

The changes in the names of the publishers were as 
follows: Thomas Green, Oct. 29, 1704-Apr. 19, 1768; 
Green and Watson (Thomas Green and Ebenezer Wat- 
son), Apr. 25, 1768-Mar. 19, 1771; Ebenezer Watson 
(Watson died Sept. 16, 1777), Mar. 26, 1771-Sept. 15, 
1777; no name of publisher given, Sept. 22, 1777-Dec. 30, 
1777; Watson and Goodwin (Hannah Watson and George 
Goodwin), Jan. 6, 1778-Feb. 23, 1779; Hudson & Good- 
win (Barzillai Hudson and George Goodwin), Mar. 2, 
1779-Nov. 14, 1815; George, Goodwin and Sons, Nov. 21, 
1815-Dec. 26, 1820-f-. 

A practically complete file, 1764-1820, is in the Ct. 
Hist. Soc. Other files noted are as follows: Harvard has 
1795-1808. Boston Pub. Lib. has 1776-1795, scattering 
issues; Mar. 28, 1796-Dec. 27, 1809; 1817. Dartmouth 
has 1782-84, 1786-94, 1799-1810, 1817-20. Springfield 
City Lib. has Jan. 6-Oct. 27, 1778; May 6, 1799-Dec. 19, 
1804; Jan. 15, 1806-Dec. 22, 1812, fair. Mass. Hist. 
Soc. has 1797; 1799-1801; 1804-1817. "Hartford 
Courant" office has 1784-1820. Ct. St. Lib. has 1796- 
98; 1801-02. Yale has 1769; 1775-1820. Bronson Lib., 
Waterbury, has 1779-90, 1802-16, scattered. N. Y. 
Pub. Lib. has 1780-Apr. 1785; Apr. 1787-Feb. 1789; 
1796-1800. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has 1769; 1776; 1779-80; 

270 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

1795; 1798-1820. Long Id. Hist. Soc. has 1794-95; 1799- 
1819. Hist. Soc. Penn. has 1795; 1797-98. Phil. Lib. Co. 
has 1801-07. Lib. Cong, has 1766-1820, with a few of the 
years previous to 1800 imperfect. Va. St. Lib. has June 
1793-Mar. 1796. Wis. Hist. Soc. has 1787-94; 1799-1820. 
A. A. S. has: 

1764. Oct. 29, faadm. 

1766. Dec. 1. 

1767. Apr. 27. 
Oct. 19. 
Nov. 30. 

1773. Sept. 21. 

1775. May 1. 
July 24 m . 
Nov. 13, 27-. 
Dec. 11. 

1776. Jan. 1 to Dec. 30. 

Mutilated: Jan. 22, Feb. 5, Mar. 4, 11, Apr. 

1, 8, 15, Sept. 9, Oct. 28, Dec. 2. 
Missing: Jan. 1, 8, 15, Feb. 26, May 20. 

June 17, July 29. 

1777. Jan. 6 to Dec. 30. 

Mutilated : June 9, Dec. 2. 
Missing: Oct. 7. 

1778. Jan. 6 to Dec. 29. 

Mutilated: Jan. 6, 20, Feb. 17, May 12. 
Missing: Jan. 13, Mar. 17. 

1779. Jan. 5 to Dec. 28. 

Mutilated: Mar. 16, Apr. 27, June 1, 8, 29, 

July 6, 13, Nov. 30. 
Missing: Jan. 19, 26, Mar. 30, Sept. 7, Oct. 

26, Nov. 9, 23, Dec. 14,21,28. 

1780. Jan. 4 to Dec. 26. 

Mutilated: May 23, Dec. 19. 
Missing: Jan. 4, Feb. 8, 22, July 25, Oct, 10, 
Nov. 21,28, Dec. 12,26. 

1913.] Connecticut, 271 

1781. Jail. 2 to Dec. 25. 

Mutilated: July 17. 

Missing: Jan. 10, Feb. 6, 20, Apr. 3, 10, 21, 
May 1,8, June 5. 

1782. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 

Mutilated: Feb. 19, Mar. 19, Apr. 2, May 
28, June 18, July 30, Aug. G, Dec. 17. 

Missing: Feb. 26, Mar. 12, May 14, July 
23, Aug. 13, 20, Oct. 8, 15, Nov. 5, 12, 26, 
Dec. 10. 

1783. Jan. 7 to Dec. 30. 

Mutilated: Jan. 14, Mar. 18, June 10, July 
1, Aug. 19, Oct. 7, 21, Nov. 18, 25, Dee. 
10, 30. 

Missing: May 13, 27, June 3, July 22, 
Sept. 9, Nov. 11, Dec. 23. 

1784. Jan. 0. 

Feb. 3, 10, 24. 

Mar. 2", 9", 16,23. 

Apr. 6, 13", 27. 

May 18'", 25. 

June 1/8, 15-, 29. 

July 13, 20, 27. 

Aug. 3. 

Sept. 1.4. 

Oct. 12/" 19". 

Nov. 16", 30. 

Dec. 21. 

Supplement: Apr. 6, 13, Aug. 3, 31, f Nov. 9. 

1785. Jan. 4, 18. 

Feb. 1, 8, 15, 22". 
Mar. 22, 29". 
Apr. 5, 19. 
May 23". 30, 
June 6", 13,20,27. 
July 18", 25. 
Aug. 1, 8, 15, 22. 
Sept. 19, 26. 
Oct. 3, 24", 31. 

272 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Nov. 7, 14, 28. 
Dec. 5, 19. 

1786. Jan. 2 to Dec. 25. 
Supplement: Apr. 3, Oct. 9. 

Mutilated: Aug. 21, Sept. 18. 

Missing: Jan. 23, 30, Feb. 13, Mar. 6, June 

12, Aug. 14, Sept. 25, Oct. 30, Nov. 6, 13, 


1787. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 

Missing: Apr. 23, July 9, Sept. 17, Oct. 1, 
29, Nov. 26. 

1788. Jan. 7 to Dec. 29. 
Supplement: Mar. 10, July 21. 

Mutilated: Jan. 21, Aug. 18. 
Missing: Apr. 21, 28, June 2, 16, Aug. 25, 
Sept. 8, Oct. 13, 27, Dec. 8, 15, 29. 

1789. Jan. 5, 12, 26. 
Feb. 9, 23. 
Mar. 9, 23. 

Apr. 6, 13, 20, 27. 
May 4, 18, 25. 
July 6. 
Aug. 10, 31. 
Sept. 7, 14, 21, 28. 
Oct. 5, 12. 
Nov. 2, 9, 23, 30. 
Dec. 7, 14, 21, 31. 
Supplement: Aug. 31. 

1790. Jan. 7 to Dec. 27. " 

Supplement: Feb. 4, 25, Mar. 29, Apr. 12. 
May 10, June 14, Aug. 2, 23. 
Missing: Jan. 28, Mar. 11, June 7, July 19, 
26, Oct. 4, Nov. 1, 22. 

1791. Jan. 3, 10", 17, 31. 
Feb. 14,21. 

Apr. 4, 11, 25. 
May 2, 16, 23, 30. 
June 13, 20, 27. 
Julv4, 11. 

1913.] Connecticut. 273 

Aug. 1, 15,22,29. 
Sept. 5, 12, 19. 
Oct. 3, 10, 17, 24, 31-. 
Nov. 7, 21, 28. 
Dec. 12, 19. 

1792. Jan. 16-, 23", 30. 
Feb. 20, 27. 
Mar. 5,12, 19. 
Apr. 9, 16, 23", 30. 
May 7, 14, 21, 28. 
June 4, 11,25. 
July 2, 16,23,30. 
Aug. 13, 20. 
Sept. 3, 10, 17. 
Oct. 1,8,22. 
Nov. 5, 12. 

Dec. 31. 
Supplement: Oct. 8. 

1793. Jan. 7, 21, 28. • 
Feb. 4, 18, 25-. 
Mar. 4, 25 m . 
Apr. 8-, 29. 
May 6, 20, 27. 
June 3. 

Aug. 5. 
Sept. 23 
Oct. 7. 
Dec. 2, 9. 
Supplement: June 10. 

1794. Jan. 13, 20, 27. 
Feb. 3, 17, 24. 
Mar. 1,31. 
Apr. 14, 21. 
May 5, 12, 19, 26. 
June 9, 16, 30. 
July 7, 14. 

Aug. 4, 11,25. 
Sept. 1, 8, 15, 22. 
Oct. 13, 20. 


274 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Nov. 17, 24. 
Dec. 1, 8™. 
Supplement: Sept. 22. 

1795. Jan. 10. 
Mar. 23, 30. 
May 18. 

July 13, 20, 27. 

Aug. 10, 24. 

Nov. 9, 23. 

Dec. 28. 

Supplement: Mar. 30, May 25. 

1796. Jan. 11. 
Mar. 21. 
May 23, 30. 
June 6, 13™, 20. 
July 4. 

Aug. 1, 22". 

Sept. 19, 26. 

Oct. 17, 24, 31. 

Nov. 7, 14™, 21. 

Dec. 5, 12, 26. 

Supplement: Sept. 12, Oct. 17. 

1797. Jan. 23, 30. 
Feb. 6™, 20, 27. 
Mar. 6, 13, 20, 27. 
Apr. 10, 17, 24. 
May 1,22™. 
June 26. 

July 3™, 17, 24-, 31. 
Aug. 7, 14, 21. 
Sept. 11,18,25. 
Oct. 2, 16 w , 23, 30. 
Nov. 6™, 13, 20, 27. 
Dec. 4, 11, 18™, 25. 
Supplement: Feb. 6, 13. 

1798. Jan. 1, 29. 

Feb. 5, 12, 19, 26. 
Mar. 5, 12, 19, 26. 
Apr. 23. 




May 21, 28. 

June 4. 

Aug. 27 m . 

Sept. 3™ 10, 17 m , 24-. 

Oct, 1,8, 15, 22,29. 

Nov. 5, 12 7 19, 26. 

Dec. 3, 10, 17,24,31. 

Supplement: Feb. 19, Mar. 5. 

1799. Jan. 7 to Dec. 30. 

1800. Jan. G to Dec. 29. 

Missing: Nov. 10. 

1801. Jan. 5 to Dec. 28. 

1802. Jan. 4 to Dec. 29. 

Mutilated: Dec. 1. 

1803. Jan. 5 to Dec. 28. 

1804. Jan. 4 to Dec. 26. 

1805. Jan. 2 to Dec. 25. 

1806. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 

1807. Jan. 7 to Dec. 30. 

1808. Jan. 6 to Dec. 28. 

Mutilated: Nov. 2. 

1809. Jan. 4 to Dec. 27. 

1810. Jan. 3 to Dec. 26. 

1811. Jan. 2 to Dec. 25. 
Extra: June 29. 

1812. Jan. 1 to Dec. 29. 
Extra: June 23. 

Mutilated: Jan. 1, 8, 15, 22, 29, Feb. 5, 12, 
19, Mar. 25. 


Jan 5 to Dec. 



Jan. 4 to Dec. 



Jan. 3 to Dec. 
Extra: Jan. 6 



Jan. 2 to Dec. 



Jan. 7 to Dec. 



Jan. 6 to Dec. 



Jan. 5 to Dec. 



Jan. 4 to Dec. 




4, 11, 18,25, Feb. 1. 


276 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

[Hartford] Connecticut Intelligencer, 1804. 

Weekly. Established Mar. 17, 1804, by Oliver Steele! 
Discontinued during the year. Steele became one of the 
editors of the "New England Republican" at Danbury 
in July, 1804. 

Harvard has Apr. 14, 24, May 8, 1804. Long Id. Hist. 
Soc. has Mar. 24-May 8, 1804. A. A. S. has: 
1804. Mar. 17. 

[Hartford] Connecticut Mirror, 1809-1820+ . 

Weekly. Established July 10, 1809, by Charles Hosmer. 
The following were the changes in proprietorship: Charles 
Hosmer, July 10, 1809-Dec. 2, 1811; Hale and Hosmer 
(Horatio G. Hale and Charles Hosmer), Dec. 9, 1811- 
Nov. 21, 1814; Charles Hosmer, Nov. 28 (printed 21), 
1814-May 13 (printed 18), 1816; Benjamin L. Hamlen, 
May 20, 1816-May 12, 1817; Hamlen & Newton (B. L. 
Hamlen & Abner Newton, Jr.), May 19, 1817-Aug. 24, 
1818; for the Proprietors, Aug. 31, 1818-Oct. 12, 1818; 
Stone & Lincoln (William L. Stone and Simeon Lincoln), 
Oct. 19, 1818-May 29, 1820; S. Lincoln (Simeon Lincoln), 
June 5, 1820-1821. 

Practically complete files, 1809-1820, are in the Ct. Hist. 
Soc. and Ct. St. Lib. Other files are as follows: Dart- 
mouth has 1810-15; Yale has 1809-17. Pequot Lib., 
Southport, has 1809-June, 1818. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has 
1809-June, 1813. Hist. Soc. Penn. has 1809-20. Lib. 
Cong, has 1809-15; with a scattered file of 1816-17. Ohio 
State Lib. has July 10, 1809-Dec. 1820. Western Reserve 
Hist. Soc. has July 27, 1812-July 17, 1815. Wis. Hist. 
Soc. has 1809-18. A. A. S. has: 

1809. Sept. 25. 

1810. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 

Mutilated: Feb. 26, Aug. 13. 

Missing: Jan. 1, 8, 15, 22, 29, Feb. 5, 12, 19. 

1811. Jan. 7 to Dec. 30. 

Missing: Dec. 2, 9. 

1812. Jan. 6 to Dec. 28. 

Mutilated: Aug. 31. 

Missing: Sept. 14, Nov. 23, 30, Dec. 7, 
14, 21, 28. 

1913.1 Connecticut. 277 




Jan. 10, 17,24,31. 

Feb. 7. 

June 20. 

Aug. 15, 22. 

Sept. 19. 

Oct. 10, 24. 

Nov. 7, 14, 21. 

Dec. 5, 12, 26. 


May 22. 

July 3. 

Aug. 7, 28. 

Sept. 18. 


Apr. 1, 8, 22. 

May 6 ; 13, 20, 27. 

June 10. 

Sept. 23. 


Mar. 3, 17'". 

May 5, 26. 

June 2, 9, 

July 21, 28. 

Aug. 11,25. 


July 27. 


Feb. 1,8. 

Mar. 15. 

July 12. 

Dec. 27. 


Apr. 3. 

July 10, 17, 31. 

Aug. 28. 

[Hartford] Freeman's Chronicle, 1783-1784. 

Weekly. Established Sept. 1, 1783, by Bavil Webster, 
with the title of the " Freeman's Chronicle: or, the Ameri- 
can Advertiser." Beginning with the issue of June 3, 
1784, the paper was published by Zephaniah Webster. 
Last issue located is that of July 8, 1784. 

Yale has issues from Sept. 29 to Nov. 10, 1783. A. A. S. 

278 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

1783. Sept. 8, 15, 22, 29. 
Oct. 13, 20, 27-. 
Nov. 10. 

1784. Jan. 5, 19, 26. 
Feb. 9. 
Mar. 1, 15. 
Apr. 12. 

May 10, 17, 24. 
June 3, 10, 17,24. 
' July 8. 

Hartford Gazette, 1794-1795. 

Semi-weekly. Established Jan. 13, 1794, by Beach 6c 

Storrs. (Lazarus Beach and Storrs. Prince 

Storrs was the only person of that surname in Hartford 
County Census of 1790.) Tiie title was enlarged to " Hart- 
ford Gazette and the Universal Advertiser" in July, 1794, 
but was changed back again to "Hartford Gazette/' Oct. 
13, 1794. The original publishers were changed to L. 
Beach & Co., Apr. 21, 1794, and to Beach and Jones 
(Lazarus Beach and Ira Jones), Oct. 13, 1794. The paper 
was at first a small quarto, but was enlarged to folio size 
in July, 1794. The last issue was that of Mar. 19, 1795. 
Beach & Jones removed to Newfield, where they estab- 
lished the " American Telegraphe," Apr. 8, 1795. 

Harvard has Dec. 25, 1794-Jan. 26, 1795; Feb. 19, 
Mar. 19, 1795. Ct. Hist. Soc. has July 14, 1794-Mar. 5, 
1795. Watkinson Lib. has Jan.-June 26, 1794. Lib. Cong, 
has July 17, 1794-Mar. 19, 1795. A. A. S. has: 

1794. Jan. 27. 
Feb. 6, 17. 
Apr. 28. 
May 12, 29. 
Sept. 22. 
Oct. 2, 6. 
Nov. 24. 

Dec. 11, 15, 22, 25. 

1795. Jan. 4, 8, 12, 26. 




[Hartford] New Star, 1796. 

Published by Apollos Kinsley. This curious little paper 
is 16mo. in size and shows no numbering. Apparently 
but one issue was printed, that of Feb. 2, 1796. It con- 
tained the following announcement: "This small paper 
is printed for the purpose of making experiments with a 
model of a Printing Press, on a new plan, lately invented 
by the Printer hereof. Though the press is by no means 
complicated, it puts the ink on the types, carries in the 
papers and prints two sheets at a time, and will deliver 
them well printed at the rate of more than two thousand 
sheets in an hour, by the labor of one person only." 
A. A. S. has: 
1796. Feb. 2. 
[Hartford] Times, 1817-1820+ . 

Weekly. Established Jan. 1, 1817, by F. D. Bolles A 
Co. (Frederick D. Bolles and John M. Niles). The title 
was changed with the issue of Nov. 16, 1819, to the "Times, 
and Weekly Advertiser." The changes in the names of 
publishers were as follows: F. D. Bolles for John M. 
Niles, Mar. 2, 1819-June 15, 1819; for John M. Niles, 
June 22, 1819-Sept. 21, 1819; Bowles & Francis (Samuel 
Bowles and John Francis), Sept. 28, 1819-1820+ . 

Hartford Times office has a nearly complete file. Ct. 
Hist. Soc. has a fair file, 1817-1820. Long Id. Hist. Soc. 
has Jan. 14, 28, Feb. 4, Aug. 19, 1817; Jan. 6, 1818-Dec. 
26, 1820. Lib. Cong, has Apr. -Nov., 1820. A. A. S. has: 
1817. Jan. 1, 21. 
May 13. * 
Dec. 30. 
1820. Apr. 11. 
Utchfield Gazette, 1808-1809. 

Weekly. Established Mar. 16, 1808, by Hosmer A 
Goodwin (Charles Hosmer and Oliver Goodwin). Dis- 
continued on May 17, 1809. 

Ct. Hist. Soc. has Mar. 16, 1808-Mar. 8, 1809. Litch- 
field Hist. Soc. has May 10, 1809. A. A. S. has: 

1808. July 27. 

1809. Apr. 26. 


280 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Litchfield Journal, 1818. 

Weekly. Established by I. Bunce (Isaiah Bunce), 
Mar. 11, 1818, judging from the date of the first known, 
issue, that of Apr. 8, 1818, vol. 1, no. 5. In the issue of 
Oct. 20, 1818, it is announced that the paper will be pub- 
lished but a short time longer. 

Litchfield Hist. Soc. has Apr. 8-Oct. 20, 1818. 

Litchfield Monitor, 1784-1807. 

Weekly. Established Dec. 21, 1784, by Collier and 
Copp (Thomas Collier and William Copp). It expe- 
rienced the following changes of name : " Weekly Monitor 
and American Advertiser," Dec. 21, 1784-Mar. 1785; 
" Weekly Monitor," Mar. or Apr. 1785-Nov. 28, 1786; 
"Weekly Monitor and Litchfield Town and County Re- 
corder," Dec. 5, 1786-June 4, 1787; "Weekly Monitor," 
June 11, 1787-Dec. 31, 1787; "Collier's Litchfield Weekly 
Monitor," Jan. 7, 1788-June 16, 1788; "Weekly Mon- 
tor," June 23, 1788-Apr. 20, 1789; "Weekly Monitor and 
the Litchfield Advertiser," Apr. 27, 1789-June 8, 1789, 
and suspended with the latter issue; revived Nov. 17, 
1789, carrying the name of "Weekly Monitor" to the 
issue of Dec. 4, 1790; " Litchfield-County Monitor," 
Dec. 11, 1790-Jan. 3, 1791; "Litchfield Monitor," Jan. 
10, 1791-Jan. 4, 1792; "Monitor," Jan. 11, 1792-Aug. 
20, 1794; "Litchfield Monitor," Aug. 27, 1794-June 3, 
1795; "Litchfield Monitor, and Agricultural Register," 
June 10, 1795-May LI, 1796; "Weekly Monitor," May 
18, 1796-Feb. 21, 1798; "Monitor," Feb. 28, 1798-June 8, 
1803; "Litchfield Monitor," June 15, 1803-July 1, 1807. 
The succession of editors was as follows: Collier and 
Copp (Thomas ('oilier and William Copp), Dec. 21, 1784- 
Dec. 12, 1785; Thomas Collier, Dec. 19, 1785-Sept. 8, 
1788; Collier and Adam (Thomas Collier and Robert 
Adam), Sept. 15, 1788-June 8, 1789; Thomas Collier, 
Nov. 17, 1789-Jan. 4, 1792; Collier and Buel (Thomas 
Collier and David Buel), Jan. 11, 1792-Feb. 24, 1796; 
Thomas Collier, Mar. 2, 1796-Feb. 27, 1805; Thomas 
Collier & Son (Thomas & Thomas G. Collier), Mar. 6, 

1913.] Connecticut. 281 

1805-Sept. 3, ISOli; Thomas Collier, Sept. 10, 1806-July 

1, 1807. The last issue located is that of July 1, 1807. 

The best file is that owned by the Litchfield Historical 
Society which, with but few imperfections, runs from 
Nov. 14, 1786 to July 1, 1807, Other files are as follows: 
Harvard has scattered issues 1795-Apr. 15, 1807. Yale 
has 1787-1793. N. Y. Pub. Lib. has Dec. 21, 1784-Apr. 
12, 1785; Oct. 20, 1788; Jan. 12, Feb. 9, Mar. 10, Apr. 27, 
1789; June 14, 1790; Mar. 26, 1800. Long Id. Hist. Soc. 
has May 15, 1793-Feb. 10, 1796, scattered. N. J. Hist. 
Soc. has 1793-1797. Lib. Cong, has July 18, 1798-Feb. 
12, 1800. A. A. S. has : 

1785. Mar. 1, 8, 15. 
Apr. 2(K 
June 28 m . 
July 5, 19. 
Aug. 9, 23 m . 
Nov. 1'", 15, 22, 29. 

1786. Jan. 3, 17'", 24. 
Feb. 7, 14,21,28. 
Mar. 7, 14-, 21, 28. 
Apr. 4, 11,25. 
May 23, 30. 

June 6 W , 13, 20. 
Oct. 3, 10. 
Dec. 12, 26. 

1787. Jan. 9, 16, 23, 30. 
Feb. 20. 

Mar. 5, 19. 
May 7-, 21, 28. 
June 4. 
July 2, 16, 30. 
Aug. 6, 13. 
Sept. 3, 10, 17. 
Nov. 12. 
Dec. 3, 17, 24. 

1788. Jan. 21,29. 
Feb. 4. 

Apr. 7, 14, 21. 

282 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

July 14, 28. 

Aug. 11, 18. 

Sept. 1"', 15, 22, 29". 

Oct. 13, 20. 

Nov. 10,24. 

Dec. 22, 29. 
1789. Jan. 5, 12. 

Feb. 2 m . 

Mar. 23. 

Apr. 13, 20. 

May 4, 11. 

Dec. 8, 22. 

Supplem en t : M ay 4 . 
H790. Jan. 19, 26. 

Feb. 2, 9, 16, 23. 

Mar. 2, 9, 16, 23, 30. 

Apr. 6, 13, 20. 

May. 8, 15™, 29. 

June?, 14, 21,28. 

July 5, 12. 

Aug. 9, 16, 30. 

Sept. 6, 13, 20. 

Oct. 4. 

Nov. 22, 29. 
J791. Jan. 3, 17. 

Feb. 9, 23. 

Mar. 2, 9. 

May 25. 
July 27. 
Aug. 10, 31. 
Nov. 2. 
Dec. 7. 

1793. Mar. 13, 27. 
Apr. 3. 
June 12. 
Nov. 13 m . 

1794. Jan. 15. 
Feb. 26. 
Apr. 30"\ 




May 14, 21. 
June 25 m . 

Nov. 26 m . 

Dec. 17, 24. 
1795. Jan. 7. 

Mar. 4. 

Apr. 29. 

May 6, 13. 

June 24. 

July 8, 15, 22. 

Aug. 12, 26. 

Nov. 18. 
1796. Mar. 23. 

May 27. 

June 1. 

July 6, 13, 20"'. 

Aug. 17'". 
Sept. 7 ro . 
Oct. 5, 19, 26. 
Dec. 28. 
1797. Feb. 8, 15. 

Mar. 8, 15,^22,^29. 
Apr. 19. 
May 3, 17/31. 
June 28. 
July 22. 
Aug. 16, 23. 
Sept. 13. 
Oct. 18. 
Nov. 8. 

1798. Jan. 31. 
Feb. 7. 
Apr. 18 OT . 
Nov. 14, 

1799. Jan. 23. 
Mar. 20. 
Apr. 3. 
July 3. 

284 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

1803. May 18. 

1805. Supplement: Apr. 23. 

Litchfield Republican, 1819-1820 + . 

Weekly. Established May 12, 1810, by 1. Bimce 
(Isaiah Bunce). Continued after 1820. 

Litchfield Hist. Soc. has May 19, 1819-Dec. 18, 1820. 
A. A. S. has: 

1820. Apr. 10, 17, 24. 
May 1, 22. 

[Litchfield] Witness, 1805-1807. 

Weekly. Established Aug. 14, 1805, by Timothy Ash- 
ley. In April, 1806, Ashley was convicted of libel and 
imprisoned, and Selleck Osborn in the issue of April 16 
announced that he had purchased Mr. Ashley's interest. 
Osborn henceforth published the paper. In the issue of 
May 27, 1807, he stated that the paper had not been 
issued for two weeks previous. The numbering shov/s no 
issue for June 10, 1807. The paper suspended with the 
issue of June 24, 1807. 

Ct. Hist. Soc. has the best file, 1805-1807. Other files 
are as follows: Harvard has Apr. 2-Dec. 31, 1806, scat- 
tered; Feb. 4, June 24, 1807. Yale has 1806-07. Litch- 
field Hist. Soc. has Aug. 21, 1805-July 30, 1806; Dec. 3, 
1806-June 24, 1807. Long Id. Hist. Soc. has Apr. 2, 1806; 
Mar. 18, 1807. Lib. Cong, has Jan. 15, 1806-June 24, 
1807, scattered. Wis. Hist. Soc. has Dec. 18, 1805-June 
24, 1807. A. A. S. has: 

1805. Aug. 14. 
Sept. 11, 25. 
Oct. 2, 9, 23, 30. 
Dec. 4, 11. 

1806. Jan. 8, 22, 29. 
Feb. 5, 19-, 26. 
Mar. 5, 19, 26. 
Apr. 16, 23, 30. 
May 7, 14,21,28. 
June 4, 11, 18. 

July 2, 9-, 16,23,30. 

1913.] Connecticut. 285 

Aug. 6, 13, 27. 
Sept. 10, 21. 
Oct. 1, 8, 15. 
Nov. 5, 12, 19 m , 20. 
Deo. 3, 10, 24. 
1807. Jan. 7, 21, 28. 
Feb. 4, 18, 25. 
Mar. 4, 11, 18. 
Apr. 8, 15, 22, 29. 
June 3, 17, 24. 

(Middletown] Connecticut Spectator, 1814-1815. 

Weekly. Established Apr. 20, 1814, by Looraia & 
Richards (Simeon L. Loomis & Seth Richards). This 
partnership was dissolved, aud with the issue of Mar. 20, 
1815, Seth Richards became the publisher. The last issue 
located is that of May 24, 1815. 

New London Co. Hist. Soc. has Apr. 20, July 20, Sept. 
7, 1814. Lib. Cong, has Oct. 5, Dec. 28, 1814; Jan. 4- 
Apr. 5, 1815. Ohio State Lib. has June 29-Oct. 5, 1814, 
scattered. A. A. S. has: 
1815. May 10, 24 m . 

[Middletown] Middlesex Gazette, 1785-1820 + . 

Weekly. Established Nov. 8, 1785, by Woodward & 
Green (Moses H. Woodward & Thomas Green). On Nov. 

5, 1787, it was called the ''Middlesex Gazette, or Foederal 
Adviser," which title, however, was shortened again to 
" Middlesex Gazette" on Mar. 3, 1792. Moses II. Wood- 
ward published the paper from June 20, 1789, to Oct. 6, 
1797, when he resigned the business to Tertius Dunning. 
The firm was T. and T. B. Dunning from Oct. 3, 1800, to 
May 31, 1810, and T. Dunning from June 7, 1810, to after 

An almost complete file is in the Ct. Hist. Soc, 1785- 
1820. Harvard has a scattered file, 1795-1805. Yale has 
1785-87; 1802-03. Phil. Lib. Co. has Oct. 12, 1793; Nov. 

6, 27, Dec. 4, 1795; Mar. 18, 25, Apr. 1, 15, 22, May 13, 
20, 1796; Apr. 20, 1798. A. A. S. has: 

286 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

1785. Nov. 22, 29'". 

Dec. 6, 13'", 20"', 27"'. 

1786. Jan. 24. 
Feb. 6, 13, 27. 
Mar. 27. 
May 8™, 22, 29. 
June 5, 12. 
Oct. 2, 30. 
Dec. 11, 18,25. 

1787. Jan. 1, 8, 15, 22, 29. 
Feb. 5, 12, 19, 26. 
Mar. 19, 26. 

Apr. 2, 16, 23, 30. 
May 7, 14, 21,28. 
June 4, 11, 18. 
July 16, 23. 
Aug. 6, 13 w . 
Sept. 3, 10, 17. 
Oct. 1, 8, 22, 29. 
Nov. 19. 
Dec. 10, 24, 31. 

1788. Jan. 7, 14, 21. 
Feb. 4, 11,25. 
Mar. 24, 31. 
Apr. 7, 14, 21. 
May 26. 
June 23, 30. 
June 7, 14. 

Aug. 4, 11, 18, 25. 
Sept. '!*, 8, 22. 
Oct. 20, 27-. 
Nov. 1, 8, 15, 22, 29. 
Dec. 20. 

1789. Jan. 3, 10, 17, 24, 31-. 
Feb. 7, 14,21,28. 
Mar. 7'", 28. 

Apr. 4, 11, 18,25. 
May 2, 9, 16, 23, 30. 
Aug. 1,8, 15,29. 

1913.] Connecticut. 287 

Sept. 5, 12, 19. 
Oct. 3, 10, 17 w , 31. 
Nov. 7, 14, 21, 28. 
Dec. 5, 12, 19'", 26. 

1790. Jan., 2 to Dec. 25. 
Supplement: Mar. 20. 

Missing-: Jan. 2, Feb. 6, Aug. 28, Sept. 25, 
Oct. 9, 30. 

1791. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 

Mutilated: June 1 1. 

Missing: Feb. 26, Mar. 26, Apr. 30, May 

28, June 25, July 16, Sept. 10, 17, Oct. 

29, Nov. 5, 19. 

1792. Jan. 7 to Dec 29. 

Mutilated: Apr. 28, June 16. 
Missing: Feb. 4, 11, 18, 25, Mar. 3, 10, 
July 28, Nov. 24, Dec. 1, 8, 22. 

1793. Jan. 12, 19, 26. 
Feb. 9, 16, 23. 
Mar. 9 m , 23, 30. 
Apr. 6 m , 13, 20. 
May 4, 25. 
June 1, 8, 15. 
Oct. 26. 
Extra: June 5. 

1794. May 24. 
July 5. 

1795. Jan. 3. 
Feb. 14. 
Mar. 7. 
May 9, 16. 
June 27. 

July 3, 10, 17, 31. 
Aug. 7, 21, 28. 
Nov. 6, 27. 

1796. May 20, 27. 
July \ m , 8, 15. 
Oct. 14, 21, 28. 
Nov. 4, 18. 

288 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Dec. 9, 30. 
1797. Jan. 13, 20. 
Feb. 3, 17. 
Mar. 3, 10, 17, 24. 
Apr. 14, 28-. 
May 12, 19, 2G. 
June 2, 16, 23, 30. 
July 14, 28. 

Aug. 4, 18, 25. 

Sept. 1, 8, 22. 

Oct. 13. 

Nov. 10, 17, 24. 

Dec. 1, 8-, 22* 
1798. Jan. 5. 

Mar. 2, 16. 

Apr. 20, 27. 

Oct. 19. 
1801. Nov. 2. 

1804. Mar. 9. 

1805. Apr. 5, 12. 

1810. Jan. 25-. 
Oct. 4, 

1811. Apr. 11", 18, 25. 
May 2, 9, 16, 23, 30. 
June 6, 13, 20, 27. 
July 4, 11. 

Aug. 22. 
Sept. '12-, 26. 
Oct. 3, 10, 17, 24, 31. 
Nov. 14. 

1812. Aug. 6. 
1814. Feb. 24-. 

Mar. 3, 10 m , 17, 24-, 31. 
Apr. 7, 14, 21, 28. 
May 5, 12, 19, 26. 
June 2, 9, 16, 23, 30. 
July 7, 14, 21-, 28. 
Aug. 4, 11, 18, 25. 
Sept. 1, 8, 15, 22, 29. 

1913.] Connecticut. 289 

Oct. 6, 13, 20, 27. 

Nov. 3, 10, 17. 
11816. Feb. 29™. 

Mar. 7", 14'", 21, 28. 

Apr. 4, 11, 18, 25. 

May 2, 9, 16, 23, 30. 

June 6, 13, 20, 27. 

July 4, 11, 18,25. 

Aug. 1, 8, 15, 22, 29. 

Sept. 5, 12, 19, 26. 

Oct. 3, 10,17, 24, 31. 

Nov. 14, 28. 
11818. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 

Missing: Jan. 1, 8, 15, July 16, 30, Oct. 8, 
22, Nov. 19, Dec. 17, 24, 31. 

[New Haven] Belles-Lettres Repository, 1808. 

Weekly. Edited and published by Samuel Wadaworth. 
It is of 4to size and has the appearance of a magazine, but 
since it contains current local news, might be listed as a 

Yale has Apr. 16, 1808, vol. 1, no. 7. 

New Haven Chronicle, 1786-1787. 

Weekly. Established Apr. 18, 1786, by Daniel Bowen. 
The heading of the paper contained a large cut of a View 
of the City of New Haven, which, however, was omitted 
in April, 1787. The last issue located is that of Sept. 11, 
A. A. S. has: 
1786. Apr. 25. 

May 9, 23, 30. 
June 13, 20. 
July 4, 25. 
Aug. 1, 8, 15, 22, 29. 
Sept. 5, 12, 19"', 26. 
Oct. 10, 17, 24, 31. 
Nov. 7, 14,21,28. 
Dec. 5, 26. 

290 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

1787. Jan. 2*, 9, 23, 30. 

Feb. 6. 20 M , 

Mar. 6™, 13™, 20™, 27. 

Apr. 3 m . 

May 1™, 8 m , 22-. 

June 5™, 26. 

July 10, 31. 

Aug. 14, 28. 

Sept. 11". 

Supplement: Jan. 30. 
[New Haven] Columbian Register, 1812-1820 f. 

Weekly. Established Dec. 1, 1812, by Joseph Barber. 
Continued by him after 1820. 

Yale has a practically complete file, 1812-1820. Bron- 
son Lib., Waterbury, has Aug. 16, 1814-Sept. 4, 1815, 
scattered. New London Co. Hist. Soc. has 1816-1817. 
Lib. Cong, has Aug. 3, 1816; Jan. 11, Feb. 22, Mar. 15, 
May 3, 1817; 1819-20. A. A. S. has: 

1812. Dec. 1, 15. 

1813. Jan. 5 m . 
Nov. 9 rrt . 

1814. Jan. 25. 

Feb. 1* S"\ 15, 22'". 
Mar. 8 m , 29. 
May 17, 31. 
June 21. 
Aug. 2, 16, 30. 
Sept. 6, 13, 20, 27. 
Oct. 4, 18, 25. 
Nov. 8, 22, 29. 
Dec. 6. 

1815. Jan. 17"'. 
Mar. 14, 28. 
Apr. 8. 
May 20, 27"'. 
June 17. 
Aug. 19. 
Oct. 28, 
Nov. 11, 18. 

1913.] Connecticut 201 

1816. Jan. 27. 

Feb. 3, 17. 

Mar. 30. 

Apr. 20. 

May 11, 25. 
4817. Apr. 20. 

May 3'\ 

July 20. 
1820. Apr. 22. 

[New Haven] Connecticut Gazette, 1755-1768. 

Weekly. Established Apr. 12, 1755, by James Parker. 
Beginning witii the issue of Dec. 13, 1755, it was pub- 
lished by James Parker and Co. Thomas, in his " History 
of Printing," records that John Holt was the editor and 
the junior partner of the firm, getting out the paper, 
while Parker was concerned in printing enterprises in 
New York and New Jersey. Holt removed to New York 
in the summer of 1700, announcing that the business of 
the "Connecticut Gazette" would be carried on "as 
usual" by Thomas Green. Green remained with the 
paper until its suspension with the issue of Apr. 14, 1704, 
no. 471. The imprint was J. (or James) Parker & Co. 
from 1755 to 1704. 

The Gazette was revived by Benjamin Mecom on July 
5, 1765, although the issue for this date was a " sample" 
issue numbered 0. The issue for July 12, 1705, no. 472, 
continued the former numbering. At this time a broad- 
side was issued, entitled "To the Publick of Connecti- 
cut," and signed at the end, "Printed by B. Mecom." 
It begins, "Perhaps there never was a more unpromising 
Time for the Encouragement of another News-paper." 
Copies of this broadside are in the A. A. S. and Yale, 
being placed in the Yale file of the "Connecticut Gazette" 
after the issue of July 12, 1705. The paper was pub- 
lished by Mecom until it was finally discontinued with the 
issue of Feb. 19, 1708. It was enlarged from small to large 
folio with the issue of Aug. 2, 1705. 

292 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Yale has a fine file, 1755-1768. Other files are as follows : 
Ct. Hist. Soc. has Sept. 13, 1755; Dee. 4, 1756; July 2, 
1757; Mar. 29, May 17, 1700; Aug. 15, 1761-June 5, 
1762; Jan. 10, 1766. Litehficld Hist. Soc. has Apr. 3, 10, 
1756. N. Y. Pub. Lib. has Aug. 9, 1755; Jan. 3, Oct. 23, 
1756. Phil. Lib. Co. has Sept. 20, Oct. 4, 1765. Lib. 
Cong, has July 8, Aug. 5, 1758; Mar. 3, 1759; Apr. 3- 
' Dec. 25, 1762; July 5, 1765-Oct. 25, 1766, scattered; 
Feb. 7, Nov. 7, 1767. A. A. S. has: 

1755. May 3. 

1765. July 12. 

1767. Jan. 12. 

(New Haven] Connecticut Herald, 1803-1820-j-. 

Weekly. Established Nov. 1, 1803, judging by the date 
of the first known issue, Nov. 15, 1803, vol. 1, no. 3. The 
first proprietors were Comstock, Oris wold & Co. (Seth 
Comstock and Zechariah Griswold). This firm dissolved, 
and beginning with the issue of Dec. 18, 1804, the paper 
was published by Comstock, Steele & Co., Oliver Steele 
having been taken into partnership. The issue of Dec. 1 1 , 
1804, announced that the ''Herald" had absorbed the 
"Connecticut Post and New Haven Visitor" under date 
of Nov. 20, 1804. Subsequent publishers of the " Herald " 
were as follows: Comstock, Steele & Co., Dec. 18, 1804- 
July 23, 1805; Oliver Steele & Co., July 30, 1805-July 23, 
1811; Walter & Steele (Joel Walter and Oliver Steele), 
July 30, 1811-Mar. 9, 1813; Oliver Steele, Mar. 16, 1813- 
Oct. 1816; Henry C. Flagg, proprietor, and Steele & 
Gray, printers, Oct. 15, 1816-Oct. 7, 1817; H. C. Flagg 
and J. C. Gray, Oct. 14, 1817-Oct. 5, 1819; John C. 
Gray, Oct. 12, 1819-1 820 + . Beginning with the issue of 
Mar. 17, 1818, the title was changed to the "Connecticut 
Herald and General Advertiser." 

Yale has a fair file, 1803-1820. Harvard has Nov. 15, 
1803; Nov. 20, 1804-Jan. 22, 1805; Feb. 4, May 27, 
1806; July 28, 1807-Dec. 20, 1808, scattered. Bronson 
Lib., Waterbury, has Apr. 5, 1808-Oct. 17, 1815, scattered. 
Lib. Cong, has a few scattering numbers, chiefly in 1816. 





A. A. S. has. 

1804. Jan. 31. 
Nov. 20. 

1805. Apr. 16. 

1806. Feb. 26. 
Mar. 11. 
June 3. 
Dec. 2, 16. 

1807. Feb. 24. 
Mar. 20. 

1810. June 26. 
Oct. 16. 

1811. Feb. 26. 
Mar. 5, 19. 

1813. Jan. 5, 19. 
1817. Jan. 7. 

Feb. 25. 

Aug. 5'", 19. 

Sept. 2, 9, 16"». 

Oct. 14, 21, 28. 

Nov. 4, 11, 18. 

Dec. 2, 9-, 16, 23. 
1818. Jan. 13. 

Feb. 10, 17. 

Mar. 3™, 10- 17* 24, 31 

Apr. 7, 14, 21. 

June 30. 

July 7'*, 14'", 21, 28. 

Aug. 4, 11,18,25. 

Sept. 1* 15. 

Oct. 6. 

Nov. 10 m , 24. 

Dec. 22. 

1819. Feb. 2. 
June 1, 8. 
Aug. 17 m , 31™. 

1820. Jan. 25. 
Mar. 14. 

May 2", 9, 16, 23 w , 30. 

294 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

June 0,20-/27. 
July 4, 25'". 
Aug. 15, 29. 
Sept. 5, 11, 18. 
Oct. 3, 17*. 
. Nov. 7. 
Dec. 12, 20. 

[New Haven) Connecticut Journal, 1767-1820-J-. 

Weekly. Established Oct. 23, 1707. It experienced 
the following changes of title: "Connecticut Journal and 
New Haven Post-Boy," Oct. 23, 1767-Sept. 7, 1775; 
"Connecticut Journal, " Sept. 13, 1775-Jan. 3, 1799; 
" Connecticut Journal and Weekly Advertiser/ 7 Jan. 10, 
1799-Mar. 28, 1799; "Connecticut Journal," Apr. 4, 
1799-Dec. 29, 1808; "Connecticut Journal and Ad- 
vertiser," Jan. 5-June 29, 1809; "Connecticut Journal," 
July 0, 1809-1820-h 

The changes in the names of the publishers were as 
follows: Thomas and Samuel Green, Oct. 23, 1707- 
Dec. 27, 1798; Thomas Green, Jan. 3, 1799; Thomas 
Green and Son, Jan. 10, 1799-Dec. 29, 1808; Thomas 
Green and Company, Jan. 5, 1809-June 29, 1809; Eli 
Hudson, July 0, 1809-June 27, 1814; Hudson and Wood- 
ward (Eli Hudson and Thomas Green Woodward) July 

4, 1814-Jan. 30, 1810; Eli Hudson, Feb. 0, 1810-Oct. 8, 
1810; for the Proprietors, Oct. 15, 1810-Feb. 25, 1817; 

5. Converse (Sherman Converse), March 4, 1817-1820+. 
Yale has a fine file, 1707-1820. Other files are as follows : 

Boston Pub. Lib. has Feb. 11, 1789-July 4, 1803, fair. 
Harvard has 1795-1804, scattered; Feb. 13-Aug. 14, 
1800. Ct. Hist. Soc. has 1777-1784, and 1788-1800, scat- 
tered; 1818-20. Bronson Lib., Waterbury, has 1773-96; 
1799-1820, scattered. N. Y. Pub. Lib. has May 20, 
1784-May 25, 1785. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has 1795. Phil. 
Lib. Co. has Oct. 1795-Aug. 1790, scattered. Lib. Cong, 
has 1801-1820. A. A. S. has: 
1768. Feb. 2G m . 

1913.] Connecticut. 295 

1770. July 20. 

Sept. 7", 14", 21, 28. 
Oct. 5, 12, 19, 26. 
Nov. 2 m } 16 nl . 

1774. Dec. 14. 
Supplement: Apr. 1. 

1775. Jan. 25. 
Feb. 2, 8, 22-. 
Mar. 1, 15, 22™, 29. 
Apr. 12, 20, 20. 
May 10, 17, 24,31. 
June 7. 

Sept. 13'". 

Oct. 11'". 

Extra: Apr. 29 (no.|000). 

Supplement: May 24. 

1776. Mar. 27. 
Apr. 3, 10, 17. 

8777. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 

Supplement: May 14. 

Mutilated: May 7, 14,fjune 3. 
Missing: Jan. 1, 8, Feb. 12, Mar. 5, Apr. 
2, 9, 30. 
1778. Jan. 7 to Dec. 29. 

Mutilated: Jan. 7, May 20, June 17, Sept. 

23, Oct. 28. 
Missing: Jan. 14, Oct. 21, Nov. 4, 25, Dec. 
2, 16. 
J779. Jan. 20. 

Feb. 10, 17, 24. 
Mar. 3, 10, 24,31. 
Apr. 14,21,28. 
May 12, 19, 26. 
June 2, 16, 23, 30. 
July 7. 
Aug. 11, 25. 
Sept. 8, 22, 29. 
Oct. 6, 13, 20. 

290 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Nov. 3, 17. 
Dec. 8, 15, 29. 

1780. Jan. 5, 12, 19, 20. 

Feb. 2. 
Mar. 29. 

Apr. 5, 12, 20, 27. 
May 4, 18, 25. 
June 1, 8, 15, 29. 
July 6, 13, 20, 27. 
Aug. 3, 10, 17, 21, 
Sept. 7, 14, 21,28. 
Oct. 5, 26. 
Nov. 2, 9, 16, 23, 30. 
Dec. 21, 28. 
Postscript: Apr. 20. 

1781. Jan. 4 to Dec. 27. 

Mutilated: Apr. 5. 

Missing: Mar. 29, Sept. 13, Nov. 15, Dec. 

1782. Jan. 2 to Dec. 26. 

Mutilated: June 6. 

Missing: Feb. 14, July 18, Aug. 1, 22, Sept. 
12, Oct. 3, 17, 31, Nov. 7, 14, 28, Dec. 12. 

1783. Jan. 2 to Dec. 31. 

Mutilated: June 26. 

Missing: Jan. 2, 16, June 12, July 2, Dec. 

1784. Feb. 18, 25. 
Mar. 10, 31. 
May 26 m . 

June 2, 9, 16, 23, 30. 
July 7, 14, 21, 28. 
Aug. 4, 11, 18, 25. 
Sept. 1, 8, 15, 22™, 29. 
Oct. 6, 13, 27. 
Nov. 3, 10* 17, 24. 
Dec. 1, 8, 15, 22, 29. 
Supplement: Oct. 6, 13. 




1785. Jan. 12, 19, 26. 
Fob. 2, 9, 16, 23. 
Mar. 2, 9, 16, 23, 30. 
Apr. 21, 27. 

May 4, 11. 
Juno 8, 15, 22, 29. 
July 6, 27. 
Aug. 10, 17. 
Sopt. 21, 28"'. 
Dec. 7, 14. 

1786. Jan. 11, 18,25. 
Feb. 15, 22. 
Mar. 8, 22, 29. 
Apr. 5, 12, 20. 
May 3"'. 

Oct. 4'\ 
Dec. 6, 20, 27. 

1787. Jan. 3, 10, 17,24,31. 
Feb. 14, 21, 28. 
Mar. 7, 14, 21, 28. 
Apr. 4, 12, 18, 25. 
May 2, 9, 10, 23, 30. 
June 0, 13. 

July 18, 25'". 
Aug. 1,8, 15. 
Sept. 5, 12. 
Oct. 17,24,31. 
Nov. 7, 14, 21. 
Dec. 12, 19. 

1788. Jan. 2 to Dec. 31. 

Mutilated: Apr. 9, May 21. t 

Missing: Mar. 12, 26, Nov. 12, 19, Dec. 17. 

1789. Jan. 7 to Dec. 30. 

Mutilated: Jan. 7, Mar. 25. 
Missing: Feb. 4, June 3, 17, 24, July 8, 15, 
Oct. 7. 

1790. Jan. to Dec. 29. 

Mutilated : Feb. 3, Aug. 11. 
Missing: Oct. 27. 

298 American Antiquarian Society. (Oct., 


Jan. 5 to Dec. 28. 

Mutilated: Feb. 16, June 15, July 13. 


Jan. 4 to Dec. 26. 

Mutilated: May 30. 

Missing: Jan. 4, Apr. 11. 


Jan. 2 to Dec. 26. 


Jan. 2 to Dee. 25. 

Mutilated: Jan. 2. 

Missing: Oct. 8. 


Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 

Supplement: Nov. 12. 


Jan. 7 to Dec. 28. 


Jan. 4 to Dec. 28. 

Extra: Feb. 22. 


Jan. 4 to Dec. 27. 


Jan. 3 to Dec. 26. 


Jan. 2 to Dec. 25. 


Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 

Mutilated: Jan. 22, Junej24, July|29, Sept 



Jan. 7 to Dec. 30. 

Mutilated: Jan. 7. 


Jan. 6 to Dec. 29. 

Mutilated: June 23. 

Missing: Nov. 30. 


Jan. 5, 12, 19. 

Feb. 2, 9, 16, 23. 

May 17. 

June 7 m . 

Dec. 20 J \ 


Jan. 3, 24, 31. 

Feb. 14, 28'". 

Mar. 28. 

Apr. 4, 18. 

July 18. 

Aug. l m . 

Nov. 7, 27. 


1913.] Connecticut. 299 

1806. Jan. 2 to Dec. 25. 

Mutilated: Jan. 2, 16, Feb. 27, Apr. 10, 

May 15, June 20. 
Missing: May 1, 8, 22, Aug. 28, Sept. 11. 

1807. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 

Mutilated: Jan. 8, Apr. 9. 

1808. Jan. 7 to Dec. 29. 

Missing: Oct. 27, Nov. 30. 

1809. Jan. 5 to Dec. 28. 

Mutilated: June 1, Oct. 5, Nov. 16, 23, 30. 
Missing: July 13, Oct. 12, 19, 26, Nov. 2, 
9, Dec. 7, 14, 21, 28. 

1810. Jan. 11. 
Mar. 22. 
May 3, 10. 
June 14"'. 
Oct. 18. 

1811. Jan. 3 to Dec. 26. 

Mutilated: Jan. 3. 

Missing: Feb. 21, Mar. 7, June 13, Aug. 15, 
29, Sept. 12, 19, 26, Nov. 14, Dec. 12. 

1813. Jan. 25'\ 

Feb. l m , 8, 15, 22. 
Mar. 1,8, 15, 22, 29. 
Apr. 5", 12, 19, 26. 
May 3, 10, 17,24,31. 
June 7. 
July 26. 

Aug. 2, 9, 16, 23, 30. 
Sept. 13, 20, 27. 
Oct. 4, 11, 18,25. 
Nov. 8, 15, 22, 29. 
Dec. 6, 13. 

1814. Jan. 3 to Dec. 26. 

Mutilated: Mar. 7. 

Missing: June 6. 
1816. June 4 m , 25. 

July 9, 16, 30. 
Aug. 20. 

300 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Sept. 10, 17. 
Oct. 15, 29. 
Nov. 5, 12, 19. 
Dec. 31. 

1817. Jan. 7 to Dec. 30. 

Mutilated: June 17, Sept. 30. 
Missing: Feb. 11. 

1818. Jan. 27. 
Feb. 3, 10. 
Mar. 3, 17. 
Apr. 7, 14, 28 m . 
May 5, 12™, 19", 26 r \ 
June 23, 30. 

July 7, 28. 
Aug. 25 M . 
Sept. 1, 8. 
Nov. 24, 

1819. Mar. 16. 
Apr. 20 m . 
May 18 m . 
Aug. 31". 
Sept. 7 m , 28-. 
Oct. 5", 19"\ 
Nov. 23", 30. 
Dec. 14 w . 

1820. Jan. 4, 25. 
Feb. 1, 15. 
May 30. 
June 27. 
July 18'\ 
Aug. 1. 

[New Haven] Connecticut Post and New Haven Visitor, 1803- 

Weekly. A continuation in numbering, but change of 
title, of the " Visitor." The initial number was published 
on Nov. 3, 1803, vol. 2, no. 1, printed for J. Walter (Joel 
Walter). The last issue was published on Nov. 14, 1804, 
and on Nov. 20 the paper was bought out by the " Con- 
necticut Herald." 




Harvard has Nov. 3, 1803-Nov. 14, 1804, scattered. 
Yale has 1803-1801, Long Id. Hist. Soc. has Apr. 12, 

[New Haven] Federal Gazetteer, 179G-1797. 

Weekly. Established Apr. 2, 1796, by Tiebout & 
O'Brien (John Tiebout and Edward O'Brien). Between 
Aug. 23 and Oct. 4, 1796, Tiebout retired and the paper 
was published thenceforth by Edward O'Brien & Co. 
The last issue located is for Feb. 22, 1797. Tiebout & 
O'Brien in 1795 were printers in New York, to which city 
the former returned after his New Haven experience. 

Issues located are as follows: Harvard has Apr. 9, 16, 
30, 1796; Feb. 22, 1797. Yale has scattering numbers 
from May 17 to Aug. 23, Oct. 4, Dec. 14, 21, 1796; Feb. 
1, 1797. Phil. Lib. Co. has Apr. 9, 16, 23, 1796. 

New Haven Gazette, 1784-1786. 

Weekly. Established May 13, 1784, by Meigs, Bowen 
and Dana (Josiah Meigs, Daniel Bowen and Eleutheros 
Dana). This firm was dissolved, and with the issue of 
Feb. 9, 1786, the paper was published by Meigs and Dana. 
This issue, moreover, was its last under the name of the 
"New Haven Gazette." Bowen began the publication 
of the "New Haven Chronicle," and Meigs & Dana estab- 
lished the "New Haven Gazette and Connecticut Maga- 
zine," which see. 

Files located are as follows: Ct. Hist. Soc. has May 13, 
1784-Jan. 19, 1786. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Apr. 14, 1785- 
Jan. 26, 1786. Hist. Soc. Penn. has July 1, 1784-Feb. 2, 
1786, although badly mutilated. A. A. S. has: 

1784. June 17. 

July 1, 15, 22, 29. 
Oct. 7. 

Nov. 11, 18, 25. 
Dec. 23, 30". 

1785. Jan. 27. 
Feb. 10, 24. 
Mar. 10, 17. 
Apr. 14. 

302 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

May 26. 
June 2, 9, 30. 
July 7, 14. 
Aug. 25. 
Sept. 1. 
Oct. 20. 
1786. Jan. 5. 
Feb. 9. 

New Haven Gazette, 1791. 

Weekly. Established Jan. 5, 1791, by Abel Morse. 
Discontinued with the issue of June 29, 1791. It was of 
quarto size and paged continuously. 
A. A. S. has: 

1791. Jan. 12, 19. 
Feb. 9, 16. 
Mar. 2, 9, 16. 
Apr. 6, 20. 
May 4, 11, 18,25. 
June 1, 8, 15, 22, 29. 

New Haven Gazette and Connecticut Magazine, 1786-1789. 

Weekly. Established Feb. 16, 1786, by Meigs & Dana 
(Josiah Meigs and Eleutheros Dana). The partnership 
was dissolved and with the issue of Aug. 2, 1787, the 
paper was published by Josiah Meigs. It was of quarto 
size, and title pages and indexes were provided for vols. 
1 to 3. With the issue of Jan. 15, 1789, vol. 4, no. 1, it was 
enlarged to small folio. The last issue located is that of 
June 18, 1789, vol. 4, no. 23. 

The longer files noted are as follows: Boston Pub. Lib. 
has Feb. 16, 1786-Dec. 27, 1787; 1788, scattering. Ct. 
Hist. Soc. has Feb. 16, 1786-June 18, 1789. Pequot Lib., 
Southport, has Feb. 16, 1786-Nov. 27, 1788. Yale has 
Feb. 16, 1786-Jan. 1, 1789. N. Y. Pub. Lib. has Feb. 16, 
1786-Dec. 27, 1787. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Feb. 16, 1786- 
Dec. 27, 1787; July-Dec. 1788. Lib. Cong, has Feb. 16, 
1786-Dec. 27, 1787. Wis. Hist. Soc. has Feb. 1786-Dec. 
1788. A. A. S. has: 





1786. Feb. 16 to Dec. 28. 

Mutilated: Feb. 16, 23, Dec. 7. 
Missing: July 27, Sept. 7, Oct. 12, Dec. 14, 

1787. Jan. 4 to Dec. 27. 

Mutilated: Sept. 27. 
Missing: Jan. 4, 11, Feb. 1. 

1788. Jan. 10 to Dec. 25. 
Supplement: Feb. 28. 

Mutilated: Apr. 17, May 15, Dec. 11. 
. Missing: Feb. 7, Mar. G, Apr. 3, 24, June 5, 
Dec. 18, 25. 

1789. Jan. 15. 
Feb. 12, 17. 

New Haven] Messenger, 1800-1802. 

Weekly. Established Jan. 2, 1800, by Read & Morse 
(Ezra Read and William W. Morse). The partnership 
was dissolved, and with the issue of Feb. 12, 1801, the 
paper was published by William Walker Morse. It was 
temporarily discontinued with the issue of Apr. 2, 1801, 
but renewed with the issue of Sept. 29, 1801. The paper 
was discontinued with the issue of Aug. 9, 1802. Morse 
began printing the " Visitor" at New Haven, Oct. 30, 

Harvard has a scattered file, Jan. 16, 1800-Jan. 19, 1802. 
Yale has a partial file, Jan. 1, 1800-Aug. 9, 1802. 

[New Haven] Sun of Liberty, 1801. 

Weekly. A continuation, without change of numbering, 
of the "Sun of Liberty" of Norwalk. The last number 
printed at Norwalk was for July 15, 1801, vol. 1, no. 52, 
and the first at New Haven for Aug. 26, 1801, vol. 2, no. 1, 
whole no. 53. Published by Samuel Morse. Discontinued 
after a few numbers. Morse went to Savannah, where he 
began publishing the "Georgia Republican" in 1802. 

Issues located are as follows: Harvard has Sept. 30, 
1801. Yale has Sept. 9, 1801. Lib. Cong, has Aug. 26, 
1801. A. A. S. has: 
1801. Aug. 26. 

304 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

[New Haven] Visitor, 1802-1803. 

Weekly. Established Oct. 30, 1802, printed by William 
W. Morse for the editor. It was of quarto size and paged 
continuously. Beginning with the issue of Dec. 11, 1802, 
the paper was printed for J. Walter (Joel Walter). The 
last issue was that for Oct. 25, 1803, after which it was 
enlarged to folio size and the title changed to the " Con- 
necticut Post and New Haven Visitor," which see. 

Yale has a fine file, Oct. 30, 1802-Oct. 25, 1803. Ct. 
Hist. Soc. has Oct. 30, 1802-Jan. 25, 1803. A. A. S. has: 

1802. Oct. 30 to Dec. 25. 

Mutilated: Oct. 30. 
Missing: Dec. 4„ 

1803. Jan. 1. to Oct. 25. 

Mutilated: Jan. 1. 

Missing: Feb.' 15, Apr. 26, May 10, Oct. 
4, 11, 18, 25. 

New London Advertiser, 1795. 

Weekly. Established by Thomas C. Green, Mar. 2, 
1795, judging from the date of the first known number, 
that of Mar. 10, 1795, vol. 1, no. 3. Apparently con- 
tinued for only a few issues. 

Harvard has Mar. 16, Apr. 13, 1795. Lib. Cong, has 
Mar. 23, 1795. 

[New London] Bee, 1797-1802. 

Weekly. Established June 14, 1797, by Charles Holt. 
The paper was suspended from Sept. 5 to Nov. 14, 1798, 
on account of a "malignant disorder" in the eity. Holt 
was tried for libel in 1800 and suspended his paper with 
the issue of Apr. 2, 1800. After having received a fine 
and a sentence in prison, he revived the paper with the 
issue of Aug. 27, 1800. He finally discontinued the paper 
at New London with the issue of June 23, 1802, and re- 
moved to Hudson, N. Y., where he began publishing a 
paper with the same title on Aug. 17, 1802. 

Yale has the best file, 1797-1802. Harvard has a scat- 
tered file, July 6, 1797-June 23, 1802. N. Y. Hist. Soc. 
has June 14, 1797-Mar. 17, 1802. Phil. Lib. Co. has 1798, 




scattered. Lib. Cong, has June 14-Dec. 27, 1797. A. A. 
S. has: 

1797. Nov. 1, 15* 29. 
Dec. 6 m , 13 m . 

1798. Jan. 3, 10- 17, 31. 
Feb. 14, 28. 

Mar. 21. 
Apr. 25. 
May 2, 9, 16. 
June 6. 
Sept. 5 m . 
Nov. 14. 
Dec. 12, 26. 

1799. Jan. 2, 23. 
Feb. 6. 
Mar. 4. 
Oct. 9. 

1800. Feb. 12. 
Oct. 8. 
Nov. 12™. 
Dec. 10. 

1801. May 13. 
July 15. 

Sept. 2, 16, 23, 30. 
Oct. 7, 14, 21, 28. 
Nov. 4, 11, 18,25. 
Dec. 2, 9, 16, 23, 30, 

1802. Jan. 6, 13, 20-, 27. 
Feb. 10, 17, 24. 
Mar. 17, 24, 31. 
Apr. 14, 21. 

May 19, 26. 
June 23. 

[New London] Connecticut Gazette, see New London Gazette. 

New London Gazette, 1763-1820+ . 

Weekly. Established Nov. 18, 1763, by Timothy Green 
under the title of "New London Gazette." In the Conn. 
Historical Society is a copy of a prospectus dated Oct. 12, 


306 American Antiquarian Society, [Oct., 

1763. On Dec. 17, 1773, the title was changed to " Con- 
necticut Gazette and the Universal Intelligencer." On 
May 11, 1787, the title was shortened to " Connecticut 
Gazette." Timothy Green took his son Samuel into 
partnership and on Mar. 13, 1789, the firm name was 
changed to Timothy Green and Son, and on May 9, 1793, 
to Samuel Green. On Jan. 1, 1800, the title was altered to 
" Connecticut Gazette and the Commercial Intelligencer," 
which was retained until Mar. 6, 1805, upon which date 
it was again called "Connecticut Gazette/' and published 
by Cady & Eells (Ebenezer P. Cady and Nathaniel Eells). 
This co-partnership was dissolved and beginning with the 
issue of June 3, 1807, Ebenezer P. Cady published the 
paper. From May 18, 1808, until after 1820, Samuel 
Green was the publisher. 

The best file is that of the Ct. Hist. Soc. which has Nov. 
18, 1763-Nov. 9, 1764; Aug. 22, 1766; Nov. 14, 1766-1820. 
Harvard has a scattering file, 1795-1807. Ct. State Lib. 
has 1778-80. Yale has 1765-74; 1776-80; 1785-96. New 
London Co. Hist. Soc. has scattering issues 1788-94; and 
a good file, 1795-1820. N. Y. Pub. Lib. has 1776-83; 
June 1787-June 1788; 1790-93. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has 
1772; July 1774-Dec. 1781; 1789; 1792; 1795-1802. Hist. 
Soc. Perm, has Nov. 15, 1770-Dec. 26, 1777. Phil. Lib. 
Co. has Oct. 11, 1765; Nov. 1795-Aug. 1796, scattered. 
Lib. Cong, has 1819. Wis. Hist, Soc. has 1787-91; 1799- 
1801. Brit. Museum has Dec. 24, 1784-Dec. 29, 1786. 

A. A. S. ha 



Aug. 29" 


Jan. 23. 

Aug. 7. 


June 12" 


Sept. 2. 


Aug. ll m 

Nov. 17. 

Dec. 22'" 


Jan. 5. 

May 3. 


1913.] Connecticut. 307 

1778. Apr. 17. 
July 3, 10, 17. 
Aug. 7, 21. 
Sept. 18™. 
Oct. 2, 9, 30. 
Nov. 13. 
Dec. 4, 11. 

1779. Jan. l m , 8 m , 15, 29. 
Feb. 5, 12, 19,20. 
Mar. 5 m . 

Apr. 8, 15, 22. 
May 5'", 27. 
June 3'", 10". 
July 8, 14. 
Aug. 4, 18"\ 
Sept. 1, 8, 22. 
Oct. 6, 13, 20, 27. 
Nov. 3"', 10. 
Dec. 1* 29. 

1780. Mar. 29. 
Apr. 21. 

May 5, 12™, 19* 26. 
June 2, 9'", 23. 
July 7, 21". 
Oct. 24. 
Dec. 26. 

1781. Mar. 2* 16-. 
May 4 m , 25. 
June 15, 22™, 29 m . 
July 6 m , 13, 20. 
Aug. 31. 

Sept. 28. 
Oct. 5. 
Nov. 23. 
Dec. 7, 14, 28. 

1782. Jan. 25. ' 
Feb. 22. 
Mar. 22. 
Apr. 19. 

308 - American Antiquarian Society, [Oct., 

May 10, 17, 24, 31. 
June 21, 28. 
July 26. 
Aug. 2, 9. 
Sept. 6, 13, 27. 
Oct. 11, 18, 25. 
Nov. 1, 8, 22, 29. 
Dec. 6, 13. 

1783. Jan. 3, 24, 31. 
Feb. 7, 14, 21, 28. 
Mar. 7, 14, 21. 
Apr. 25. 
May 16 m . 
June 6, 20, 27". 
July 4, 11, 18,25. 
Aug. 1, 8, 15, 29. 
Sept. 5, 12, 26. 
Oct. 3, 17, 24, 31. 
Nov. 7, 21 m . 
Dec. 26. 

1784. Jan. 2, 9. 
Feb. 13, 27. 
Mar. 5, 12. 
Apr. 2, 9, 23. 
May 28. 
June 4. 
July 23. 
Aug. 6, 13. 
Sept. 24, 
Oct. 29. 
Nov. 12, 26. 
Dec. 3, 31. 

1785. Jan. 7, 14. 
Feb. 18. 
Mar. 4. 
Apr. 29. 
May 27. 
June 3. 
July 1, 15,22,29. 

1913.] Connecticut. 309 






5, 12, 19. 


. 2, 9, 16. 










3, 10. 


10", 31. 


14, 21. 





July 7, 28. 






13, 20, 27. 




9, 16, 23. 




13 M , 27. 



July 6, 13, 20, 27. 




7, 21, 28. 


19, 26. 


2, 9, 16. 


14, 21, 28. 








ll m , 18, 25. 



June 20, 27. 


4, 11, 18. 




5, 12. 


3, 10, 24. 


7, 21. 


5, 12, 19™, 26. 

310 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

1780. Jan. 2, to Dec. 25. 

Supplement: May 8. 

Mutilated: Jan. 9, 23, Feb. 6, 20, Mar. 20, 
May 15, 29, June 5, 12, 19, 26, July 3, 10, 
Aug. 21, Sept. 11, Dec. 18,25. 
Missing: Feb. 27, May 13, Apr. 3, 10, Aug. 
28, Nov. 6, Dec. 4, 11. 

1790. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 

Mutilated: Sept. 24. 

Missing: Jan. 1, Feb. 26, Mar. 19, Apr. 16, 

23, July 2, 9, 23, 30, Aug. 5, Oct. 15, 29, 

Dec. 17. 

1791. Jan. 7, 14, 21, 28. 
Feb. 18. 
Mar. 11, 24™. 
Apr. 1, 7, 14, 21. 
May 5, 12, 26. 
June 2, 16, 23, 30. 
July 7. 

Aug. 4, 11, 18, 25. 
Sept. 1, 15. 

Oct. 6, 27. 
Dec. 1, 22, 29. 

1792. Jan. 5 to Dec. 27. 

Mutilated: July 12, Dec. 13. 
Missing: Jan. 26, Feb. 2, 9, 23, May 3, June 
14, 21, Nov. 22, 29, Dec. 27, 

1793. Feb. 7, 14, 21, 28. 
Mar. 14, 21, 28. 
Apr. 4, 18. 
May 2, 9, 16, 23™. 
June 6, 13. 
Oct. 10. 
Nov. 28. 
Supplement: June 13. 

1794. Jan. 9. 
Apr. 3. 

1795. Feb. 12, 19. 
Mar. 26. 




Apr. 23, 30. 

May 7. 

June 18, 25. 

July 9, 16, 30. 

Aug. 27. 

Sept. 3. 

Nov. 19. 

Dec. 24. 

Supplement: Mar. 26, May 7, July 9. 

1796. May 19, 20. 

June 2, 9, 16, 23, 30. 

July 7, 14-, 28. 

Aug. 18. 

Sept. 15. 

Oct. 13. 

Nov. 3, 17, 24™. 

Dec. 8™, 21, 29. 

1797. Feb. 2, 9, 16. 

Mar. 2, 9™, 16, 23, 30. 
Apr. 6, 13, 20, 27. 
May 18, 25. 
June 8-, 15, 21. 
July 5, 12, 19. 
Aug. 2™, 16, 30. 
Sept. 6, 13™, 20, 27™. 
Oct. 11, 18, 25. 
Nov. 15. 

Dec. 6 m , 13™, 20™. 
Extraordinary: Mar. 2. 
Supplement: June 10. 

1798. Jan. 3, 10, 17, 24, 31. 
Feb. 7, 14, 21, 28. 
Mar. 7, 14, 21, 28. 
Apr. 11, 25. 

May 2, 9, 16, 23. 
June 6, 27. 
July 25. 

Sept. 5'", 19™, 26. 
Oct. 24. 

312 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Nov. 7, 14, 21, 28. 

Dec. 5, 19, 26. 

Supplement: Apr. 18, May 15. 


Jan. 2, 9, 16 m , 23. 
Feb. 6, 20. 
Apr. 17, 24. 


Apr. 2"\ 23 m . 


Aug. 5. 
Sept. 2, 23". 
Oct. 14. 


Oct. 20. 


Jan. 5, 12, 19, 26. 

Feb. 2, 9, 16. 

Mar. 16. 

July 20. 

Aug. 17", 24, 31. 

Sept. 7, 28. 

Oct. 5, 12. 


Mar. 7. 


Apr. 10, 17. 


Sept. 3, 10. 
Nov. 19, 26. 
Dec. 17. 


Jan. 21. 

Apr. 15, 22. 
July 1, 8, 15. 
Aug. 5, 12, 19. 
Sept. 9, 16-, 23, 30. 
Oct. 14, 21, 28. 
Nov. 4, 11, 18, 25. 
Dec. 2, 16, 23. 



Jan. 27 m . 

Feb. 10. 

Mar. 2, 9, 16, 30. 

Apr. 13, 20, 27. 

May 4, 18, 25. 

June 1, 8, 15, 22, 29. 

July 6, 13, 20, 27. 

Aug. 10, 17. 





Jan. 4, 25. 

Feb. 1, 8, 15. 

Mar. 15, 22. 

Apr. 12. 

July 2G. 

Aug. 2, 9. 


Jan. 17. 


Feb. 7. 

July 11, 25 m . 


Sept. 26. 


Feb. 27. 

Mar. 6, 20. 

Dec. 4. 


Mar. 11, 18, 25. 

Apr. 1, 8, 29. 


Sept. 2. 


Dec. 2, 23, 30. 


Mar. 17. 


May 18 m . 


May 15. 

June 5, 12. 

July 24. 


Jan. 22. 


[New London] Republican Advocate, 1818-1820-f. 

Weekly. Established February, 1818, by Clapp & 
Francis (Joshua B. Clapp and Simeon Francis). Con- 
tinued after 1820. 

New London Co. Hist. Soc. has Jan. 6, 1819-Dec. 27, 
1820. Lib. Cong, has 1820. A. A. S. has: 
1818. May 13. 
June 3. 

[New London] Springer's Weekly Oracle, see [New London] 
Weekly Oracle. 

New London Summary, 1758-1763. 

Weekly. Established Aug. 8, 1758 (Thomas, Hist, of 
Printing, ed. 2, vol. 2, p. 87, is authority for this date, as 
I have not located the first number). Published by 

314 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Timothy Green with the title of the "New London Sum- 
mary, or, the Weekly Advertiser." Some of the subse- 
quent issues were headed with the shortened title, "New 
London Summary." Green died Oet. 3, 1763, ("Boston 
Post," Oet. 10, 1763) and the paper was discontinued soon 
after. It was immediately succeeded by the "New Lon- 
don Gazette." 

Ct.Hist.Soc.hasOct.27, Dec. 8,29,1758; Jan. 5, Feb. 2- 
23, Aug. 3-Sept. 28, 1759; Mar. 7, May 9, June 6, 13, Aug. 
15-Dec. 26, 1760; Jan. 2-July 17, 1761; Feb. 26, May 14, 
June 18, 1762; Jan. 21, Feb. 18, June 24, 1763. New 
London Co. Hist. Soc. has Jan. 26, 1759; May 30, 1760; 
Aug. 14, Dec. 18, 1761; Feb. 4, 1763. Mass. Hist. Soc. 
has Oct. 15, 1759, extra. N. Y. Pub. Lib. has June 4, 
1762. A. A. S. has: 
1760. Aug. 22. 

[New London] True Republican, 1807. 

Weekly. Established July 1, 1807, by Avery & Spooner 

( Avery and Alderi Spooner). This paper was 

really a successor of the Norwich paper of the same name. 
The editors, in their prospectus, announced that it would 
be called the "Republican Day," but finally decided to 
continue the old name. The last issue located is that of 
Nov. 4, 1807. 

Harvard has July 8, Aug. 5, 1807. Pequot Lib., South- 
port, has Nov. 4, 1807. A. A. S. has: 
1807. July 1, 8. 
Aug. 5. 
Sept. 16/30. 

[New London] Weekly Oracle, 1796-1801. 

Weekly. Established in October, 1796, by James 
Springer. It was at first a small folio but with the issue 
of Oct. 21, 1797, it was enlarged in size and the title 
changed to "Springer's Weekly Oracle." The last issue 
located is that of October 27, 1801. 

Harvard has Jan. 21, Mar. 18, 25, June 3, 10, July 8, 
15, Nov. 11, 18, 1797; Jan. 6, 1798; Mar. 18, 25, Apr. 29, 
May 13, 20, 27, June 10, 17, 24, July 22, 29, Aug. 5, 19, 




26, Sept. 9, 16, 30-Oct. 21, Nov. 11, 25, Dec. 23, 1799; 
Jan. 13-Apr. 21, May 5-Oct. 27, 1801, fair. Mass. Hist. 
Soc. has Nov. 4, 1797; Jan. 6, June 30, 1798; May 6, 
June 17, Sept. 23, Dec. 9, extra, 1799; Dec. 16, 1800; 
Mar. 17, May 19, 1801. Yale has Apr. 7, 1798. New 
London Co. Hist. Soc. has Oct. 28, 1797-Sept. 29, 1801, 
scattered. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Nov. 19, 1796; Sept. 16, 
1797. N. Y. Pub. Lib. has Mar. 4, 1797. Long Id. Hist. 
Soc. has Mar. 10, 1801. Phil. Lib. Co. has June 16, 1798. 
Lib. Cong, has Dec. 1, 1800. A. A. S. has: 
1797. Aug. 12. 

Jan. 13. 

Nov. 19. 

Jan. 28. 

Nov. 4. 

Mar. 17. 




[Newfield] American Telegraphe, 1795-1800. 

Weekly. Established, Apr. 8, 1795, by Beach and 
Jones (Lazarus Beach and Ira Jones). This firm dissolved 
partnership with the issue of July 6, 1796, and henceforth 
Lazarus Beach was sole proprietor. The name of the 
paper was enlarged, .July 13, 1796, to the " American 
Telegraphe & Fairfield County Gazette," but was short- 
ened again, Apr. 5, 1797, to the " American Telegraphe." 
In October, 1800, the village of Newfield was incorporated 
under the name of Bridgeport. The last issue with the 
Newfield imprint is that of Oct. 29, 1800, and beginning 
with the issue of Nov. 5, 1800, the name of Bridgeport 
appears in the imprint. For subsequent issues, see under 

Harvard has Apr. 15, June 2'4, July 22, Aug. 5, 12, Sept. 
9, 1795; Mar. 16-30, June 26, Dec. 23, 1796; Mar. 22, July 
5, Nov. 15, 1797; Jan. 3, 1798. Ct. St. Lib. has 1796-97; 
1800. Ct. Hist. Soc. has Dec. 26, 1799. Bridgeport Sci. 
Hist. Soc. has June 10, 1795; Mar. 10, Apr. 17, 1800. N. 
Y. Hist. Soc. has Apr. 22, 1795-June 29, 1796. Lib. Cong, 
has Apr. 8, 1795-Mar. 29, 1797. Wis. Hist. Soc. has Sept.- 
Oct. 1795. A. A. S. has: 

316 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

1795. May 6. 
July 15. 
Aug. 26. 
Oct. 14". 
Nov. ll m , 18 m . 

1796. May 25. 

June 8, 15", 22, 29 m . 

July 13. 

Oct. 19. 

Nov. 2'", 9, 16. 

1797. Jan. 11. 
Feb. 15, 22. 
Apr. 19. 
Aug. 30. 
Oct. 18. 
Nov. 29. 

1798. Jan. 10. 
May 23. 

[Norwalk] American Apollo, 1801-1802. 

Weekly. Established Aug. 12, 1801, by Joseph Dennis. 
Discontinued in May, 1802, according to a notice of the 
fact in the New London "Bee" of May 12, 1802. 
A. A. S. has: 
1801. Aug. 12. 

Norwalk Gazette, 1818-1820+ . 

Weekly. Established May 6, 1818, by Nichols & 
Price (Roswell S. Nichols and Philo Price). Continued 
after 1820. A. A. S. has: 
1818. May 6, 20. 

[Norwalk] Independent Republican, 1802. 

Weekly. Established June 17, 1802, by Joseph Dennis. 
Dennis issued proposals for a paper to be called the "In- 
dependent Whig," but changed his title when he found 
that there was already a Philadelphia paper of that name 
(New London "Bee," May 12, 1802). The last issue 
located is that of Apr. 6, 1803. 

1913.] Co nnecticuL 317 

Harvard has Sept. 29, 1802-Apr. 6, 1803, fair file. 
A. A. S. has: 

1802. June 17. . 

[Norwalk] Sun of Liberty, 1800-1801. 

Weekly. A continuation, without change of number- 
ing, of the "Sun of Liberty" of Danbury. The last num- 
ber printed at Danbury was for Oct. 8, 1800, vol. 1, no. 13, 
and the rmper was removed to Norwalk immediately 
afterwards. Published by Samuel Morse. The last 
number printed at Norwalk was for July 15, 1801, after 
which the paper was removed to New Haven. See under 
New Haven. 

Harvard has July 15, 1801. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Mar. 
10, 1801. Long Id. Hist. Soc. has Nov. 18, 25, 1800; 
May 27, 1801. 

[Norwich] Chelsea Courier, see [Norwich] Courier. 

[Norwich] Connecticut Centinel, 1802-1807. 

Weekly. A continuation of the "Norwich Packet," the 
first issue with the new name being that of Feb. 16, 1802, 
vol. 29, no. 1457, the numbering continuing that of the 
"Packet." Published by John Trumbull until his death 
Aug. 14, 1802. Beginning with Aug. 17, 1802, the paper 
was published for Lucy Trumbull, his widow. Beginning 
with the issue of Aug. 23, 1803, it was published by Charles 
E. Trumbull, and with the issue of July 17, 1804, by his 
brother, Henry Trumbull, whose name thus appears in 
the imprint until after 1805. The issues from Dec. 9, 1806, 
to Sept. 29, 1807, which is the last located, were pub- 
lished by S. Webb (Samuel Webb) for Henry Trumbull. 
Harvard has Feb. 16, 1802-July 17, 1804, fair; July 21, 
Aug. 4, 18, 1807. Ct. Hist. Soc. has Apr. 10, 1804; Mar. 
5, Dec. 14, 1805. Ct. St. Lib. has 1802. New London 
Co. Hist. Soc. has Apr. 3, 1804. A. A. S. has: 

1802. Oct. 19. 
Dec. 14 M . 

1803. Feb. 1. 
July 19 m . 

Aug, 16, 23, 30. 

318 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

1804. Mar. 13, 20, 27. 

1806. Dec. 9, 1G. 

1807. Sept. 29-. 

[Norwich) Courier, 1796-1820+. 

Weekly. Established Nov. 30, 1796, by Thomas Hub- 
bard under the name of the "Chelsea Courier." With 
the issue of May 31, 1798, the title was changed to the 
" Courier." The paper was published by Russell Hubbard 
beginning with the issue of Nov. 20, 1805; by Thomas 
Hubbard & Son with the issue of Nov. 19, 1806; and by 
Russell Hubbard with the issue of Jan. 20, 1808. The 
title was changed from " Courier" to " Norwich Courier" 
with the issue of Mar. 22, 1809. Beginning with the issue 
of Feb. 12, 1817, the paper was published by Hubbard & 
Marvin (Russell Hubbard and Theophilus R. Marvin), 
and with Feb. 17, 1819, by Russell Hubbard, who con- 
tinued it until after 1820. 

Otis Lib., Norwich, has a fine file from Nov. 30, 1797, 
to after 1820. Harvard has a scattered file Nov. 20, 1796- 
Apr. 26, 1797; July 12, 1797; Nov. 22, 1797-Oct. 2, 1805; 
Aug. 24, 31, 1808. Ct. Hist. Soc. has Jan. 25, 1797-May 
31, 1798; May 27, 1801-Nov. 11, 1807. Yale has Nov. 
13, 1799; Feb. 1, Aug. 2, 9, Sept. 6, 1809; Jan. 3, Feb. 7, 
1810; May 6, 1812; Apr. 28, 1819. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has 
Jan. 4, 1815-Dec. 17, 1817. Lib. Cong, has Mar. 21, 1804. 
A. A. S. has: 

1807. Apr. 22. 

[Norwich] Native American, 1812-1813. 

Weekly. Established Mar. 4, 1812, by Samuel Webb. 
The last issue located is that of May 12, 1813. 

Lib. Cong, has Sept. 1812-Apr. 1813, scattered. A. A. 
S. has: 

1812. Mar. 4, 11, 25. 

Apr. 1, 8, 15, 22"', 29. 
May 6. 
June 24. 
July 1, 22. 
* Aug. 19. 
Oct. 14". 

1913.] Connecticut. 319 

1813. May 12. 
Norwich Packet, 1773-1802. 

Weekly. Established Oct. 7, 1773, by Alexander 
Robertson, James Robertson and John Trumbull as the 
"Norwich Packet, and, the Connecticut, Massachusetts, 
New Hampshire, & Rhode-Island Weekly Advertiser." 
The date of establishment is estimated from the date of 
the first issue located, that of Oct. 28, 1773, vol. 1, no. 4. 
The Robertsons, who were Loyalists, went to New York 
in 1776, where they printed the "Royal American Ga- 
zette." In June, 177G, John Trumbull began publishing 
the paper alone and continued it until his death, Aug. 14, 
1802. The name was shortened to the "Norwich Packet" 
between July, 177G, and Aug., 1778; changed to the 
"Norwich Packet; and the AVeekly Advertiser" with the 
issue of June 2, 1779; "Norwich Packet; or, the Chron- 
icle of Freedom" in 1783; "Norwich Packet, or, the 
Country Journal," Apr. 14, 1785; "Norwich Packet and 
the Country Journal," Feb. 1787; "Vox Populi-Norwich 
Packet, Oct. 1, 1790; "Norwich Packet," June 9, 1791. 
The last issue with this name was on Feb. 9, 1802 (29: 
1456). Beginning with the issue of Feb. 16, 1802, the 
name was changed to the "Connecticut Centinel," which 

Mass. Hist. Soc. has Nov. 4, 1773; Jan. 27, Nov. 17, 
1774; Jan. 19, Feb. 2, Apr. 13, 1775; Feb. 12, 19, May 
13, July 22, 29, Aug. 5, Nov. 11, 1776; Mar. 8, Dec. 28, 
1779; Mar. 21, Dec. 19, 1780; Jan. 16, 30, Mar. 8, Sept. 
13, 20, 1781; Jan. 10, Mar. 14, 21, Apr. 18, May 2, 30, 
1782; Nov. 27, 1783; Mar. 11, 18, Apr. 29, 1784; June 
30, 1791 ; Feb. 9, 10, 23, Mar. 8, 29, Apr. 4, 1792. Boston 
Pub. Lib. has July 29, 1776; Feb. 19, 1784; Apr. 14, 
July 14, 1785; May 22, 1788; Harvard has Feb. 5, 1795- 
Feb. 9, 1802, fair. Ct. Hist. Soc. has Jan. 9, 1800-Jan. 6, 
1801. Ct. St. Lib. has Nov. 4, 1773-Oct. 9, 1775; Nov. 
20, 1783-Oct. 19, 1786; Nov. 14, 1788-Sept. 10, 1790; 
Feb. 23, 1797-Feb. 13, 179S; Jan. 6, 1801 -Feb. 9, 1802. 
Otis Lib., Norwich, has Nov. 16, 1778-Oct. 31, 1780, 

320 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

scattering; Oct. 7, 1784; May 12,26, 1785; Oct. 8, 1790- 
Dec. 31, 1795, fair; Feb. 23, 1797-Feb. 13, 1798. New 
London Co. Hist. Soc. has May 11, 178G. N. Y. Pub. 
Lit), has May, 1774-June 1775, scattered. N. Y. Hist. 
Soc. has 1791-1796. Long Id. Hist, Soc. has Dec. 16, 
1800; Feb. 17, 1801. Hist. Soc. Penn. has Mar. 13, 1789. 
Lib. Cong, has July 14, 1791-Dec. 25, 1794, with a few 
scattering earlier issues. A. A. S. has: 

1773. Nov. 25. 
Dec. 2, 9, 16. 

1774. Aug. 25. 
Sept. 15. 

1775. Feb. 16. 
Oct. 23. 
Dec 25. 

1776. Feb. 26". 
Apr. 1, 8, 29. 

1779. July 20. 
Aug. 17 m . 
Sept. 14-. 
Nov. 16. 

1781. June 21-. 

1782. June 20-. 
Aug. 8. 
Sept. 19- 

1784. Jan. 8-. 

Feb. 5, 12, 19, 26. 

Mar. 4, 11. 

Apr. 1-, 8, 14, 22, 29. 

May 13. 

June 10, 24, 

July 8, 22, 29. 

Aug. 12, 19, 26. 

Sept. 2, 9, 16, 23- 

Oct. 14-. 

Nov. 4. 

Dec. 30*. 

1913.] Connecticut. 

1785. Jan. 6, 13, 27. 
Feb. 10, 17, 24". 
Mar. 3, 10™, 31. 
Apr. 7, 14, 21. 
May 5. 

June 9 m , 16, 23. 
July 7, 14, 21, 28. 
Aug. 4, 11, 18, 25. 
Sept. 1, 8, 29. 
Oct. 6, 27. 
Nov. 3, 23. 
Dec. 15. 

1786. Jan. 5, 26. 
Feb. 2, 9, 16, 23. 
Mar. 2. 

June 8. 

July 5, 20-, 27. 
Aug. 17, 24. 
Sept. 14. 
Nov. 22-, 30* 
Dec. 7-, 14, 21. 

1787. Jan. 18, 25. 
Feb. 22. 
Mar. 15, 22. 
Apr. 5, 19, 26. 
May 10, 17, 24, 31. 
June 14, 21. 

July 5, 12, 26. 
Aug. 2, 9, 16", 23 m . 
Sept. 13, 27. 
Nov. 1, 8, 22. 
Dec. 13, 20. 

1788. Jan. 3, 10, 31. 
, Feb. 14, 28. 

Mar. 6, 13, 27. 
Apr. 24. 
May 1, 22, 29 m . 
June 5, 12, 19, 26. 
July 3, 10, 17, 24, 31. 


322 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Aug. 7, 14, 28". 
Sept. 4* 11, 18, 25. 
Oct. 2, 9, 16, 31. 
Nov. 7, 21. 
Dec. 19, 26. 

1789. Feb. 6, 13, 20. 
Mar. 13'\ 
Apr. 3'", 24 m . 
May 1, 8, 15-, 29. 
July 24, 31. 

Aug. 7, 28. 
Sept. 4, 11, 18, 25. 
Oct. 23, 30. 
Nov. 6, 13, 27. 
Dec. 4, 18, 25. 

1790. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 

Mutilated: June 18. 

Missing: Jan. 1, 29, June 11, Aug. 20, 27, 
Nov. 26, Dec. 31. 

1791. Jan. 7, 14, 28. 
Feb. 4, 11, 18, 25. 
Mar. 4, 18, 25. 
Apr. 8, 29. 

May 5, 12, 19. 
June 9, 23, 30. 
July 7, 14, 21. 
Aug. 4, 11, 25. 
Sept. l"\ 15, 22, 29. 
Oct. 6, 13-, 20. 
Nov. 3, 10, 17, 23. 
Dec. 1, 8, 15. 

1792. Jan. 5 to Dec. 29. 
Supplement: May 10. 

Mutilated: Nov. 1, 22, Dec. 13. 
Missing: Feb. 23, Mar. 15, Apr. 4, 18, 25, 
May 24, June 7, Aug. 9, Dec. 20. 

1793. Jan. 17, 24, 31. 
Feb. 14, 21. 
Mar. 21. 

1913.] Connecticut* 

Apr. 4, ll m , 18. 
May 2, 16 m , 23- 
June 6-. 
Nov. 21, 28™ 
Dec. 19. 

1794. Mar. 6, 13, 20. 
Apr. 10 m . 
May 15. 

1795. Feb. 5, 18, 26. 
Apr. 9. 

May 8. 

July 10, 17, 31. 
Aug. 14, 21. 
Sept. 1G. 
Nov. 12. 
Dec. 23. 

1796. May 19, 26. 
June 2, 23. 
July 7, 14, 
Sept. 1, 15, 29. 
Oct. 6, 20. 
Nov. 17. 

Dec. 1-, 15, 29. 

1797. Jan. 19, 26. 
Feb. 2, 9. 

Mar. 2, 16, 23, 30. 
Apr. 13, 20. 
May 4, 11. 
June 1, 22, 29. 
July 11, 18, 25. 
Aug. 8, 29. 
Sept. 5, 12, 26. 
Oct. 3, 31. 
Nov. 7, 15. 
Dec. 12-, 19-. 
1789. Jan. 2, 17, 23, 30. 
Feb. 13, 27. 
Mar. 7, 13, 20-. 
Apr. 3-, 17, 24. 


324 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

May 8, 14, 22, 29. 
June 5, 12, 19. 
July 3. 
Sept. 4-. 
Oct. 2, 9. 
Nov. 28. 
Dec. 5, 19, 26. 
Supplement: Apr. 24. 

1799. Jan. 23, 30. 
Mar. 6. 
Aug. 15 m . 

1800. Jan. 23. 
Apr. 3, 24. 
Sept. 9. 

1801. Mar. 31". 

[Norwich] True Republican, 1804-1806. 

Weekly. Established June 20, 1804, by Sterry & 
Porter, (John Sterry and Epaphras Porter). Proposals 
for publishing this paper were printed in the ''Connecti- 
cut Centiner' of Mar. 27, 1804, signed by John Sterry and 
Epaphras Porter. John Sterry left the firm in June, 1806, 
apparently on June 11, and henceforth the paper was 
published by C. Sterry & E. Porter (Consider Sterry 
and Epaphras Porter.) The last issue located is that of 
Nov. 5, 1806. 

Harvard has July 4, 1804-June 19, 1805, fair; Jan. 8- 
Nov. 5, 1806, fair. New London Co. Hist. Soc. has Aug. 
15, 1804. Stonington Hist. Soc. has July 30, Aug. 6, 1806. 
A. A. S. has: 

1804. June 20. 
July 11. 
Aug. 8. 
Nov. 7. 
1806. May 14. 
July 23. 

[Norwich] Weekly Register, 1791-1796. 

Weekly. Established Nov. 29, 1791, by Ebenezer 
Bushnell. Bushnell took in Thomas Hubbard as partner, 

1913.] Connecticut. 325 

and beginning with the issue of June 12, 17^2, the paper 
was published by Bushnell & Hubbard. Bushnell retired 
and beginning with the issue of Oct. 1, 1793, Thomas 
Hubbard was sole publisher. The last issue located is that 
of Aug. 19, 1795, The paper was probably continued into 
1796, in which year Hubbard established the " Courier." 
Harvard has Dec. 9, 1794-Aug. 19, 1795, scattered. 
Otis Lib., Norwich, has Nov. 29, 1791-Nov. 19, 1793. 
Long Id. Hist. Soc. has Apr. 28, June 10, 1795. N. Y. 
Pub. Lib. has May 14, 1793; Nov. 4, 25, 1794; Feb. 24, 
1795. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Oct. 29, 1793-Jan. 27, 1795, 
scattered. Phil. Lib. Co. has Oct. 1, 1793. A. A. S. has: 

1791. Dec. G, 13, 20, 27. 

1792. Jan. 10, 24. 
July 3. 
Sept. 25. 
Oct. 16. 
Dec. 25. 

1793. Apr. 9. 

[Sharon] Rural Gazette, 1800-1801. 

Weekly. Established Mar. 31, 1800, by E. Hopkins 
(according to a copy of the first issue seen by Trumbull, 
"List of Books printed in Conn." p. 146). The last issue 
located is that of July 13, 1801. 

Harvard has Nov. 24, Dec. 15, 1800; Jan. 12, 19, Mar. 
23, June 29, 1801. Ct. Hist. Soc. has Dec. 22, 1800-July 
13, 1801, scattered. Long Id. Hist. Soc. has Jan. 19, 1801. 

[Stonington] America's Friend, 1807-1808. 

Weekly. Established July 15, 1807, by John Munson. 
The last issue located is that of Sept. 28, 1808. 

Harvard has July 27, Aug. 24, Sept. 7, 28, 1808. Yale 
has a fair file from July 22, 1807, to June 29, 1808. New 
, London Co. Hist. Soc. has Sept. 9, 1807. A. A. S. has: 

1807. July 29. 

Sept. 2, 9. 
Nov. 4, 25. 

326 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

[Stonington] Impartial Journal, 1799-1804. 

Weekly. A continuation, except for name, of the 
"Journal of the Times," the first number with the new 
name being that of Oct. 8, 1799, vol. 2, no. 1. Published 
by Samuel Trumbull. Discontinued with the issue of 
May 1, 1804. 

Harvard has Oct. 8, 1799-Sept. 1, 1801, scattered. Aug. 
7, 1802-Nov. 1, 1803, scattered; Mar. 6, 1804. Ct. Hist. 
Soc. has Mar. 4-Sept. 20, 1800. Stonington Hist. Soc. has 
Jan. 3-Apr. 24, 1804. Dr. Stanton of Stonington has 
May 1, 1804. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Nov. 22, 1799-Oct. 27, 
1801, scattered. Long Id. Hist. Soc. has Mar. 10, 1801. 
A. A. S. has: 

1801. Aug. 4. 
Sept. 29. 
Oct. 6 m . 

[Stonington] Journal of the Times, 1798-1799. 

Weekly. Established Oct. 10, 1798, by Samuel Trum- 
bull. Enlarged from small to large folio Jan. 2, 1799. 
Title changed Oct. 8, 1799, to " Impartial Journal/' which 

Ct. Hist. Soc. has a good file, 1798-1799. Harvard has 
Jan. 9-Sept. 17, 1799, scattered. A. A. S. has: 
1799. Apr. 23. 

[Stonington-port] Patriot. 

Weekly. Established July 24, 1801, by S. Trumbull 
(Samuel Trumbull) under the title of the "Patriot, or, 
Scourge of Aristocracy." This date is conjectured from 
the date of the first issue located, that of Sept. 11, 1801, 
vol. 1, no. 8. It is of 8vo size, paged, and with signature 
marks. Although apparently a magazine, it refers to 
itself as a newspaper and includes current news. The last 
issue located, that of July 30, 1802, states that it is the 
"end of vol. I," and that the paper will be suspended until 
later, when it will be brought out in folio form. 

Harvard has Sept. 11, 1801-July 30, 1802, scattered. 
A. A. S. has: 

1802. Apr. 30. 
June 18. 

1913.] Connecticut. 327 

[Suffield] Impartial Herald, 1797-1799. 

Weekly. Established June 14, 1797, by H. & 0. Farns- 
worth (Havila and Oliver Farnsworth). Beginning with 
the issue of July 17, 1789, the paper was published by Gray 
& Albro (Edward Gray and Rescome D. Albro), who 
adopted with that date a new series of numbering. 
Beginning with Jan. 1, 1799, the paper was published 
by Edward Gray alone. The last issue located is that of 
June 4, 1799. 

Harvard has June 14, 21, 28, Aug. 31, Sept. 6-20, Oct. 
11, 25, Nov. 8-22, Dec. 13, 1797; July 17, 31, Aug. 7, 14, 
Sept. 11, 18, Oct. 9, Nov; 6, 20, 27, Dec. 18, 1798; Jan. 
1, 8, Feb. 12, Apr. 23, 30, May 7, 21, June 4, 1799. 
Western Reserve Hist. Soc. has July 12, 1797-July 9, 1798. 
Wis. Hist. Soc. has Apr. 18, 25, May 2, 9, 1798. A. A. S. 
has : 

1797. June 14, 28. 
July 5, 26. 
Aug. 2, 16. 
Sept. 6, 13, 27. 
Oct. 4, 11, 18, 25. 
Nov. 8, 15, 22, 29. 
Dec. 6* 20 m . 

1798. Jan. 10, 31. 
Feb. 14, 28. 
May 2, 16, 23, 30. 
June 6, 18. 

Nov. 13, 20. 

1799. Mar. 5. 

Windham Herald, 1791-1816. 

Weekly. Established Mar. 12, 1791, by John Byrne, 
under the title of "Phenix; or Windham Herald." The 
title was shortened to "Windham Herald" with the issue 
of Apr. 19, 1798. Beginning with Mar. 29, 1811, John 
Byrne took his son, Samuel H. Byrne, into partnership 
and the paper was published by J. Byrne and Son. It 
was discontinued by them with the issue of Mar. 30, 1815, 
but revived, with a continuation of the numbering, by 

328 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Samuel Green on July 27, 1815. Beginning with the issue 
of Oct. 19, 1815, the imprint is ''Printed and published 
by Benjamin G. Willett for Samuel Green." The issues 
for June G and 13, 1816, were ''Printed and published by 
Benjamin G. Willett," and from June 20, 1816, to Sept. 
19, 1816, "Printed and published for Samuel Green," 
upon which latter date the paper was discontinued. 

Harvard has 1798-1801, scattered. Ct. Hist. Soc. has 
1791-1804. Yale has 1806; 1808; 1811; 1813-1816. 
Windham Lib. has 1801-1804. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has May 
28, 1795-Dec. 27, 1798, scattered. Lib. Cong, has Feb. 
1810-Feb. 1812. A. A. S. has: 

1791. Mar. 12 to Dec. 31. 

Mutilated: Mar. 12. 
Missing: Oet. 1. 

1792. Jan. 7 to Dec. 29. 

Mutilated: Feb. 4. 
Missing: July 28. 

1793. Jan. 5 to Dec. 28. 

Missing: June 22. 

1794. Jan. 4 to Dec. 27. 

Mutilated: Dec. 6, 13, 20, 27. 

1795. Jan. 3, 10, 17, 24, 31. 
Feb. 7, 14, 21, 28. 
Apr. 4. 

May 9, 16. 
June 27. 
July 11, 18. 
Aug. 8, 15, 22, 29. 
Nov. 14, 21. 
Dec. 26. 

1796. May 14, 28. 
June 4, 11. 
July 16". 
Sept. 24. 

Oct. 1» 15, 22, 29. 
Nov. 5, 19. 
Dec. 3, 17, 24". 

1913.] Connecticut. 329 

1797. Jan. 7 to Dec. 28. 

Mutilated: Sept. 22, Nov. 9. 
Missing: Jan. 7, 14, 21. 

1798. Jan. 4 to Dec. 27. 
Supplement: Apr. 26. 

Mutilated: Mar. 22, July 26, Oct. 25. 
Missing: Mar. 29, Apr. 12. 

1799. Jan. 3 to Dec. 26. 

Mutilated: Mar. 14, Apr. 4, July 25, Sept. 

Missing: Apr. 11. 

1800. Jan. 2 to Dec. 26. 

Mutilated: Oct. 23.. 

1801. Jan. 2 to Dec. 31. 

Mutilated: July 2, Dec. 10. 
Missing: June 11. 

1802. Jan. 7 to Dec. 30. 

1803. Jan. 6 to Dec. 29. 

Mutilated: Jan. 20, Aug. 25, Sept. 8. 
Missing: Nov. 24. 

1804. Jan. 5 to Dec. 27. 

Mutilated: Jan. 5. 

1805. Jan. 3, 10, 17, 24, 31. 
Feb. 7, 14, 21, 28. 

1806. Nov. 6. 
Dec. 4. 

1810. June 22. 

Dec. 7, 14. 
1816. Mar. 7". 

June 20. 

July 4. 

[Windham] Independent Observer, 1820-f. 

Weekly. Established July 1, 1820, by Henry Webb, 
under the name of the "Independent Observer and 
County Advertiser," (Larned's " Windham Co.," vol. 2, 
p. 472, sole authority). 

330 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

[Windham] Phenix, see Windham Herald. 

[Windham] Register, 1817. 

Weekly. Established Mar. 6, 1817, by Samuel Webb. 
The last issue located is that of Apr. 10, 1817. A. A. S. 

1817. Mar. 13. 
Apr. 10. 

1913.1 Delaware. 331 


[Dover] Constitutionalist, 1801-1805. 

Weekly. Established by Wootten & Alice (John B. 

Wootten and Allee) on Nov. 1, 1804, judging 

from the date of the first issue located, that of Jan. 17, 
1805, vol. 1, no. 12, The full title was the " Constitu- 
tionalist; or the Defender of the People's Rights." 
A. A. S. has: 

1805. Jan. 17, 24. 
Feb. 7. 
Apr. 15. 
July ll m . 

Newcastle Argus, 1804-1805. 

Semi-weekly. Established in 1804, by John Barber, 
under the title of the "Argus and Delaware Advertiser," 
With the issue of May 21, 1805, the title was changed to 
the " Newcastle Argus." The last issue located is that 
of Aug. 9, 1805. The "Mirror of the Times" of Wilming- 
ton, of May 23, 1804, says, " A new Republican paper has 
lately been set up at Dover, in this State, entitled if we 
recollect, (for the editors have not sent us their. paper) 
The Dover Argus, or Delaware Advertiser." This would 
seem to show that the paper was established at Dover and 
removed to Newcastle. 

Harvard has May 8, 11, 15, 21, 24, 28, 31, June 4, 1805. 
A. A. S. has: 

1805. Aug. 9. 

[Wilmington] American Watchman, 1809-1820+ . 

Semi-weekly. Established Aug. 2, 1809, by James 
Wilson, under the title of the "American Watchman; and 
Delaware Republican." The title was shortened to the 
"American Watchman" with the issue of Jan. 1, 1814. 
Wilson sold out the establishment, and beginning with the 
issue of July 19, 1817, the paper was published by Selleck 


332 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Osborn, with a new series of numbering. Continued after 

Del. Hist. Soc. has Aug. 2, 1809-Aug. 1, 1810; Jan. 1- 
Dee. 31, 1814. Phil. Lib. Co. has 1812-1816. Hist. Soc. 
Penn. has July 18-Dec. 29, 1820. Lib. Cong, has Jan. 2, 
1819-Dec. 29, 1820. A. A. S. has: 

1809. Aug. 2, 12, 19, 26, 30. 
Sept. 6, 13, 23, 30. 
Oct. 2, 11"', 14, 18, 28-. 
Nov. 1, 11, 15, 18, 22. 
Dec. 6, 13, 16, 23. 

1810. Jan. 17,24,27,31. 
Feb. 3, 21, 24. 

Mar. 3, 7, 14, 17, 21, 24, 28, 31. 

Apr. 4, 7, 11, 14, 18, 21, 25, 28. 

May 2, 5, 9, 12, 16, 19, 23, 26, 30. 

June 2, 6, 9, 13, 16, 27. 

July 7, 11, 14, 18,25. 

Aug. 1, 4, 8, 11, 15, 18, 22. 25. 

Sept. 8, 12, 15, 19, 22, 29. 

Oct. 2, 10, 13, 17, 20, 24, 27, 31. 

Nov. 3, 7, 10, 14, 17, 24, 28. 

Dec. 1, 5, 8, 12, 15, 19, 22, 26, 29. 

1811. Jan. 2, 5, 9, 12, 16, 19, 30. 
Feb. 2, 6, 9, 16, 20, 23, 27. 
Mar. 6, 9, 13, 16, 20, 23, 27, 30. 
Apr. 3, 6, 10, 13, 17, 20, 24, 27. 
May 1, 4, 11, 15, 18, 22'", 29. 
June 1, 12, 15, 22, 26, 29. 

July 6, 13, 31. 

Aug. 7, 10, 14, 31. 

Sept. 11, 28. 

Oct. 9, 16, 19, 23', 26, 30. 

Nov. 2, 6, 9, 13, 16, 30. 

Dec. 4, 14. 

1812. Jan. 1, 4, 11, 18, 22, 25. 
Feb. 1, 8, 12, 15, 29. 

Mar. 7, 11, 14, 18, 21, 25% 28. 
Apr. 4, 18, 22, 25, 29. 

1913.] Delaware. 

May 9, 13, 16, 20, 23, 27, 30. 

June 3, 6, 10, 17, 22, 26. 

July 1, 8, 29. 

Aug. 1, 5, 15, 19, 29. 

Sept. 5, 9, 16, 26, 30. 

Oct. 21, 24, 31. 

Nov. 14. 

Dec. 2, 5, 12, 16,23,26,29. 

1813. Jan. 6, 9, 13, 16, 20, 27, 30. 
Feb. 24, 27. 

Mar. 6, 10, 13, 17, 24. 

Apr. 3, 7, 10, 17,21,24,28. 

May 1, 8, 15. 

June 5, 9 m , 12, 26. 

July 17, 28, 31. 

Aug. 4, 21, 25. 

Sept. 8-, 15, 18,25. 

Oct. 2, 6, 13-, 20, 23, 27, 30. 

Nov. 6, 24, 27. 

Dec. 1, 11, 15, 19, 22, 25, 29. 

1814. Jan. 1, 5, 8, 12, 19, 29-. 
■ Feb. 2, 26. 

' Mar. 2, 9, 16, 19, 23, 26, 30. 
Apr. 2, 6, 13, 20, 23, 27. 
May 4, 11, 18, 21. 
June 1, 15, 18, 22, 25. 
July 2, 9, 20, 23, 30. 
Aug. 3, 6, 10, 17, 20, 27-. 
Sept. 7, 21, 24, 28. 
Oct. 8, 12, 15. 
Nov. 19. 

1815. Jan. 7, 18. 
Feb. 22. 
Mar. 1. 
Apr. 26. 
May 6, 17. 

Aug. 2, 5, 23, 26, 30. 
Sept. 9, 23. 
Nov. 8. 


334 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

1816. Jan. 6, 9, 13, 27™. 
Apr. 24. 

July 6, 13, 27. 

1817. Jun. 4. 
Feb. 18. 
Mar. 29. 
Apr. 26. 
July 16, 23. 
Aug. 9. 

1819. June 26. 
Dec. 29. 

1820. Jan. 8, 22-. 
Feb. 16, 23. 

Mar. 1, 4, 8, 22, 29. 

Wilmington Courant, 1762. 

The sole authority for the publication of this paper is 
Isaiah Thomas who in his "History of Printing in Amer- 
ica/' ed. 2, vol. 2, p. 154, says: "The first and only news- 
paper published before 1775, in what is now the state of 
Delaware, made its appearance in Wilmington about the 
year 1762, entitled, if my information is correct, the 'Wil- 
mington Courant/ printed and published by James 
Adams, for the short period of six months; when, for 
want of encouragement, it was discontinued." 

[Wilmington] Delaware and Eastern-Shore Advertiser, 1794- 

Semi-weekly. Established May 14, 1794, by S. &.. J. 
Adams & W. C. Smyth. (Beginning with May 28, 1794, 
the imprint was Sam. & John Adams and W. C. Smyth.) 
William C. Smyth removed, and beginning with the issue 
of Mar. 18, 1795, the paper was published by Samuel & 
John Adams. The last issue located is that of Aug. 1, 

Harvard has scattered issues, Mar. 4-Aug. 5, 1795; 
Jan. 9, 1796-May 1, 1797; Nov. 2, 13, 1797; Aug. 1, 1799. 
Hist. Soc. Penn. has May 14, 1794-May 13, 1795. Phil. 
Lib. Co. has Oct. 17, 24, 31, Nov. 7, 11, 18, 1795; Jan. 20. 
1796. Lib. Cong, has Jan. 31, Mar. 21, June 13, Oct. 10, 
1795. A. A. S. has: 

1913.] Delaware. 335 

1794. May 31. 

June 7. 

July 5. 

Aug. 23. 

Sept. 3, 6. 

Oct. 11. 

Nov. 15. 

Dee. 7, 10, 20, 21, 27. 

Supplement: Aug. 23. 

1795. Jan. 14. 
Feb. 4, 7, 18. 
Apr. 8, 25. 

1796. Jan. 2. 
July 11. 
Oct. 20. 

1798. Apr. 2. 

1799. Mar. 4, 14-. 

[Wilmington] Delaware Courant, 1786-1787. 

Weekly. Established in Sept. 1786, by Samuel and John 
Adams, with the title of the " Delaware Courant, and 
Wilmington Advertiser." The last issue located is that of 
Sept. 8, 1787. 
A. A. S. has:" 

1787. May 5, 12, 26. 
June 2. 
July 7, 14, 21. 
Aug. 4, 11, 18. 
Sept. 1, 8. 

[Wilmington] Delaware Freeman, 1810. 

Weekly. Established Sept. 21, 1810, by Risley and 
Skinner (Jeremiah B. Risley and Robert Skinner). The 
last issue located is that of Oct. 27, 1810. 
A. A. S. has: 

1810. Sept. 21, 29. 
Oct. 27. 

336 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

[Wilmington] Delaware Gazette, 1785-1798. 

Weekly, semi- weekly and tri-weekly. Established in 
June, 1785, judging from the date of the first issue located, 
that of Apr. 12, 1780, no. 44. Published by Jacob A. 
Killen, under the title of the " Delaware Gazette; or, 
the Faithful Centinel." In July or Aug. 178G, the title 
was altered to the "State Gazette; or the Faithful Cen- 
tinel/' but between Aug. 1786, and May 1787, it was 
changed back to its earlier form. Between Nov. 29, 1 i 46 
and May 23, 1787, the paper was transferred to Fredei it k 
Craig and Company. In 1788, the title was shortened to 
"Delaware Gazette," and between May and Sept. 1789, 
lengthened to "Delaware Gazette, and General Adver- 
tiser." Between June 26, 1790, and July 2, 1791, the 
paper was transferred to Peter Brynberg and Samuel 
Andrews, and the title shortened to " Delaware Gazette." 
Beginning with Sept. 1795, the paper was changed to a 
semi-weekly, and was published for Robert Coram, by 
Bonsai & Starr (Vincent Bonsai and Caleb Starr). Coram 
died March, 179G, after which the paper was printed by 
Bonsai & Starr. Beginning with the issue of Sept. 6, 1796, 
it became a tri-weekly and was reduced in size to small 4 to. 
Beginning with the issue of Oct. 29, 1796, the paper was 
published by W. C. Smyth (William C. Smyth), although 
it was stated that Smyth had owned the paper since Sept. 
7, 1796. With the issue of Nov. 5, 1796, it was again made 
a semi-weekly and enlarged to folio size. With the issue 
of Mar. 14, 1799, it was published by Bonsai & Niles 
(Vincent Bonsai and Hezekiah Niles) for Vaughan' & 
Coleman (John Vaughan and Daniel Coleman). Dis- 
continued with the issue of Sept. 7, 1799, when it was 
stated that its successor would be the "Delaware Gazette 
and Mirror of the Times," to be published by James 
Wilson. Wilson established the "Mirror of the Times," 
which see. 

Harvard has July 2, 9, 16, Sept. 17, Nov. 12-26, 1791; 
Mar. 7, Apr. 18, Extra, May 30, June 13, Aug. 15, 1795; 
Mar. 8, 1796-Apr. 26, 1797, scattered. Del. Hist. Soc. 
has Apr. 12, 1786; Oct. 31, 1789; Mar. 14-Sept. 7, 1799. 





Hist. Soc. Perm, has July 30, 1791-Jan. 21, 1792. Phil. 
Lib. Co. has July 5, 179G; June 23, 1798. Lib. Cong, 
has May 5, Dec. 1, 1792; Feb. 21, Aug. 22, 1795. A. A. 
S. has: 

1786. July 5-. 
Aug. 16 w . 
Nov*. 22™. 

1787. May 23. 
July 4. 
Aug. 8. 

Oct. 10, 17, 31. 
Dec. 19. 

1789. Apr. 25. 
Sept. 9, 19, 23. 
Oct. 10. 

Nov. 14, 21, 28. 
Dec. 19. 

1790. Jan. 16, 30. 
Feb. 20. 
Mar. 27. 
Apr. 3. 
May 1, 8. 
June 19. 

1792. June 16, 23, 30. 
July 7, 14, 21, 28. 
Aug. 11, 18, 25. 
Sept. 15, 22. 
Oct. 6, 13, 20, 27. 
Nov. 3, 10, 17, 24. 
Dec. 1, 8, 22, 29. 

1793. Jan. 5, 12, 26. 
Feb. 9, 16. 
Aug. 31. 
Dec. 21. 

1794. Feb. 1*. 
June 28. 
Aug. 30. 
Oct. 4. 

Extra: Aug. 27. 

1795. Aug. 15. 

338 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

[Wilmington] Delaware Gazette, 1809-1810. 

Semi-weekly. Established July 8, 1809, by Joseph 
Jones. The last issue located is that of June 30, 1810. 
A. A. S. has: 

1809. Aug. 2, 5, 26. 
Nov. 25, 29. 
Dec. 1, 30. 

1810. Jan. 13, 17, 31. 
Feb. 7'", 10'", 14. 
Mar. 17, 21, 24. 
Apr. 4, 7, 14, 21, 25. 
May 2, 5, 9, 12, 10. 
June 6, 30 m . 

[Wilmington] Delaware Gazette, 1814-1820+. 

Semi-weekly. Established Apr. 19, 1814, by M. Brad- 
ford (Moses Bradford). Beginning with the issue of Nov. 
10, 1814, the title was lengthened to " Delaware Gazette 
and Peninsula Advertiser." With the issue of Jan. 1, 
1817, Bradford disposed of the paper to William A. Miller, 
who published it until 1820, Samuel Harker then pur- 
chased the paper, and beginning with the issue of Feb. 23, 
1820, published it under the shortened title of- "Delaware 
Gazette," and with a new series of numbering. 

Del. Hist. Soc. has Apr. 19, 1814-May 21, 1817. Wilm. 
Inst. Free Lib. has Apr. 18, 1815-1820. Lib. Cong, has 
June 13, 1815; Apr. 2, Apr. 9, June 4, 1817; Jan. 6-Dee. 
29, 1819; Feb. 26-Dec. 29, 1820. A. A. S. has: 

1814. Apr. 19, 22, 29. 
June 20. 

Oct. 25. 

1815. Feb. 21. 
Aug. 22, 29. 
Sept. 5. 

1818. May 13, 20. 

1819. Nov. 17-. 

[Wilmington] Delaware Patriot, 1816. 

Semi-weekly. Established July 9, 1816, by William S. 
Buell, under the title of "Delaware Patriot, and Eastern 




Shore Advertiser." The last issue located is that of Oct. 4, 
A. A. S. has: 

1816. July 9, 16, 23. 

Aug. 2, 9, 13, 27. 
Sept, 17, 24, 28. 
Oct. 4. 

[Wilmington] Delaware Statesman, 1811-1813. 

Semi-weekly. Established July 10, 1811, by William 
Riley. The last issue located is for Feb. 13, 1813. 
A. A. S. has: 

1811. July 10, 24, Aug. 3. 

1812. Aug. 26, 29. 

Sept. 2, 5, 12, 19, 26, 30. 
Oct. 3, 28. 
Nov. 7, 11, 21. 
Dec. 9. 

1813. Jan. 16, 20"'. 
Feb. 10, 13. 

[Wilmington] Federal Ark, 1802-1804. 

Semi-weekly. Established in the latter part of 1802. 
The first issue located is that of June 22, 1803, vol. 1, 
no. 70, published by William Black. The last issue located 
is that of May 30, 1804. 

Harvard has July 9, Nov. 12, Dec. 31, 1803; May 30, 
1804. A. A. S. has: 

1803. June 22. 
July 23, 27, 30. 
Aug. 3, 17, 24. 

1804. Jan. 18. 
Feb. 8. 

Mar. 3, 7, 10, 14, 17, 31. 
Apr. 4. 

[Wilmington] Mirror of the Times, 1799-1806. 

Semi-weekly. Established Nov. 20, 1799, by James 
Wilson, under the title of the "Mirror of the Times, &. 
General Advertiser." With the issue of Jan. 2, 1805, the 
size of the paper was reduced to quarto, and an index and 

340 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

title-page at the end of the year were promised. Publica- 
tion was suspended with the issue of Aug. 22, 1800. 

Del. Hist. Soc. has Nov. 20, 1799-Dec. 26, 1801 ; June 2, 
1802-June 1, 1803; Jan. 2-Dec. 28, 1805. Harvard has a 
scattered file, Jan. 29, 1800-Aug. 5, 1806. A. A. S. has: 

1800. Feb. 26. 
Mar. 12. 
May 17-. 
July 23. 
Oct. 18. 

Nov. 19, 26, 29. 
Dec. 3, 17". 

1801. Jan. 14. 

Feb. 14", 21, 28. 
Mar. 21. 
May 16, 23. 
June 6™, 20. 
July 15, 25. 
Sept. 23. 
Nov. 14. 
Supplement: Feb. 28. 

1802. Mar. 31. 
June 19, 23. 
Dec. 18'". 

1803. Jan. 1, 8- 
Feb. 2, 16, 19. 
Mar. 12," 19, 30. 
Apr. 6, 20-, 27-. 
May 4, 7 m , 25-. 
June 4-, 18, 22. 
July 13- 16, 27-, 30. 

Aug. 3, 13-, 17, 20, 24™, 27, 31. 
Sept. 3, 7, 14-, 21-, 28. 
Oct. 1, 8, 29. 
Nov. 2, 16, 19-, 26. 
Dec. 14, 24, 28- 

1804. Feb. 1, 4, 8, 11, 15, 18, 22-. 
Mar. 3, 7, 21, 24, 31. 

Apr. 4, 18. 

1913.] Delaware. 341 

May 5, 12, 23, 30. 
June 2, 6, 9, 13, 16,20, 23, 27. 
Aug. 1, 4'", 11, 18, 22, 25, 21)'". 
Sept. 1, 8, 15, 19, 22, 20, 29. 
Oct. 10, 13, 20, 24, 27, 30. 
Nov. 3, 7"', 10, 14-, 17, 21, 28. 
Dec. 1, 12, 15, 22™, 25. 

1805. Jan. 2, 5, 9, 12, 16, 23, 26, 30. 
Feb. 2, 9, 13, 20, 23, 27. 

Mar. 2, 6 W , 9, 13, 16, 20, 23, 27'", 30. 
Apr. 6, 10™, 13-, 17, 20, 24. 
May 8, 11, 13, 22, 25. 
June 1, 5, 8, 15, 19, 29. 
July 3, 10, 13, 17-, 20, 27, 31. 
Aug. 3-, 7, 10, 14, 17,24,28,31. 
Sept, 4, 7, 11"', 14, 21, 25, 28'". 
Oct. 1, 5, 9, 12, 16, 19, 23, 26. 
Nov. 2, 9, 13, 20, 27'". 
Dec. 18. 

1806. Jan. 11, 15. 

Feb. l m , 5, 8, 12, 19, 22. 
Mar. 5, 8, 19, 26, 29. 
May 14, 16, 23, 28, 30. 
June 11, 18, 21. 
July 23, 26. 
Aug. 7, 19, 22. 

[Wilmington] Monitor, 1800-1802. 

Weekly and semi-weekly. Established Feb. 1, 1800, 
by W. C. Smyth (William C. Smyth) under the title of the 
" Monitor; or, Wilmington Weekly Repository." It was 
published as a weekly until June, 1800, when it was 
changed to a semi-weekly and the title altered to the 
"Monitor, & Wilmington Repository." Between Mar. 
and Oct., 1801 the title was again changed to the " Moni- 
tor; or, Delaware Federalist." The paper was suspended 
for a while in 1802. The last issue located is that of Sept. 
1, 1802. 


American Antiquarian Society. 


Harvard lias Feb. 8, Sept. 20-Dec. 17, 1800, scattered; 
Jan. 21, Oct. 21-Dec. 24, 1801, scattered; Sept. 1, 1802. 
Lib. Cong, has Feb. 7, Oct. 14, Nov. 7, 1801. 

[Wilmington] Museum of Delaware, 1804-1809. 

Weekly. Established June 23, 1804, by Joseph Jones. 
In 180G, the title was changed to the " Museum of Dela- 
ware, & General Advertiser." The issue of June 17, 1809, 
announced that the paper would be discontinued upon 
July 1, 1809, in favor of the "Delaware Gazette," to be 
established by Joseph Jones. 

Harvard has June 29, 1805. A, A. S. has: 

1804. Sept. 8. 

1805. Sept. 14. 
1807. Feb. 14. 

Apr. 18. 
Dec. 12. 



18, 25 m . 


Dec. 17, 


Jan. 14 m . 

Feb. 11, 

Mar. 6' n , 

Apr. 24. 

May 8. 

June 17. 




District of Columbia. 



Alexandria, see under Virginia. 
[Georgetown] Cabinet, 1800=1801. 

Daily. Established in the latter part of the year 1800. 
The first issue located is that of Dec. 30, 1800, vol. 1, no. 
76. The publisher was James Lyon and the full title was 
the ''Cabinet, a National Paper." Although of quarto 
size, it contained current news, and should be classed as a 
newspaper. No place of imprint is given except " District 
of Columbia," but the issue of Feb. 4, 1801, states that all 
letters to the "Cabinet" should be directed to the post- 
office at Georgetown. In Oct. 1801, Lyon aided in estab- 
lishing the "National Magazine, or, Cabinet of the United 
States," a small octavo periodical. In the first number, 
under date of Oct. 21, 1801, he expresses his regrets at 
having been compelled to discontinue the "Cabinet." 

Lib. Cong, has Jan. 5, Mar. 4, 1801. A. A. S. has: 

1800. Dec. 30. 

1801. Feb. 4. 
Mar. 4. 

[Georgetown] Centinel, & Country Gazette, 1 790-1798. 

Weekly. Established in May, 1796, by Green, English 

& Co., as a country edition of their semi-weekly "Centinel 

of Liberty." The last issue located is that of Mar. 2, 1798. 

Harvard has June 30, Aug. 11, Sept. 29, 1797; Mar. 2, 

1798. A. A. S. has: 

1798. Jan. 5. 

[Georgetown] Centinel of Liberty, 1796-1800. 

Semi-weekly. Established May 24, 1796, by Green, 
English & Co., (Charles D. Green and David English), 
under the name of the "Centinel of Liberty, and George- 
town Advertiser." Probably discontinued in Nov. 1800. 
On Nov. 18, 1800, Green & English established the "Mu- 
seum" at Georgetown, as a daily. 


American Antiquarian Society. 


Harvard has May 27, 1796-Mar. 2, 1798, scattered. 
Phil. Lib. Co. has May 31, June 7, 10, 14, 17, 1796. Lib. 
Cong, has July 21, 1796; Jan. 3, 8, Dec. 21, 1799. A. A. S. 

1796. Dec. 29. 

1797. Apr. 15, 25. 
May 2, 16. 
July 11. 
Aug. 18. 

Sept. 1, 12, 19. 

1798. Jan. 2, 5, 16, 23. 
Feb. 2, 6. 
Mar. 12. 

June 15. 

[Georgetown] Columbian Chronicle, 1793-1796. 

Semi-weekly. Established Dec. 3, 1793, by S. Hanson 

(Samuel Hanson). Between April and June, 1794, 

Briggs was admitted to partnership and the paper was 
thenceforth published by Hanson & Briggs. Between 

Sept. and Dec. 1794, Priestley was made a partner 

in place of Briggs, and the paper was thenceforth pub- 
lished by Hanson & Priestley. This firm was dissolved 
and with the issue of Apr. 24, 1795, the paper was pub- 
lished by Samuel Hanson. The last issue located is that of 
May 10, 1796, and the paper is referred to as "the late 
Columbian Chronicle" in the prospectus of the "Centinel 
of Liberty" of May 24 f 1796. 

Harvard has scattered issues from Feb. 3, 1795, to May 
10, 1796. Lib. Cong, has Feb. 25, Mar. 25, 1794, A. A. S. 

1793. Dec. 3. 

1794. July 15 m . 
Aug. 22 m . 

1795. Jan. 20, 23. 
June 23. 

[Georgetown] Columbian Repository, 1803-1804. 

Weekly. Established Sept. 30, 1803, by Bradford & 
Burgess (William Bradford and Samuel Burgess were 


1913.] District of Columbia. 345 

residents of Georgetown at this period, and perhaps the 
publishers). In the first issue, it was announced that 
patrons of the "Mercury/' apparently a paper which had 
been proposed, would be served with the "Columbian 
Repository." The paper was of 4to size, although evi- 
dently a newspaper and not a magazine. The last issue 
located is that of Feb. 3, 1804. 

Harvard has Sept. 30, 1803-Feb. 3, 1804. 

[Georgetown] Daily Federal Republican, 1814-1816. 

Daily. Established Jan. 1814, as a daily issue of the 
"Federal Republican," which see. The numbering was 
continuous with the previous tri-weekly issue. The title 
was "Daily Federal Republican" to Nov. 26, 1814; 
"Federal Republican," Nov. 28-Dec. 29, 1814; and 
"Daily Federal Republican" to the last known issue of 
Mar. 30, 1816. Removed to Baltimore, April, 1816. 

Lib. Cong, has May 31-July 13, Oct. 10-Dec. 29, 1814; 
Apr. 10-July 17, 1815; Mar. 30, 1816. A. A. S. has: 

1815. May 4, 11, 12, 13, 15, 23, 24, 25, 27, 29, 30, 31. 

[Georgetown] Federal Republican, 1812-1816. 

Tri-weekly, semi-weekly and daily. Removed from 
Baltimore because of the demolition of its office, June 22, 
1812, by a mob. The paper was printed at Georgetown, 
after five weeks' interval, on July 27, 1812, vol. 6, no. 845. 
This issue was distributed at Baltimore the same day, 
but a personal attack on one of the editors closed that 
city henceforth to the paper. The editors at Baltimore 
were Alexander C. Hanson and Jacob Wagner, and they 
evidently continued in that capacity at Georgetown, al- 
though in no case does either of their names appear in the 
imprint. Jacob Wagner signs an editorial in the issue of 
Sept. 6, 1813. Robert Read advertises as acting "for 
the Proprietors" in the issues of July 12, 1813, and Jan. 
13, 1815. Hanson took his seat as a member of Congress 
in March, 1813. The title of the paper at first was " Fed- 
eral Republican, and Commercial Gazette," but in Jan., 
1814, it was shortened to "Federal Republican." At the 
same time, the tri-weekly issue was given up, and two 

346 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

editions were henceforth published, a semi-weekly " for the 
country" and a daily entitled the " Daily Federal Repub- 
lican." The last issue of the semi-weekly was on Apr. 2, 
1816. Removed to Baltimore, Apr. 6, 1816. For the 
daily, see under "Daily Federal Republican. " 

Boston Pub. Lib. has Aug. 19, 1812-Mar. 29, 1816, fair. 
Harvard has Aug. 13, 1812-Aug. 25, 1813. Mass. Hist. 
Soc. has June-Nov. 1814, scattered. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has 
Aug. 3, 1812-Apr. 2, 1816. Lib. Cong, has Aug. 7, 1812- 
Oct. 4, 1813, and scattered issues 1814-1816. Ohio St. 
Lib. has Mar. 10, 1815-Apr. 2, 1816. A. A. S. has: 

1812. July 27 to Dec. 30. 

Missing: July 27, 29. 

1813. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 

Missing: June 30, July 2, Oct. 6, Nov. 5, 
24,26, 29, Dec. 1,3, 6,8,10,13, 15, 17,20, 
24, 27, 29, 31. 

1814. Apr. 26*. 

May 6, 10, 13, 20, 24, 27. 

June 24, 28. 

July 8. 

Aug. 16, 19, 23, 26. 

Sept. 6, 9, 16, 20, 23, 30. 

Oct. 18, 21. 

Nov. 8, 11, 15, 18-, 22, 29. 

Dec. 2, 13, 16, 20, 23. 

1815. Jan. 3, 10, 13, 17, 20, 24™, 27, 31. 
Feb. 3, 10, 14, 17, 24, 28. 

Mar. 3, 10, 24, 31. 

Apr. 4, 7, 14, 18, 25. 

May 5, 9, 12, 15, 23, 26, 30. 

June 2, 13, 16, 20, 23, 27, 30. 

July 4, 7, 11™, 14, 18,21,25,29. 

Aug. 15, 18, 25, 29. 

Sept. 1, 8, 15, 19, 22, 26, 29. 

Oct. 3, 6, 13, 17, 20, 27, 31. 

Nov. 3, 14, 17, 21, 28. 

Dec. 1, 8, 12, 15, 19, 29. 

1913.] District of Columbia. 347 

1816. Jan. 2, 5, 12, 23, 26. 

Feb. 2, 6, 9, 13, 16, 23, 27. 
Mar. 5, 8, 12, 15, 19, 22, 26. 
Apr. 2. 

[Georgetown] Independent American, 1809-1810. 

Tri-weekly and semi-weekly. Established in July, 
1809, by Edgar Patterson. Beginning with the issue of 
Oct. 6, 1810, it was published by Thomas & Leakin (John 
Thomas and Thomas Leakin). The last issue located is 
that of Dec. 29, 1810. Issues to July 3, 1810, were tri- 
weekly; from July 7, 1810, to Dec. 11, 1810, were semi- 
weekly; from Dec. 13, 1810, were tri-weekly. 

N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Oct. 28, 1809-Dec. 29, 1810. Lib. 
Cong, has Aug. 26, Oct. 7, 24, Nov. 23, 1809; Apr. 14, 21, 
May 10, July 11, 21, Oct. 3, 1810. A. A. S. has: 
1810. Jan. 16, 18. 

Feb. 3, 20. 

Mar. 6, 13, 20, 29. 

Apr. 3, 7, 10, 14, 19, 21. 

May 8, 10, 15, 19" 1 , 22, 24- 31. 

June 2™, 7, 9, 21, 26, 28, 30. 

July 11, 18,21,28. 

Aug. 4, 8, 18, 22, 25, 29. 

Sept. 1. 

Oct. 17. 

[Georgetown] Messenger, 1816-1817. 

Semi-weekly and tri-weekly. Established Apr. 17, 1816, 
by James C. Dunn & Co. Beginning with Dec. 10, 1816, 
it was issued tri-weekly. The last issue was for Oct. 24, 
1817, after which the paper was continued under the new 
title of the "National Messenger," which see. 
Lib. Cong, has Apr. 1.7, 1816-Oct. 24, 1817. A. A. S. has: 
1816. May 1,15. 
July 6, 27. 
Aug. 7, 28, 31*. 
Sept. 4-, 11, 14, 18,21,25. 
Oct. 2, 5, 9, 12, 16, 19, 23, 26, 30. 
Nov. 2, 9, 13, 16, 20, 23, 27, 30. 
Dec. 4, 7, 10, 12, 14, 17, 19, 24, 28, 31. 

348 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

1817. Jan. 2, 4, 7, 9, II, 13, 16, 18, 21, 23, 25, 28, 30. 
Feb. 1, 5, 7, 10, 12, 14, 19, 21, 24. 
Mar. 10-, 14, 19, 21, 24, 26, 28, 31. 
Apr. 2, 7, 14, 10, 18, 23, 25, 28, 30. 
May 2, 5, 7, 9, 12, 14, 10, 19, 21, 23, 28. 
June 2, 4, 9, 10, 20, 30. 
July 2, 4, 13. 

[Georgetown] Metropolitan, 1820. 

Tri-weekly. Established Jan. 20, 1820, by William 
Alexander Rind, Jun. The first number was a specimen 
issue and the second number did not appear until Feb. 5. 
Continued after 1820. 

Lib. Cong, has file from Jan. 26, 1820, to Dec. 30, 
1820+. A. A. S. has: 

1820. Jan. 26 to Dec. 30. 

Mutilated: Sept. 9. 
Missing: Feb. 10, 12, Mar, 14, 30, Apr. 13, 
May 4, 16, Aug. 3, Sept. 28, Oct. 3, 10, 
17, 19, 24, Dec. 7, 9, 12, 26. 

[Georgetown] Museum, 1800-1801. 

Daily. Established Nov. 18, 1800, by Green & English 
(Charles D. Green and David English), under the name 
of the " Museum and Washington and George-town Daily 
Advertiser." It was really a continuation of the " Centinel 
of Liberty," since the advertisements were continued from 
that paper. It was published as a daily for only a few 
issues, as the issue of Jan. 7, 1801, is numbered vol. 1, no. 
19, and the word "Daily" is omitted from the title. This 
issue, moreover, is the last located. 

A. A. S. has: 

1800. Nov. 18. 

1801. Jan. 7. 

[Georgetown] Museum and Georgetown Advertiser, 1809. 

Weekly and semi-weekly. Established Jan. 21, 1809, 
by William Rind, Junior, "under the sanction of his father, 
late proprietor of the Washington Federalist." It was of 
small quarto size and was at first issued as a weekly, but 
was changed to a semi-weekly with the issue of Aug. 19, 

1913.] District of Columbia. 349 

1809. The issue for Oct. 10, 1809, is the last located and 
was probably the last published. 

Lib. Cong, lias Jan. 21-Oct. 10, 1809. 

[Georgetown] National Messenger, 1817-1820-f . 

Tri-weekly. A continuation of the " Messenger," but 
with a new name and new series of numbering. The first 
issue is for Oct. 27, 1817, new series, vol. 1, no. 1, pub- 
lished by James C. Dunn & Co. (James C. Dunn and 
William A. Rind, Jr.), which firm name after four numbers 
was changed to Dunn & Rind, Jr. Rind withdrew from 
the firm, and beginning with the issue of Dec. 14, 1818, 
the paper was published by Dunn & Co. There is no pub- 
lishers' name given from Aug. 21 to Dec. 4, 1820, after 
which the paper was published by James C. Dunn for the 
Proprietors. Continued after 1820. 

Lib. Cong, has Apr. 17, 1816-Dec. 29, 1820-f-- A. A. S. 

1818. Mar. 9. 
Dec. 30 m . 

[Georgetown] Olio, 1802-1803. 

Weekly. Established by Benjamin Parks on July 1, 
1802, judging from the date of the first issue located, that 
of Sept. 2, 1802, vol. 1, no. 10. It was of 4to size and 
paged. Discontinued in Sept. 1803, according to an ad- 
vertisement signed by B. Parks in the first issue of the 
"Columbian Repository" of Sept. 30, 1803. 

Harvard has May 13-Aug. 4, 1803. N. Y. Pub. Lib. has 
Sept. 2, 1802-Feb. 17, 1803, nos. 10, 19-22, 24-32, 34. 
A. A. S. has: 

1803. Apr. S m , 15. 

[Georgetown] Spirit of Seventy Six, 1811-1814. 

Semi-weekly. A continuation, without change of num- 
bering, of the "Spirit of Seventy Six" published at Wash- 
ington. Apparently the first Georgetown issue was that of 
Feb. 26, 1811, vol. 3, no. 48, since in this issue there is notice 
of the removal of the printing office to Georgetown. Pub- 
lished by J. M. and J. B. Carter (John M. and James B. 
Carter). Beginning with the issue of May 21, 1813, the 

350 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

imprint became Ebenezer H. Cummins, & John M. Carter. 
Cummins was ousted from the firm (see "Federal Re- 
publican," Nov. 17, 1813) and with the issue of Nov. 16, 

1813, the paper was published by John M. & J. B. 
Carter. It was suspended soon afterwards, but was re- 
vived in Feb. 1814, by James B. Carter, who adopted the 
same title, but a new numbering. The issue of Mar. 4, 

1814, vol. 1, no. 4, is the last located. 

Boston Athenaeum has Feb.-Sept. 14, 1811. Hist. Soc. 
Penn. has May 15, 1812-Nov. 16, 1813. Lib. Cong, has 
May 10, 1811; Aug. 11, 25, Sept, 8, Dec. 22, 1812; Apr. 
30, May 18, 1813; Mar. 4, 1814. Georgetown Univ. has 

A. A. S. has: 

Sept. 14, 

28, Oct. 1 

, 1813. 


Feb. 26 
Apr. 16 

May 3, 



Dec. 4, 

18, 22 


Jan. 1, 
July 20. 


[Georgetown] Times, and Patowmack Packet, 1789. 

Weekly. Established Feb. 12, 1789, by Charles Fierer, 
judging from the date of the first issue located, that of 
Apr. 23, 1789, vol. 1, no. 11. Between Dec. 1789 and Apr. 
1790, the name of the publishers had changed to Charles 
Fierer and Thomas U. Fosdick. They continued as pub- 
lishers as far as the last issue traced, that of July 6, 1791. 

Harvard has July 6, 1791. Lib. Cong, has Apr. 23, 
1789. A. A. S. has: 

1789. Nov. 25. 

1790. Apr. 21. 

May 12, 19, 26. 
June 23, 30. 
July 21, 28. 
Aug. 4"', 11, 18. 
Sept. 8, 15, 22, 29. 
Oct. 13, 20, 27. 
Nov. 17. 
Dec. 22. 

1913.] District of Columbia. 351 

1791. Feb. 2, 16. 
Apr. 6. 

[Georgetown] Washington Federalist, 1800-1809. 

Tri-weekly and daily. Established Sept. 25, 1800, with 
the imprint "Printed by William Alexander Rind, for 
himself and John Stewart." Although the name of Wash- 
ington was in the title, the office was located at George- 
town. At first a tri-weekly, the paper became a daily 
with the issue of Nov. 24, 1800. It so continued until 
Feb. 24, 1801, then was published as a tri-weekly from 
Feb. 26 to Dec. 4, 1801, then as a daily from Dec. 7, 1801, 
to Apr. 28, 1802, and then as a tri-weekly from Apr. 30, 
1802. In the latter part of 1804, it became a semi-weekly. 
During most of this period, "country papers" were also 
issued without the title heading. On Aug. 9, 1808, the 
paper became a tri-weekly. Beginning with the issue of 
May 12, 1801 (no issues were printed from May 2 to May 
12) the paper was published by William Alexander Hind; 
with the issue of Sept. 9, 1801, by Rind and Prentiss (W. 
A. Rind and Charles Prentiss); witli the issue of Mar. 23, 
1802, by William A. Rind & Co.; and with the issue of 
June 1, 1803, by William A. Rind. With the issue of 
Oct 28, 1807, Jonathan S. Findlay assumed charge of 
the paper as editor, although Rind's name appeared as 
printer, and Georgetown appeared in the imprint. On 
Aug. 9, 1808, Jonathan S. Findlay's name appeared as 
sole publisher and a new series of numbering was adopted 
accompanying the whole numbering. The last issue lo- 
cated is that of June 21, 1809. 

Boston Athenarum has Jan. 3-June 21, 1809. Har- 
vard has Oct. 7, 1800-Dec. 1801; a few issues in 
1802; Jan. 13, Oct. 13, 1804; July 16, Sept. 20, 1806. 
Essex Inst, has Feb. 16, Mar. 23, 28, 1802; Oct. 31, 1807- 
June 21, 1809. Yale has Sept. 28, 1801-Sept. 24, 1802. 
N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Jan. 1, 1801-Feb. 19, 1800, scattered 
in 1804-1806. N. Y. Pub. Lib. has Aug. 13, 1802; Jan. 3, 
1803; Nov. 17, 1808; Feb. 9, 1809. Lib. Cong, has Jan. 1- 
June 1, Dec. 14-31, 1801; Jan. 1, 1802-Sept. 8, 1804; Dec. 


American Antiquarian Society. 


23, 1807; Jan. 13, July 2, Dec. 13-31, 1808; Jan. 3, Mar. 
2, Mar. 21, 1809; also several ''country" issues, 1801- 
1804. Wis. Hist. Soc. has Oct. 1800-Oct. 1802; Dee. 1808, 
9 nos. A. A. S. has: 

1800. Sept. 25-, 30. 

Oct. 7, 9, 11, 14, 16, 18, 21, 23, 25, 28, 30. 
Nov. 1, 4, 6, 8, 11, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28. 
Dec. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 16, 17, 
18, 19, 22, 23, 24, 29, 31. 

1801. Jan. 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 19, 20, 

21, 22, 23, 26, 27, 28, 29. 
Feb. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 10, 12, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 

23, 24, 26, 28. 
July 15, 24. 
Sept. 10, 23. 
Nov. 16-, 30-. 
Dec. 2-, 4™, 7-, 8- 9-, 10", 11-, 12, 14-, 15-, 

16-, 17-, 18-, 19-, 21-, 22-, 23-, 24-, 28-, 

29, 30, 31. 

1802. (Regular issue.) 
Jan. 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 

18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30. 
Feb. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 16, 

17, 18, 19, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26-, 27. 
Mar. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 16, 17, 

18, 19, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 29, 30, 31. 
Apr. 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 

19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 26, 27, 28, 30. 
May 1, 3, 4, 5, 7. 
Nov. 12-. 

Dec. 10, 13, 15, 17, 20, 22, 24, 28-, 29, 31. 
Supplement: Feb. 19, June 9. 

1802. (Country issue.) 

May 12, 17, 21, 24, 28. 

June 2, 4, 9, 11, 16, 18, 23, 25, 30. 

July 2, 9, 14, 16, 21, 23, 28, 30. 

Aug. 4, 6, 11, 13, 18, 20, 25, 27. 

Sept. 1, 3, 8, 10, 15, 17, 22, 24-, 29. 

Oct. 1. 

Dec. 17, 22. 


District of Columbia. 


1803. (Regular issue.) 

Jan. 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 17. 

Feb. 2, 11, 16, 23. 

Oct. 2, 2, 14, 19 26,28,31. 

Nov. 2, 4, 7, 9, 11, 14, 16, 18, 21, 23, 25, 30. 

Dec. 2, 5, 9, 12, 14, 19, 21, 23, 28, 30. 

Supplement: Feb. 4. 

1803. (Country issue.) 

Jan. 3, 5, 12, 17, 19, 21, 24, 26, 28, 31. 
Feb. 2, 4, 7, 9, 11, 14, 16, 18, 21, 23, 25, 28. 
Mar. 2, 9, 16, 23. 
Apr. 4, 8, 13. 
Aug. 10, 31. 
Sept. 7, 14, 19. 

1804. Jan. 2, 4, 6, 9, 11, 13, 16, 18, 20, 23, 25, 27, 30. 
Feb. 1, 3, 6, 9, 13, 15, 17, 20, 22, 24, 27, 29. 
Mar. 5, 7, 9, 12, 14, 16, 19, 21, 23, 26. 

June 11, 13. 

1805. June 12, 19, 26, 29. 
July 6, 

Nov. 6. 

Dec. 4, 7, 14, 18, 21, 24-, 28. 

1806. Jan. 1, 4» l , 8, 11, 15, 18, 22, 25, 29. 
Feb. 3, 6, 8, 12, 15, 19-, 22, 27. 
Mar. 1,5,8, 12, 15, 19,22,26, 29. 
Apr. 2, 5, 12, 17, 19. 

1807. Oct. 28, 31. 

Nov. 4, 7, 11, 14, 18, 21, 25, 28. 
Dec. 2, 5, 9, 12, 15, 19, 23, 28, 31. 

1808. Jan. 6, 9, 13, 16, 20, 23, 27, 30. 
Feb. 3, 6, 10, 13, 17, 20, 24, 27. 
Mar. 7, 10, 12, 16, 19, 23, 26, 30. 
Apr. 2, 6, 9, 14, 18, 21. 

Nov. 26. 

Dec. 3, 6, 8, 10, 13, 15, 17, 20, 22, 24, 27, 29, 

1809. Jan. 3, 5, 7, 10, 12, 17, 19, 21, 24, 26, 28, 31. 
Feb. 2, 4, 7, 9, 11, 14, 16, 18, 21, 23, 28. 
Mar. 2. 

354 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Georgetown Weekly Ledger, 1790-1793. 

Weekly. Established Apr. 17, 1790, by M. Day and 

W. Hancock, for the Proprietor (M Day and W 

Hancock). In August or September, 1791, Alexander 

Doyle became the publisher and continued in that capa- 
city until the spring of 1792, when he was succeeded by 
James Doyle. The last issue is that of Oct. 5, 1793. 

Harvard has June 18, July 2, 23, Sept. 17, Oct. 1, Nov. 
26, 1791. Lib. Cong, has Feb. 18, Mar. 31, Sept. 22, 
1792; Feb. 16, Oct. 5, 1793. Wis. Hist. Soc. has July 28, 
1792. A. A. S. has: 

1790. May 1, 15. 
June 5, 26. 
July 10. 
Aug. 14. 
Sept. 4, 11. 
Dec. 4, 11. 

1791. Mar. 19. 
Apr. 9. 
May 14™. 
June 18, 25*. 
Aug. 6. 

Supplement: June 18, 25. 

1792. Jan. 28. 
Feb. 4. 
Dec. 15 m . 

1793. Aug. 24. 

[Washington] Advertiser, 1796. 

Semi-weekly. Established Mar. 9, 1796, by John 
Crocker & Co., who took over the establishment of the 
" Impartial Observer." In May, 1796, John Crocker 
assumed the sole proprietorship. The last issue located is 
that of May 11, 1796. The paper was of quarto size, and 

Harvard has Mar. 12-May 11, 1796, scattered. 
A. A. S. has: 

1796. Mar. 9. 


District of Columbia. 


[Washington] Advertiser, 1800. 

Daily and tri-weekly. Established Nov. 20, 1800, by 

Brown & Snowden ( Brown and Samuel Snowden). 

This first issue, of quarto size, is the only one which has 
been found. It announeed that it would be published 
daily during the sessions of Congress, and tri-weekly 
during the recess. Lack of encouragement forced the 
editors to discontinue publication in Washington and on 
Nov. 24, 1800, the ollice was removed to Alexandria (see 
"Washington Federalist" for Nov. 25, 1800) where, on 
Dec. 8, 1800, S. Snowden & Co. established the "Alex- 
andria Advertiser/' using the type and style of set-up 
that had been intended for the " Washington Advertiser." 

A. A. S. has: 
1800. Nov. 20. 

[Washington] American Literary Advertiser, 1802-1804. 

Weekly. Established by James Lyon and Richard 
Dinmore on Mar. 20, 1802, judging from the date of the 
first issue located, that of June 18, 1802, no. 13. In Nov. 
or Dec, 1802, the paper was removed from Washington to 
Alexandria, where the imprint was given merely " Dis- 
trict of Columbia." The last issue located is that of Mar. 
20, 1801. 

Harvard has Sept. 24, 1802-Sept. 23, 1803, scattered. 
Lib. Cong, has June 10, 1803; Mar. 20, 1804. A. A. S. 
has : 

1802. June 18. 
Oct. 1. 

1803. Feb. 18. 
June 25. 
July 29. 

Aug. 5, 12, 19. 
Sept. 2, 9. 

[Washington] Apollo, 1802. 

Established May 1, 1802, by W. Duane & Son (William 
and William J. Duane). It was announced that the paper 
would be published daily or tri-weekly as occasion might 
require, and that the second number would appear as soon 

356 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

as 500 subscribers were found. The first number is the 
only one that has been traced, and was undoubtedly the 
only one issued. 
A. A. S. has: 
1802. May 1. 
[Washington] Atlantic World, 1807. 

Weekly. Established Jan. 19, 1807, by John Wood. 
The prospectus announced that the "Atlantic World" 
would be published by John Wood, late editor of the 
"Western World of Kentucky." The second issue did not 
appear until Feb. 3 and was published by John Wood and 
Thomas W. White, as was also the issue of Feb. 10. The 
issues of Mar. 24 and 31 were published by John Wood & 
Jehiel Crossfield, and are the last located. 

Lib. Cong, has Jan. 19, Mar. 24, 1807. A. A. S. has: 
1807. Feb. 3, 10. 
Mar. 24, 31. 
Washington City Gazette, 1814. 

Tri-weekly and weekly. Established Jan. 7, 1814, by 
William Elliot as a tri-weekly. Elliot took Daniel Rapine 
into partnership and beginning with the issue of either Feb. 
25 or Feb. 28, 1814, the paper was published by William 
Elliot & Co. With the issue of Nov. 5, 1814, Elliot again 
became sole proprietor, changing the paper to a weekly 
and reducing it in size to quarto, with pagination. In the 
issue of Dec. 17, 1814, the last located, the publisher an- 
nounced that he intended to engage in another line of 
business and that the paper was for sale. 
A. A. S. has: 

1814. Jan. 19, 21, 24, 26, 28 m . 
Feb. 2, 9, 18, 21, 23, 28. 
Mar. 4, 11, 14, 10, 28, 30. 
Apr. 6, 8, 11, 15, 18, 25, 29. 
May 2, 4, 13, 16, 23, 29. 
June 6, 13-, 15, 20, 22, 24, 29. 
July 1, 6, 8, 11, 15, 18, 20, 22, 27. 
Aug. 3, 8, 12, 17. 
Sept. 2. 
Nov. 5, 12. 
Dec. 10, 17. 



District of Columbia. 


[Washington] City of Washington Gazette, 1817-1820+. 

Daily and tri-weekly. Established Oct. 27, 1817, ac- 
cording to an announcement in the "Washington City 
Weekly Gazette" of Oct. 18, 1817. Published by Jonathan 
Elliot as a continuation of his "Washington City Weekly 
Gazette," without change of numbering, although a "new 
series" was commenced. Published as a daily and also 
a tri-weekly "for the country." 

Lib. Cong, has Dec. 4, 1817-Dec. 30, 1820, daily edition. 
A. A. S. has: 

1817. Nov. 19, 20. 

1818. (Daily.) 

July 6, 10, 27, 31. 
Aug. 20, 29. 
Sept. 26. 
Oct. 31. 

1818. (Tri-weekly.) 
Dec. 19. 

1819. (Daily.) 

1 Feb. 2, 20. 
May 6, 25. 
June 1, 8. 
Aug. 14, 21 m , 28'". 
Sept. 21. 

1819. (Tri-weekly.) 
May 17, 26, 31. 
June 4, 7. 
Aug. 20. 

Oct. 8. 

1820. (Daily,) 

Jan. 1, to Dec. 30. 

Missing: Jan. 1,4,5, 8, 12, 19, Feb. 4,15,16, 
19, 24, 20, 28, Mar. 4, 23, 25, Apr. 25, 30, 
June 23, 30, July 4, 6, 13, Aug. 3, 5, 11, 
18, Sept. 9, 18, 21, 28, 30, Oct. 6, 14, 16, 
17, 18, 21, 23, 24, 25, 26, Nov. 18, Dec. 4, 
23, 25, 30. 

358 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

1820. (Tri-weekly.) 

Jan. 5, 10, 12. 

Feb. 9, 16, 18. 

Mar. G, 22, 27. 

Apr. 14, 17, 19, 21, 28. 

May 1, 3, 5, 8*", 12, 17, 19, 22, 24, 26. 

June 5, 26. 

July 24, 26, 28. 

Aug. 2, 4, 7, 9, 16, 23, 25. 

Sept. 6, 13, 15, 18, 20, 22, 25, 27. 

Oct. 2, 9, 13, 16. 

Nov. 15, 17, 22, 27. 

Dec. 6, 8, 15, 18, 20, 22, 29. 

Washington City Weekly Gazette, 1815-1817. 

Weekly. Established Nov. 25, 1815, by Jonathan 
Elliot. It was of quarto size and paged. Discontinued 
with the issue of Oct. 18, 1817, when it was stated that on 
Oct. 27, it would be published in folio size as a tri-weekly 
under the name of the "City of Washington Gazette," 
which see. 

Lib. Cong, has Nov. 25, 1815-Oct. 18, 1817. A. A. S. 

1816. May 11. 

1817. May 24, 31. 

[Washington] Daily National Intelligencer, 1813-1820-f-. 

Daily. Established Jan. 1, 1813, as a daily, by Gales 
& Seaton (Joseph Gales, Jr., and William W. Seaton). 
Continued by this firm, together with their tri-weekly 
edition, until after 1820. For the earlier paper, see "Na- 
tional Intelligencer.' ' 

N. Y. Pub. Lib. has 1815-1820. Hist. Soc. Penn. has 
1813-1820. Lib. Cong, has Jan. 1, 1813-Dec. 30, 1820. 
Washington, D. C, Pub. Lib. has 1813-1820. Wis. Hist. 
Soc. has 1815, 1819-1820. A. A. S. has: 

Nov. 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 16, 1 7, 

18, 19, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 29, 30. 
Dec. 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14, 15, 16, 
17, 18, 20, 21, 23, 24, 25, 28, 29, 30, 31. 

1913.] District of Columbia. 359 

1815. Jan. 2 to Dec. 30. 

Mutilated: Feb. 13, Mar. 9, Apr. 15, 18, 
May 2, July 1, 10, 31. 

Missing: Feb. 22, Mar. 1, 7, Apr. 17, 20, 
May 1, 22, June 12, 14, 29, July 7, 10, 11, 
22, 24, Oct. 5, 14, 26, Dec. 8. 

1816. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 
Supplement: Jan. 6. 

Mutilated: June 24, Aug. 24, Dec. 30. 

Missing: Jan. 1, Feb. 8, Apr. 1, May 14, 
15, 16, 17, 18, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 27, 28, 
29, 30, 31, June 1, 4, Aug. 3, Sept. 12, 
Oct. 17. 

1817. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 

Mutilated: June 30. 

Missing: Jan. 8, Feb. 6, 22, Mar. 17, Apr. 

17, May 24, June 18, 28, Sept.l, 29, Dec. 

2, 3, 5, 9, 12, 15, 19, 22, 23, 25, 31. 

1818. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 
Supplement: Mar 24. 

Missing: Jan. 7, 24, 27, June 29, 30, July 3, 
6, 16, Aug. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 
14, 15, Sept. 5, 26, 28, Oct. 19, 28, 29, 
Nov. 3, 7, 13, 18, 19, 28, Dec. 7. 

1819. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 

Mutilated: Jan. 14, 28, Mar. 4, Dec. 2, 25. 

Missing: Jan. 11, 13, 21, 30, Feb. 1, 10, 17, 
Mar. 2, Apr. 27, May 10, June 5, 10, 25, 
July 19, Aug. 6, 12, 28, Sept. 30, Nov. 23, 
26, Dec. 3, 8, 13, 18, 27, 28, 31. 

1820. Jan. 1 to Dec. 30. 
Supplement: Jan. 8. 

Missing: May 3, 30, 31, June 16, July 7, 
Oct. 9. 

Washington Expositor, 1807-1809. 

Weekly. Established by Richard Dinmore on Nov. 13, 
1807, judging from the date of the first issue located, that 
of Dec. 4, 1807, vol. 1, no. 4. It was of folio size, and its 

360 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

full title was the "Washington Expositor, and Weekly 
Register." This form of publication was soon discon- 
tinued, and on Jan. 2, 1808, a new paper was published by 

Dinmore & Cooper (Richard Dinmore and Cooper) 

with new numbering and with the shortened title of 
"Washington Expositor." It was of quarto size, paged 
and provided with an index. The last issue located is that 
of Jan. 6, 1809, evidently the last published. 

N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Dec. 4, 1807. Lib. Cong, has Jan. 2, 
1808-Jan. 6, 1809. Wis. Hist. Soc. has Jan. 1808-Jan. 
1809. A. A. S. has: 
1808. Nov. 26. 

Dec. 3. 
Washington Federalist, see [Georgetown] Washington Fed- 

Washington Gazette, 1796-1798. 

Semi-weekly and weekly. Established June 15, 1796, 
by Benjamin More. It was first published as a semi- 
weekly, but beginning with the issue of Sept. 16, 1797, it 
became a weekly. The issue of July 26, 1797, announced 
that publication would not proceed until it was attended 
by some profit to the publisher, and the next number 
appeared on Sept. 16, 1797. The last issue located is that 
of Mar. 24, 1798, upon which date the editor announced, 
"I shall not be able to continue the publication of the 
Washington Gazette except some friend should lend a 
helping hand." This was undoubtedly the last issue. 

Harvard has July 6, 1796-Mar. 10, 1798, scattered. 
N. Y. Pub. Lib. has June 22, 25, July 6, 13, 16, Oct. 26, 
1796; Feb. 27, 1797. Phil. Lib. Co. has June 11, 22, 25, 
July 6, 9, Aug. 3, 13, 1796. Lib. Cong, has June 15, 1796- 
Mar. 24, 1798. A. A. S. has: 

1796. June 18, 22, 25, 29. 

July 2, 6, 9, 13, 16, 20, 23, 27, 30. 

Aug. 3, 6, 10, 13, 17, 20, 24, 27, 31. 

Sept. 3, 7, 10, 17, 21, 24, 28. 

Oct. 1, 5, 8, 12, 18, 26, 29. 

Nov. 5, 9, 12, 16, 19, 23, 26, 30. 

Dec. 3, 7, 10, 14, 17, 21, 24,31. 


1913.] . District of Columbia. 3G1 

1797. Jan. 4, 7, 11, 14, 18, 21, 25, 28. 
Feb. 1,4,8, 11, 15, 18,22,25. 
Mar. 1, 4, 8, 11, 15, 18, 22, 25, 29. 
Apr. 1, 5, 8, 12, 15, 19, 22, 26, 29. 
May 3, 6, 10, 13, 17, 20, 24, 27, 31. 
June 3, 7, 10, 14, 17, 21, 24, 28. 
July 1, 5, 8, 12, 15, 19, 22, 26. 
Sept. 16, 23, 30. 

Oct. 7, 14, 21, 28. 
Nov. 4, 11, 18, 25. 
Dec. 2, 9, 16, 23. 

1798. Jan. 6, 13, 20»\ 27. 
Feb. 10, 17, 24. 
Mar. 3, 10, 17, 24. 

[Washington] Impartial Observer, 1795-1796. 

Weekly. Established May 22, 1795, by T. Wilson 
(Thomas Wilson) under the name of the "Impartial Ob- 
server, and Washington Advertiser." The paper was of 
4to size and paged. Wilson died Feb. 22, 1796, after which 
the paper was re-established, Mar. 9, 1796, by John 
Crocker & Co., as the "Washington Advertiser," which 

Harvard has June 19-Oct. 1, 1795, scattered. Lib. 
Cong, has July 3, 1795. Wis. Hist. Soc. has June 12, Aug. 
21, Sept. 14, 1795. A. A. S. has: 
1795. June 26. 
July 17. 
Aug. 14. 

[Washington] Monitor, 1808-1809. 

Tri-weekly. Established May 12, 1808, by J. B. Colvin 
(John B. Colvin). It was at lirst a small folio, but with 
the issue of Nov. 5, 1808, was enlarged to large folio. 
Beginning with the issue of Mar. 4, 1809, the plan of the 
paper was changed, the size was reduced to small folio, 
and a new numbering was adopted with pagination. The 
last issue located is that of June 20, 1809. 

Harvard has May 14, 1808-Apr. 22, 1809, scattered. 
Ct. Hist. Soc. has Mar. 16-June 15, 1809. Lib. Cong, has 

362 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

May 19, Sept. 1, Dec. 13-31, 1808; Jan. 3-Jime 10, 1809, 
scattered. Wis. Hist. Soc. has May 31, 1808; Apr. 25, 
May 30, June 8, 1809. A. A. 8. has: 

1808. May 12, 14, 19, 21, 24, 26, 28, 31. 
June 2, 4, 7, 9, 16, 18, 21, 23, 25, 30. 
July 2 m , 5, 7, 9, 12, 14, 19, 21, 26, 28, 30. 
Aug. 2, 4" 6, 9, 11, 13, 16, 18-, 20, 23, 26, 30. 
Sept. 1, 3, 6, 8, 13, 17, 20, 22, 24, 27, 29. 
Oct. 1, 4, 6, 8, 11, 13, 15, 18, 20, 22, 25, 27, 29. 
Nov. 1, 5, 10. 

Dec. 3, 8, 10, 20, 22, 24, 29. 

1809. Jan. 3, 7, 10, 14, 17, 19, 26, 28, 31. 
Feb. 2, 4, 9, 21, 23, 25. 

Mar. 2, 4, 9, 11, 14, 16, 23, 25, 28. 
Apr. 1,4,8, 11, 15, 18'", 20, 25, 29. 
May 2, 4™, 6, 9, 11, 13, 16, 18, 25, 27, 30. 
June 3, 6, 8, 10, 13, 15-, 20. 

[Washington] National Intelligencer, 1800-1820+ . 

Tri-weekly. Established Oct. 31, 1800, by Samuel 
Harrison Smith, under the title of the "National In- 
telligencer and Washington Advertiser. " In the issue of 
May 21, 1810, it was stated that the paper was conducted 
by Samuel II. Smith and Joseph Gales, Jun., and printed 
by Smith. Smith soon retired, and beginning with the 
issue of Sept. 3, 1810, the paper was published by Joseph 
Gales, Jun. Beginning with the issue of Nov. 27, 1810, the 
title was shortened to the " National Intelligencer." On 
Oct. 31, 1812, it was announced that the editor had taken 
into partnership Mr. William W. Seaton, "late joint con- 
ductor, with Mr. Joseph Gales, Sen'r, of the ' Raleigh Reg- 
ister/ "■ and with the issue of Nov. 3, 1812, the firm name 
became Gales & Seaton. When the "Daily National 
Intelligencer" (q. v.) was started on Jan. 1, 1813, the 
tri-weekly was continued without change of numbering, 
as a paper "for the country," On Mar. 17, 1819, it was 
announced that the paper would be published three times 
a week during sessions of Congress and twice a week in 
recess. It was therefore a semi-weekly from Mar. 17, 
1819, to Nov. 13, 1819; a tri-weekly from Nov. 16, 1819, 



District of Columbia. 


to Aug. 12, 1820; a semi-weekly from Aug. 16, 1820, to 
Nov. 11, 1820; and a tri-weekly from Nov. 14, 18L'0, to 
after the close of the year. 

There are many scattering sets of the tri-weekly "Na- 
tional Intelligencer, " but only the longer files are here 
listed: Lib. Cong, has the best file, 1800-1820. N. H. 
Hist. Soc. has 1802-1820. Mass. Hist. Soc. has 1806-16, 
fair. Harvard has 1802-08, 1811-13, 1818-20, scattered. 
Ct. Hist. Soc. has 1801-03, 1808-20. Yale lias 1811-20. 
N. Y. Pub. Lib. has 1805-08, 1810-15. N. Y. Hist. Soc. 
has 1802-20, fair. Hist. Soc. Perm, has Oct. 31, 1800- 
Nov. 11, 1801; Apr. 7, 1802-1820. Phil. Lib. Co. has 
1809-1820. Washington, D. C, Pub. Lib. has 1800-1812. 
Va. State Lib. has 1800-1820. Wis. Hist, Soc. has 1804, 
Oct. 1807-Nov. 1808, 1811, 1813-1814, 1810-1820. Essex 
Inst, has Oct. 1803-1820. Boston Athemeum has Nov. 
28, 1800-Dec. 1804; 1807-1820. A. A. S. has: 

1800. Oct. 31. 
Nov. 21™. 
Dec. 17™ 

1801. Jan. 2 to Dec. 30. 
Supplement: Apr. 29. 
[Extra] Dec. 8. 

Missing: Jan. 2, Aug. 19, Sept. 11, Oct. 
16, Dec. 9, 11, 16. 

1802. Jan. 4, 6, 8, 11, 13, 15, 18, 20, 22, 25, 27, 29. 
Feb. 1, 3, 5, 8, 10, 12, 15, 17, 19, 22, 24, 26. 
Mar. 1, 3, 5, 8, 10, 12, 15, 17, 19, 22, 24, 26, 29, 

Apr. 2, 5, 7, 9, 12, 14, 16, 19, 21, 23, 26, 28, 30. 
May 3, 5, 7, 10, 12, 17, 19. 
July 30. 

Aug. 2, 9, 11, 13, 16, 20. 
Sept. 10, 15, 17, 20, 22, 24. 
Nov. 5. 

Dec. 8, 15-, 17, 20, 24, 27, 29, 31. 
Supplement: Apr. 9. 

1803. Jan. 5, 7, 10, 12, 14, 17, 19, 24, 26. 
Feb. 2, 4, 7, 9, 14, 16, 18, 21, 23. 

364 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Mar. 30. 

Apr. 25. 

May 13 w . 

June 1, 6, 8, 13, 15, 20™, 24, 27, 29. 

July 6, 8, 13, 18, 20, 22, 25™ 27, 29. 

Aug. 1, 3, 5, 8, 10, 12, 17, 19, 22, 24, 31™ 

Sept. 7, 14, 16, 19, 21, 23, 20. 

Oct. 19, 21, 24, 28. 

Nov. 2, 4, 9, 11, 16, 18. 

Dec. 5, 7, 9, 12, 14, 16, 19, 21, 23, 26, 28, 30. 

1804. Jan. 2 to Dec. 31. 
Supplement: Jan. 16. 
[Extra] Nov. 8. 

Mutilated: Mar. 21. 

Missing: Mar. 5, Oct. 3, Nov. 2, 21, 23, 
26, Dec. 3, 19, 21, 24, 26. 

1805. Jan. 2 to Dec. 30. 
Extraordinary: Dec. 3. 

Mutilated: Jan. 4, 14, 18, 23, Feb. 8, 
Apr. 22, June 19, Aug. 19, 30, Sept. 27, 
Oct. 9, Dec. 2, 25. 

Missing: Jan. 2, 9, 11, 21, 25, Feb. 15, 17, 
24, 27, Mar. 25, May 3, 6, 8, 15, 17, 20, 
June 21, July 3, 5, 19, 22, 24, Aug. 26, 
Sept. 4, 23, Oct. 7, 11, 14, 16, Nov. 13, 29. 

1806. Jan. 3 m , 6, 13, 24™. 
Feb. 26'\ 

Mar. 7, 10, 12, 14, 19, 21, 28. 
* Apr. 2, 4, 25, 28. 

May 5, 16, 21, 23, 26, 28, 30. 

June 2, 6, 9"\ 13, 20, 23, 25. 

July 9, 18. ' 

Aug. 1, 6, 8, 11, 13, 15, 20, 22. 

Sept. 1, 3, 10, 15, 17-, 19, 22, 26, 29. 

Oct. 3, 6, 8, 10, 17, 19. 

Nov. 3, 5, 7, 10, 12, 14, 17, 19, 21, 24, 26. 

Dec. 1, 2, 5, 8, 12"', 19, 22, 24, 29. 

1913.] District of Columbia. 365 

1807. Jan. 2 to Dec. 30. 

Mutilated: Jan. 23, Feb. 25, Mar. 4, 13, 
July 13,22, 31, Sept. 10,18, 23, 25, 28, 30, 
Oct. 2, 5, 7, 20, 27. 

Missing: Jan. 2, 12, 14, 10, 19, 21, 20, Feb. 
2, 4, 0, 9, 11, 18, 20, 23, 27, Mar. 9, 11, 
23, 27, Apr. 1, 3, 5, 8, 10, 29, May 8, 15, 
20, 22, 27, June 3, 12, 15, 29, July 3, 0, 
15, 17, Aug. 5, 14, 20, Sept. 4, 14, 21, 
Oct. 30, Dec. 7, 9. 

1808. Jan. 1 to Dec. 30. 
Extra: Nov. 8. 

Mutilated: Feb. 26, Nov. 2, 8. 
Missing: Mar. 23, Apr. 29, Aug. 12, 17, 
Nov. 7, 9, Dec. 5, 12, 14, 10, 19, 21. 

1809. Jan. 2, 4, 6'", 9'", 20"', 25, 27, 30. 
Feb. 1, 24-, 27. 
Mar. 0, 10, 13, 15, 24, 27. 
Apr. 3, 12, 14™, 19, 21, 20, 28. 
May 1'", 3-, 5, 8, 10, 15, 19, 22, 24. 
June 2, 7, 9, 12'", 14'", 10-, 19, 21, 28. 
July 3'", 5 m , 12™, 14'", 17, 28'", 31. 
Aug. 7, 9, 11, 14, 21, 23, 25, 28. 
Sept. 0, 8"', 13, 18, 20"', 22'", 25, 29-. 
Oct. 2'", 13-, 20, 23, 30. 

Nov. 1, 3, 0, 8, 10, 13, 15, 17, 20, 22, 24, 27, 29. 
Dec. 1, 4, 0, 8, 11, 13, 15, 18, 20, 22, 25, 27, 29. 
[Extra] May 23. 
Extra: Nov. 29. 

1810. Jan. 1 to Dec. 29. 
^ Missing: Aug. 31, Nov. 9, 12, 14, 16, 19,21, 

23, 20, 28, 30, Dec. 1, 4, 0, 8, 11, 13, 15, 
18, 20, 22, 27. 

1811. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 
Mutilated: Mar. 2. 
Missing: Jan. 12. 

1812. Jan. 2 to Dec. 31. 
Extra: Nov. 4, 

Mutilated: Apr. 4, May 28, 30. 


American Antiquarian Society. 


Missing: Mar. 28, May 19, 21, June 2, 
Dec. 24, 26. 

1813. Jan. 2 to Dec. 30. 
Extra: July 3. 

Mutilated: July 3, Extra. 

Missing: Jan. 2, 5, 14, 16, 19, 28, 30, Mar. 
30, Apr. 29, June 1, 3, 5, 8, 10, 12, 15, 
17, 26, July 6, 8, 10, 20, 27, 29, Aug. 17, 

1814. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 
Extra: July 9. 

Mutilated: Sept. 20. 
Missing: Aug. 25, 27. 

1815. Jan. 3 to Dec. 30. 

Mutilated: Jan. 5, Feb. 16, Mar. 18, May 

25, Oct. 31. 
Missing: Jan. 10, 14, Feb. 11, 14, 18. 

1816. Jan. 4, 9, 11, 16, 18, 20, 25, 30. 

Feb. 1, 3, 6, 8, 10, 13, ro, 17, 24, 27, 29. 

Mar. 2, 14, 16, 21, 26. 

Apr. 4, 6, 23* 

May 21, 30. 

June 22, 25, 27, 29. 

July 2, 6, 13, 16, 18, 20, 25, 30. 

Aug. 1, 6, 10, 13, 15, 17, 20, 22, 24, 29, 31. 

Sept. 3, 5, 7, 10, 19, 26. 

Oct. 1, 17, 19, 22, 24, 29, 31. 

Nov. 2, 5, 7, 9, 12, 16, 28,30. 

Dec. 3, 7, 10, 12, 14, 17, 19, 21, 24, 28, 31. 

Supplement: Aug. 15. 

1817. Jan. 2 to Dec. 30. 

Missing: Mar. 27. 

1818. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 

Supplement: Mar. 24. 

1819. Jan. 2 to Dec. 30. 

Missing: Apr. 15, May 4, 31, Aug. 30, 
Sept. 10, 13, Oct. 2, 4, Nov. 13, Dec. 2, 4. 

1820. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 

Mutilated: Nov. 8. 

Missing: Oct. 4, Dec. 16, 23, 26, 31. 

1913.] District of Columbia. 367 

[Washington] National Intelligencer, daily, see [Washington] 
Daily National Intelligencer. 

[Washington] Spirit of Seventy Six, 1809-1811. 

Semi-weekly. A continuation, without change of num- 
bering, of the paper of this name which had been estab- 
lished at Richmond, Sept. 13, 1808. It was apparently 
removed to Washington toward the cad of 1809, as the last 
located Richmond issue is Sept. 15, 1809, vol. 2, no. 2, 
and the first located Washington issue is Jan. 16, 1810, 
vol. 2, no. 29. Published by Edward C. Stanard. Stanard 
died Dec. 8, 1810, and the issue of, Dec. 11 omits his name 
from the imprint. The issues of Dec. 14-25 continue his 
name in the imprint, but that of Dec. 28 omits it and 
states that communications should be sent to John M. 
Carter at his office in Georgetown. The issue of Feb. 20, 
1811, advertises the removal of the printing office to 
Georgetown. For further issues, see under Georgetown. 
Boston Athenaeum has Sept. 21,^1810-Feb. 1811. 
N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Jan.26-Dec. 28, 1810. Lib. Cong. 
has Apr. 6, June 12, 19, 29, July 13, Sept. 28, 1810. A.A. 
S. has: 

1810. Jan. 16. 

Mar. 2. 

May 29. 

Aug. 14. 17, 28- 

Oct. 23. 

[Washington] Universal Gazette, 1800-1814. 

Weekly. A continuation, without change of number- 
ing, of the ''Universal Gazette" of Philadelphia. The 
last issue published at Philadelphia was for Sept. 11, 1800, 
and the first at Washington was for Nov. 6, 1800, vol. 2, 
no. 149. This paper, published by Samuel Harrison 
Smith, was virtually a weekly edition of the "National 
Intelligencer," and was subject to the same editorial 
changes. With the issue of Sept. 6, 1810, the name of 
Joseph Gales, Jim., replaced that of Smith in the imprint, 
and with the issue of Nov. 6, 1812, the firm name became 
Gales & Seaton. The last issue located is that of May 13, 


368 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Harvard has Dec. 4, 1800-Dec. 31, 1801, scattered; 
Apr. 1-Oct. 21, 1802; Apr. 19, 1804. Essex Inst, has 1803- 
1804. Yale has 1802-1810, scattered. Lib. Cong, has a 
broken file, Nov. 0, 1800-Apr. 30, 1813. Wis. Hist. Soc. 
has Dec. 1805-Apr. 1806; Nov.-Dec. 1808. A. A. S. has: 
1807. Dec. 3. 

1810. Dec. 7. 

1811. Feb. 22. 
Mar. 22, 29. 
Apr. 10. 

May 3, 10, 24, 31. 
June 7, 14, 21, 28. 
July 5, 12, 26. 
Aug. 9, 15, 23, 30. 
Sept. 6, 13, 20. 
Oct. 11, 18, 25. 
Nov. 1, 8, 15,22,29. ^ 
Dec. 6, 13, 20, 27. * 

1812. Jan. 3 to Dec. 25. 

Mutilated: June 12. 

Missing: Aug. 7, Sept. 18, 25, Oct. 9. 

1813. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31, 

Missing: Mar. 26, May 21, Oct. 22, Nov. 
5, Dec. 17. 

1814. Jan. 7, 14, 21, 28. 
Feb. 4, 11, 18,25. 
Mar. 4, 11, 18, 25. 
Apr. 1,8, 15, 22, 29. 
May 6, 13. 





[St. Augustine] East Florida Gazette, 1783-1784. 

No issue of this paper has been located, but it surely 
existed and was probably published by John Wells, with 
the assistance of his brother, William Charles Wells. 
In the " Gazette of the State of Georgia," of May 8, 1783, 
there is a reference to the St. Augustine paper of Apr. 19, 
also to the "East Florida Gazette Extraordinary" of Apr. 
21. A communication to Miller's "South Carolina Ga- 
zette" of Aug. 13, 1783, denounces Dr. William Charles 
Wells for returning to Charleston "bringing in the vessel 
with him a gazette printed at Augustine under his auspices 
wherein the good people of these States are insulted." 
The same paper of Oct. 4, 1783, mentions that a sloop had 
lately left Charleston for Augustine carrying Dr. Wells 
as a passenger. The same paper of Apr. 1, 1784, says "the 
printer has received the East-Florida Gazette of the 22d 
March." William Charles Wells returned to London in 
1784 (Sabine's "Loyalists," vol. 2, p. 408). John Wells 
is known to have published at least two books at St. 
Augustine in 1784, the titles of which may be found in the 
Brinley Catalogue, no. 4346, and in Evans' "American 
Bibliography," no. 18490. 

St. Francisville, see under Louisiana. 


American Antiquarian Society. 



[Athens] Foreign Correspondent, see [Athens] Georgia Express, 

Athens Gazette, 1814-1817. 

Weekly. Established Feb. 17, 1814, by Hodge & 
M'Donnell (John Hodge and Alexander M'Donnell). 
With the issue of Nov. 9, 1815, the paper was published by 
John Hodge; with the issue of Nov. 10, 1815, by Hodge & 
Co.; and with the issue of Apr. 25, 1816, by John Hodge. 
The last issue located is that of May 8, 1817. 

Univ. of Ga., Athens, has a fair file, Feb. 17, 1814-lVfay 
8, 1817. 

[Athens] Georgia Express, 1808-1813. 

Weekly. Established May 14, 1808, judging from the 
date of the first issue located, that of Aug. G, 1808, vol. 1, 
noi 13. Published by M'Donnell & Harris (Alexander 

M'Donnell and Harris). With the issue of Mar. 

25, 1809, Alexander M'Donnell became sole publisher. 
With the issue of July 22, 1809, the title was changed to 
" Foreign Correspondent and Georgia Express." Some- 
time in 1811, the title reverted to "Georgia Express," 
and the firm of publishers became M'Donnell & Gaines 

(Alexander M'Donnell and Gaines). With the 

issue of Oct. 9, 1812, Alexander M'Donnell again assumed 
the proprietorship. The last issue located is that of July 
23, 1813. M'Donnell joined in establishing the " Athens 
Gazette," Feb. 17, 1814. 

Univ. of Ga,, Athens, has Aug. 6, 1808-Dec. 22, 1810; 
Jan. 3, 1812-July 23, 1813. A. A. S. has: 
1810. Get. 6. 

Augusta Chronicle, 1789-1820+ ■ 

Weekly, semi-weekly and tri-weekly. A continuation, 
under the nameof " Georgia. The Augusta Chronicle and 
Gazette of the State," of the "Georgia State Gazette or 
Independent Register." The first issue with the new 

1913.] Georgia. 371 

name was that of Apr. 11, 1789 (vol. 3, no. 132;. Pub- 
lished by John E. Smith. In Jan. 1804, the paper was 
taken over by Dennis Driscol and the title shortened to 
"Augusta Chronicle." Driscol died Mar. 10, 1811, and 
the paper was thenceforth published by Adams & Duyck- 
inck (George Adams and Benjamin T. Duyckinck). With 
the issue of Dec. 24, 1813, George Adams assumed the sole 
proprietorship. With the issue of Dec. 20, 181 G, the paper 
was published by Kean & Duyckinck (John E. Kean and 
Benjamin T. Duyckinck) and was changed to a semi- 
weekly. With the issue of Aug. 20, 1817, the paper was 
published by Kean, Duyckinck & Pearre (George W. S. 
Pearre) and the title was lengthened to "Augusta Chroni- 
cle and Georgia Gazette." Beginning with the issue of 
Mar. 29, 1819, the paper became a tri-we'ekly. Pearre 
sold out his interests to John M. K. Charlton, and begin- 
ning with the issue of Aug. 23, 1819, the paper was pub- 
lished by Kean, Duyckinck & Charlton. With the issue 
of Nov. 13, 1820, the title was again shortened to "Au- 
gusta Chronicle/' and the semi-weekly issue was renewed. 
Duyckinck retired, and beginning with the issue of Nov. 
17, 1820, the paper was published by Kean & Charlton. 
Continued after 1820. 

Harvard has Jan. 31, 1795-Apr. 15, 1797, scattered. 
Lib. Cong, has Apr. 11, 1789-July 14, 1792; Mar. 21-Dec. 
19, 1795; Jan. 2, 1819-Dec. 1820. Ga. Hist. Soc. has 
June 5, 1790-Aug. 30, 1800. DeRenne Lib. has 1789- 
1796, 1801-1802, 1807-1809. Ga. St. Lib. has May 31, 
1811-July 20, 1816. Univ. of Ga., Athens, has Jan. 7, 
1796-Nov. 23, 1799; June 21, 1800-Dec. 31, 1819. A. A. 
S. has: 

1792. Aug. 4. 
Nov. 17. 
Supplement: Nov. 17. 

1793. Aug. 3, 31. 
Dec. 28. 
Supplement: no. 366. 

1794. May 24. 
June 14, 21. 

372 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 



Jan. 10, 

Mar. 7. 


Dec. 1. 


Apr. 5. 


May 6. 


June 9. 

[Augusta] Columbian Centinel, 1803-1814. 

Weekly. Established in July, 1803, judging from the 
date of the first issue located, that of July 3, 1804, vol. I 
no. 49. Published by George F. Randolph. \\ ith the . 
issue of Jan. 24, 1807, the publishers became George F. 
Randolph & Co.; and with the issue of June 3, 1809, Sam- 
uel Hammond, who continued certainly as far as Aug. 10, 
1810. Subsequent publishers are indicated only by scatter- 
ing issues: Samuel Hammond & John H. Pike on Dec. 7, 
1810; Wm. Sims, Jim., for the Proprietors, from June 18 
to Aug. 19, 1811; and William Sims, Jun., for the Pro- 
prietor, Oct. 14, 1811. An advertisement, dated April, 
1814, in the "Monitor" of Washington, Ga., of May 2, 
1814, requests persons indebted "to any of the Pro- 
prietors of the Augusta Columbian Centinel Printing 
Office, prior to 2d February, 1811" to call at the office of 
the "Mirror of the Times" to settle their respective 

Long. Id. Hist. Soc. has July 3, 1804. Univ. of Ga., 

• Athens, has a fair file, Aug. 2, 180G-Sept. 12, 1807; Jan. 

7-Dec. 23, 

1809. A. A. S. has: 


Nov. 1. 


Aug. 1. 


June 25. 


Feb. 10. 


Aug. 10. 

Dec. 7. 


June 18. 

July 2, 22-, 29. 

Aug. 5, 12, 19. 

Oct. 14. 

1913.] Georgia. 373 

Augusta Gazette, 1785-1786. 

No issues of this paper have been located, but it is 
mentioned in contemporaneous newspapers. The "South 

Carolina Gazette and Public Advertiser" of Aug. 30, 1785, 
says, "A printing oflice has lately been established in the 
town of Augusta, by Mr. G. Hughes, who publishes a 
weekly paper there, and we are told, meets with very 
liberal encouragement." The same journal, of Sept. 29, 
1785, quotes from "The Augusta Gazette of September 
24th." There are other contemporaneous references to 
the paper, the last found being in the " Columbian Herald" 
of Charleston of Sept. 30, 178G, which quotes from the 
"Augusta Gazette" of Sept. 24, 178G. John E. Smith 
established the "Georgia State Gazette" at Augusta on 
Sept. 30, 1786. 

[Augusta] Georgia Advertiser, 1819. 

Tri-weekly and semi-weekly. Established March, 1819, 
by T. S. Hannon. It was issued at first three times a 
week (see proposals in "Georgian" of March 12, 1819, 
also notice of first issue in Savannah "Columbian Mu- 
seum" of Apr. 6, 1819), but after a few issues, it became 
a semi-weekly. The last issue located is that of Aug. 14, 
1819, although it is quoted in the "Columbian Museum" 
of Nov. 19, 1819. 

Lib. Cong, has May 12-Aug. 14, 1819. 

[Augusta] Georgia Gazette, 1816. 

Weekly. The only issues located are from Feb. 5 to 
Mar 11, 1816, vol. 7, nos. 381-386. The full title was 
"Georgia Gazette and General Advertiser" and the pub- 
lishers were Pearre & Groves (George W. S. Pearre and 

Groves). Judging from the volume numbering, 

the paper was apparently a continuation of the "Mirror 
of the Times," which see. Under date of Nov. 4, 1816, 
Pearre advertised for sale the plant of the "Georgia Ga- 
zette," stating that he had to leave the State soon ("Amer- 
ican Advocate" of Louisville, Ga.). 
A. A. S. has: 

1816. Feb. 5, 12, 19. 
Mar. 11. 




American Antiquarian Society. 


[Augusta] Georgia Stale Gazette, 1786-1789. 

Weekly. Established Sept. 30, 1780, by John E. Smith, 
under the name of the "Georgia Slate Gazette or Inde- 
pendent Register." It was so called to the issue of Apr. 4, 
1789, after which it was called " Georgia. The Augusta 
Chronicle and Gazette of the State 
gusta Chronicle." 

Lib. Cong, lias Oct. 21, 1786-Apr. 
Lib. has Oct. 11, 1786-Apr. 4, 1789. 

See under "Au- 
1789. DeRenne 

Augusta Herald, 1799-1820-f. 

Weekly and semi-weekly. Established July 17, 1799, 
by Randolph & Bunce (George F. Randolph and William 
J. Bunce). With the issue of Aug. 20, 1800, Randolph 
retired from the firm and the paper was conducted by 
William J. Bunce. Between*Apr. 25 and Dec. 0, 1804, 
the paper began to be published by Hobby and Bunce 
(W. J. Hobby and William J. Bunce). Beginning with 
the issue of July 29, 1817, the paper was conducted by 
William J. Bunce. In Jan. 1817, it was changed to a semi- 
weekly. Continued after 1820. Randolph & Bunce also 
issued a " Monthly Herald/' a quarto sheet of 4 pages, 
of which Univ. of Ga., Athens, has Apr. 5, May 10, 1800, 
vol. 1, nos. 1 and 2. 

Lib. Cong, has May 6, 1801; JNTov. 20, 1818; Nov. 23, 
Dec. 3, 1819. N. Y. Pub. Lit), has Nov. 10, 1802. De- 
Renne Lib. has July 24, 1799-July 9, 1800; Sept. 1, 1814- 
June 27, 1810. Univ. of Ga., Athens, has July 17, 1799- 
June 17, 1801; Oct, 7, 1801-July 7, 1802; Oct. 6, 1802- 
Apr. 25, 1801; Dec. 0, 1804-Aug. 14, 1806; Jan. 2-Dec. 

31, 1812; Jan. 19-Dec. 28, 1815; Jan. 7, 1817-De 
A. A. S. has: 
1806. Apr. 3! 
1810. Feb. 8, 15. 
Mar. 29. 
Nov. 8. 
Dee. 6. 

c. z 


1913.] Georgia. 375 

[Augusta] Mirror of the Times, 1808-1811. 

Weekly. Established by Daniel Starnes & Co., Oct. 17, 
1808, judging from the date of the first issue located, that 
of Nov. 28, 1808, vol. 1, no. 7. The Inst issue located is 
that of Dec. 3, 1810, but there is a reference to the paper 
in the "Monitor" of Washington, Ga., of May 21, 1814. 
A. A: S. has: 

1808. Nov. 28. 

1809. May 22, 29. 
June 19. 
July 3. 

1810. Dec. 3. 

[Augusta] Southern CcntincI, 1793-1799. 

Weekly. Established June 6, 1793, by A. M'Millan, 
under the title of the "Southern Centinel, and Universal 
Gazette." Beginning with the issue of Dec. 5, 1793, the 
title was changed to the "Southern Centinel and Gazette 
of the State" and the imprint to "Printed by Alexander 
M'Millan." The last number located is that of Nov. 7, 
Harvard has Feb. 5-June 4, 1795; tfan. 21, 1796-Mar. 

23, 1797, scattered. Ga. Hist. Soc. has June 6, 1793-Nov. 
7, 1799. A. A. S. has: 

1795. Oct. 1. 
Darien Gazette, 1818-1820. , 

Weekly. Established Oct. 26, 1818, judging from the 
date of the first issue located, that of Jan. 4, 1819, vol. 1, 
no. 11. The first proprietors were M'Intyre & Millen 
( — MTntyre and John Millen), but an issue for Jan. 

24, 1820, shows that it was then published by John Millen 

A. A. S. has: 

1819. Jan. 4. 

1820. Jan. 24. 
[Louisville] American Advocate, 1816. 

Weekly. Established Feb. 15, 1816, by Wheeler & 
Clarke (no.. 3 reads George W.Wheeler & James Clarke). 
The last issue located is that of Nov. 28, 1816. 

Ga. Hist. Soc. has Feb. 22-Nov. 28, 1816. 

376 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Louisville Courier, 1811-1812. 

No issue of this paper has been located, and it i.s known 
to me only through two references in the "Georgia Jour- 
nal," of Milledgeville, of Sept. 11, 1811 and Jan. 15, 1812. 
It was probably established in 1811, soon after the de- 
cease of the " Louisville Gazette." 

Louisville Gazette, 1799-1811. 

Weekly. Established early in the year 1799, judging 
by the date of the first issue located, that of May 12, 1802, 
vol. 4, no. 162. The full title was "Louisville Gazette 
and Republican Trumpet," and the publishers were Am- 
brose Day and James Hely. Issues for Dec. 21 and 28, 
1803, were published by Day & Hely for Abner Hammond. 
This partnership was dissolved, and with the issue of 
Jan. 23, 1805, the paper was published by Ambrose Day 
for Abner Hammond. Msues for Oct. 24, 180G, and May 
22, 1807, were published by Ambrose Day. In August, 
1809, George W. Wheeler is mentioned as "co-editor of 
the Louisville Gazette." The Thomas list of papers issued 
in the first part of the year 1810 (Thomas, "History 
of Printing," ed. 2, vol. 2, p. 303) mentions the "Louis- 
ville Gazette" as published by Day & Wheeler. The 
title was shortened before 1810 to "Louisville Gazette." 
An issue for May 4, 1810, was published by Ambrose Day 
& Co. Issues from Sept. 11, 1810, to Mar. 2, 1811, were 
published by Ambrose Day. " Discontinued in 1811. 
Ambrose Day advertises in the "Georgia Journal" of 
Nov. 6, 1811, that the "late editor of the Louisville Ga- 
zette" proposes to publish a paper at Eatonton, Ga., to be 
called the "Georgia Press." 

Harvard has Nov. 20, 1803-Jan. 23, 1805, scattered; 
Oct. 24, 1800; Mar. 20, 1807. A. A. S. has: 

1802. May 12. 

1803. Dec. 21, 28™. 
1807. May 15, 22. 
1810. May 4. 

Sept. 11. 
Nov. 20. 
Dec. 1, 11. 

1013.] Georgia. 377 

1811. Jan. 26. 

Feb. 2, 19. 
Mar. 2. 

[Louisville] Independent Register, 1801. 

Weekly. Established by James Smylie, July 2, 1801, 
judging from the first and only issue located, that of 
Aug. 13, 1801, vol. 1, no. 7. 
Lib. Cong, has Aug. 13, 1801. 

[Louisville] Standard, 1812. 

No issue of this paper has been located, and it is known 
to me only through a reference in the "Georgia Journal" 
of Milledgeville of Sept. 2, 1812. 

[Milledgeville] Georgia Argus, 1808-1810. 

Weekly. Established by Dennis L. Ryan in March, 
1808, judging from the date of .+}ie first issue located, that 
of July 5, 1808, vol. 1, no. 10. In the latter part of 1811, 
Nicholas Childers became the publisher and so co~ 
tinued until Jan. or Feb. 1814, when John E. Kean took 
over the paper. With the issue of May 11, 1814, Kean 
took Walter Jones into partnership and the paper was 
published by Kean & Jones. Between Nov. 8, 1814, and 
Jan. 3, 1816, the paper was taken over by Jones & High- 
tower (Walter Jones and Hightower), who dis- 
continued it with the issue of Feb. 14, v 1810, and then 
started the " Milledgeville Republican." 

Harvard has Jan. 16, 1811-Nov. 8, 1814, scattered. 
A. A. S. has: 

1808. July 5. 

1809. Apr. 25. 
Dec. 10. 

1810. Apr. 10. 
Aug. 1, 8. 

1811. June 12. 

1812. June 24. 
July 29. 
Oct. 7. 

1813. Sept. 15. 

378 American Antiquarian Society, [Oct., 

1814. May 18. 

June l m , 8. 

Aug. 10. 
1816. Jan. 3, 10, 17, 31. 

Feb. 7, 14. 

[Milledgeville] Georgia Journal, 1809-1820 -K 

Weekly. Established Oct. 31, 1809, by Seaton Grant- 
land, judging from the date of the first issue located, that 
of Dec. 12, 1809, vol. 1, no. 7. Published by Grantland 
until Oct. 30, 1811, beginning with which issue he ad- 
mitted his brother into partnership, under the firm name 
of Seaton & Fleming Grantland. Fleming Grantland 
died Jan. 28, 1819, and S. Grantland sold out to John B. 
Hines, editor of the "Reflector" and beginning with the 
issue of Feb. 23, 1819, the paper was published by John 
B. Hines. Beginning with the issue of June 29, 1819, the 
paper was published by Uamak & Hines (J. Camak and 
J. B. Hines). Continued after 1820. 

Harvard has May 29, 1811-Dec. 29, 1813, scattered. 
Lib. Cong, has Jan. 12, 1819-Dec. 26, 1820. DeRenne 
Lib. has scattering issues, 1815-1820. Emory Coll. Lib., 
Oxford, has Oct.-Dec. 1820. Macon Telegraph has 1819- 
1820. Univ. of Ga., Athens, has Jan. 2, 1810-Dec. 30, 
1812; Jan. 5, 1814-Oct. 19, 1819; Jan. 11-Dec. 26, 1820. 
A. A. S. has: 

1809. Dec. 12. 

1810. Jan. 9. 
Mar. 27. 

Apr. 3, 10", 24. 
May 1, 15, 22. 
June 5, 12, 20, 27. 
July 4, 11, 18. 
Aug. 1, 8, 15, 22, 29. 
Sept. 12, 19. 
Oct. 3, 17. 
Nov. 14. 

1811. Jan. 30. 
Feb. 6, 27. 
Mar. 6, 20. 


1913.] Georgia. 379 

Apr. 3, 17, 24. 
May 1, 8, 15. 
July 17. 
Aug. 7. 
Sept. 11, 18. 
Nov. 6. 
Dec. 25. 
1812. Jan. 15, 29. 
Feb. 12, 26. 
Mar. 11, 25. 
Apr. 8, 22, 29. 
May G, 13, 20. 
June 3, 10, 17, 24. 
July 1, 15, 29. 
Aug. 12, 19. 
Sept. 2. 
Oct. 14. 
Nov. 4. 
■ 1813. Jan. 6. 

Mar. 10, 31. 
Apr. 14. 
June 9, 16, 23. 
Aug. 4. 
Sept. 22, 29. 
Oct. 6, 13, 20 M . * 
Dec. 15. 

1814. Jan. 19, 26. 
Mar. 16, 23, 30. 
Apr. 13, 20, 27. 
June 1, 15. 
Sept. 28. 

Oct. 5. 
Nov. 9. 

1815. Jan. 3. 
May 10. 
June 7. 
Aug. 9, 16. 
Sept. 27. 
Nov. 8, 15, 22. 

380 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

1816. Jan. 1, 17, 31. 
Feb. 7, 14, 21, 28. 
Mar. 6, 20, 27. 
Apr. 3, 24. 

May 1, 8. 
June 19, 26. 
July 3. 

Aug. 14, 21-, 28. 
Sept. 4, 11, 25. 
Oct. 9, 16, 23, 30. 
Nov. 6, 27. 
Dec. 11, 25. 

1817. Jan. 14. 
Mar. 18. 
July 1. 

1819. Feb. 23. 
Aug. 3. 

[Milledgeville] Georgia Republican, 1819. 

Weekly. Established by Jones & Denison (Walter 
Jones and Henry Denison) in Sept. 1819, according to a 
reference to the initial number in the "Georgian" of 
Savannah of Sept. 21, 1819, also to the Proposals which 
promised the paper on Sept. 14, as published in the 
"Georgian" from May to Sept. 1819. Henry Denison 
died Oct. 30, 1819 (Milledgeville, "Georgia Journal"). 
The "Georgian" of Jan. 17, 1820, states, under date of 
Jan. 6, 1820, that the printing office of the "Georgia 
Republican" had been bought by S. Grantland and R. 
M. Orme, who found that the subscriptions to the "Re- 
publican" were insufficient to support it, and proposed 
to publish another paper to be called the "Recorder," 
at Milledgeville, to appear in February, 1820. No issues 

Milledgeville Intelligencer, 1806-1810. 

Weekly. Established in June 1806, judging from the 
first and only issue located, that of Nov. 22, 1808, vol. 3, 
no. 124, published by A. McMillan. An issue of June 
9, 1808, is referred to in the "Georgia Argus" of July 5, 

1913.] Georgia. 381 

1808. The paper is mentioned in Isaiah Thomas' list 
of 1810 (Hist, of Printing, eel. 2, vol.2, p. 303), as pub- 
lished by A. MacMillan. 

Wis. Hist. Soc. has Nov. 22, 1808. 

[Milledgeville] Reflector, 1817-1819. 

Weekly. Established Nov. 11, 1817, by John B. 
Hines, judging from the date of the first issue located, 
that of Jan. 6, 1818, vol. 1, no. 9. It was united with the 
"Georgia Journal" by John B. Hines, according to his 
statement in the "Georgia Journal" of Feb. 23, 1819. 
Lib. Cong, has Jan. 6, 1818. DeRenne Lib. has June 
9, 1818. A. A. S. has: 
1818. Apr. 21. 

Milledgeville Republican, 1816. 

Weekly. Established Feb. 21, 1816, by Jones & High- 
tower (Walter Jones and Hightower), judging 

from the date of the first issue located, that of Mar. 20, 
1816, vol. 1, no. 5. The last issue located is that of Mar. 
27, 1816. Jones joined in establishing the "Georgia 
Republican" in Sept. 1819. 
A. A. S. has: 

1816. Mar. 20, 27. 

[Milledgeville] Southern Recorder, 1819-1820-f-. 

Weekly. Established 1819 by R. M. Orme. Continued 
after 1820. No files seen as early as 1820. 

[Mount Zion] Missionary, 1819-1820+. 

Weekly. Established in 1819. The issue for Jan. 28, 
1820 (vol. 1, no. 36) was published by Jacob P. Norton. 
Continued after 1820. 
A.. A. S. has: 
1820. Jan. 28. 

[Savannah] American Patriot, 1812. 

Semi-weekly. Established Apr. 14, 1812, by Mitchell 
and Pratt (John S. Mitchell and Charles M. Pratt). 
Discontinued with the issue of June 5, 1812, upon which 
day Mr. Mitchell was attacked by a mob and severely 


American Antiquarian Society. 


maltreated. He issued several broadsides concerning 
the oceurrence, the last one, on June 8, 1812, stating 
that the "American Patriot" had been discontinued. 

Ga. Hist. Soc. has a complete hie, including the several 
broadsides of June, 1812. 

[Savannah] Columbian Museum, 1796-1820-f. 

Semi-weekly. Established Mar. 4, 1790, by Powers & 
Seymour (Titus Powers and Gurdon I. Seymour), under 
the name of the " Columbian Museum & Savannah Ad- 
vertiser." Powers died July 26, 1797, and beginning with 
the issue of July 28, 1797, Gurdon I. Seymour became 
sole publisher. Beginning with the issue of Dec. 12, 1797, 
the paper was published by Gurdon I. Seymour and Philip 
D. Woolhopter. They admitted Francis Stebbins to the 
firm with the issue of Mar. 12, 1802, under the firm name 
of Seymour, Woolhopter & Stebbins. Stebbins retired and 
beginning with the issue of June 16, 1804, the publishers 
were again Seymour & Woolhopter. Seymour retired and 
Philip D. Woolhopter became sole proprietor beginning 
with the issue of July 17, 1809. Beginning with the issue of 
Feb. 3, 1817, the paper was united with the " Savannah 
Gazette" under the title of the " Columbian Museum and 
Savannah Daily Gazette," published by Kappel, Crow & 
Co., and numbered vol. 1, no. 1. At first a daily and a tri- 
weekly paper for the country were published, but beginning 
with the issue of May 10, 1817, only a tri-weekly edition 
was issued, the numbering being continuous with that of 
the daily issue and the word "Daily" being omitted from 
the title. Edward Crow withdrew from the firm and begin- 
• ning with the issue of May 31, 1817, the paper was con- 
ducted by Michael J. Kappel & Co. Beginning with the 
issue of Nov. 10, 1817, the daily issue was resumed, and 
the word "Daily" restored to the title. At the same time 
the earlier numbering of the "Columbian Museum" was 
resumed, the issue for Nov. 10 being numbered vol. 22, 
no. 3420; new series, vol. 1, no. 162. The tri-weekly 
country issue was continued. From June 16 to Oct. 17, 
1818, the paper was issued as a tri-weekly and the word 
"Daily" omitted from the title^ Upon Oct. 19, 1818, the 





daily was resumed. Witli this issue, it was announced 
that the copartnership between Michael J. Kappel, Cosam 
E. Bartlet and James Mork had been dissolved by the 
death of Mork on Oct. 12, and that the paper would, be- 
ginning with Oct. 19, be published by Kappel & Bartlet. 
As in 1818, tri-weekly issues only were issued from June 1 
to Oct. 23 in 1819, and from June 3 to Nov. 4 in 1820, and 
the word " Daily" omitted from the title. Continued 
after 1820. 

Ga. Hist. Soc. has the best file from Mar. 4, 179(5, to Sept. 
14, 1812, and from Feb. 3, 1817, to 1820. Boston Pub. 
Lib. has Aug. 12, 1796-June 6, 1797, scattered. Harvard 
has a scattered file, Mar. 15, 1796-Dec. 22, 1797; June 
28, 1799-Oct. 2, 1801; Apr. 13, 1802-Sept. 21, 1803; Oct 
17, 1804; Oct. 20, 1807. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Mar. 2, 
1798-Mar. 1, 1799. Phil. Lib. Co. has Apr.-Aug. 1796. 
DeRenne Lib. has Apr. 15, 1796-Feb. 27, 1798; Jan. 26, 
1815. Emory Coll. Lib., Oxford, Ga., has 1798-1804, 
1806-1810. Savanah News office has 1803. Univ. of 
Ga., Athens, has a fair file, Aug. 13, 1802-May 16, 1804; 
Jan. 6-Dec. 22, 1814, A. A. S. has: 

1796. Aug. 5, 12, 23, 26, 30. 

Sept. 2, 9, 13, 16, 20, 23, 27, 30. 
Oct. 4, 7, 11, 14, 21, 28. 
Nov. 4, 8- 22, 25, 29. 
Dec. 6, 9, 27, 30. 
Supplement: Nov. 22. 

1797. Jan. 3, 6, 10, 13, 20, 24,31. 
Feb. 3, 7, 10, 21, 24. 
Mar. 3, 7, 14, 17. 

Apr. 4, 7 m , 21-, 28. 

May 2, 5, 9, 16, 19, 23", 30. 

June 6, 9, 13, 16™, 30. 

July 4, 11, 14-, 21", 28. 

Aug. 1, 4, 8, 19, 22, 25, 29-. 

Sept. 1, 8, 12, 19, 26, 29. 

Oct. 13, 17, 24, 27'\ 

Nov. 14. 

Dec. 1", 5-, 15, 19, 22, 26, 29. 


American Antiquarian Society. 


Extraordinary, Jan. 3, 10, 24, Apr. 21, June 6. 

Extra, Feb. 3, 10, Mar. 14. 


Jan. 5, 9 TO , 12, 23, 20. 

Feb. 2. 

Mar. 16, 20. 

Apr. 13. 

May 1, 11, 18. 

June 22. 

July 3"'. 

Aug. 14. 

Oct. 2", 12, 23. 

Nov. 13"', 20 w \ 

Dec. 18. 


Sept. 17. 


Mar. 14 m . 

June 13 m . 

Sept. 26™. 

Oct. 10. 


Oct. 15, 19 w , 22, 26, 29. 

Nov. 2, 5, 9, 12-, 16, 19, 23, 26, 30. 

Dec. 3, 7, 10, 14, 21, 24, 28, 31. 


Jan. 4 to Dec. 31. 

Extra, July 9. 

Mutilated, Jan. 11, Feb. 4, 18, Dec. 21, 24, 

28, 31. 

Missing, Feb. 1, 11, 15, Mar. 11, Apr. 29, 

May 3, 24. 


Feb. 25. 

Apr. 28. 

July 28. 


Oct. 17. 

Nov. 24. 


Feb. 22. 


June 17. 


July 2. 

Aug. 2. 

Sept. 27. 

Oct. 4, 15, 22. 

Nov. 19. 

Dec. 6. 

1913.] Georgia. 385 


Mar. 28. 


Jan. 16. 


Nov. 25. 


July 12. 


Mar. 4. 

Aug. 21. 

[Savannah] Daily Georgian, see [Savannah] Georgian. 

Savannah Daily Republican, see [Savannah] Republican. 

[Savannah] Daily Savannah Republican, see [Savannah] Repub« 

[Savannah] Federal Republican Advocate, 1807. 

Semi-weekly. Established July 27, 1807, by John Car- 
mont & Co., under the title of the " Federal Republican 
Advocate and Commercial Advertiser." The " Patriot" 
of Savannah, July 20, 1807, prints Proposals for this paper 
signed by John Carmont, also states that the first issue 
will be published on July 27. The only issue located is 
that of Sept. 21, 1807, vol. 1, no. 17. 

A. A. S. has: 
1807. Sept. 21. 

Savannah Gazette, 1817. 

Tri-weekly. Established Jan. 14, 1817, by Michael 
J. Kappel. Only eight numbers were issued, the last being 
that of Jan, 30, 1817, after which the paper was united 
with the " Columbian Museum" and published under the 
name of the "Columbian Museum and Savannah Ga- 
zette," which see. 
Ga. Hist. Soc. has Jan. 14- Jan. 30, 1817. A. A. S. has: 
1817. Jan. 14, 18. 

[Savannah] Gazette of the State of Georgia, 1783-1788. 

Weekly. Established Jan. 30, 1783, by James John- 
ston. The last issue with this title was that of Oct. 1G, 
1788 (no. 299), after which it was changed to the "Georgia 
Gazette," which see. 

Ga. Hist. Soc. has Jan. 30, 1783-Oct. 26, 178G; Jan. 4, 
1787-Oct. 16, 1788. Lib. Cong, has Feb. 27, 1783-Dec. 

386 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

23, 1784, scattered; Jan. 13, Feb. 3, Mar. 17, Aug. 11, 
18, 1785; Jan. 19, Oct. 19, Dec. 14, 1786; July 26, Sept. 
13, 1787. DeRenne Lib. has Apr. 28, 1785, Jan. 25, 1787. 
Telfair Academy, Savannah, has Mar. 20, Apr. 24, May 1, 
22, 29, June 5-July 3, July 17-Aug. 14, 1783, Jan. 29, Feb. 
19-Mar. 11, Apr. 15, June 10, 24, July 1-22, Aug. 5, Sept. 
2, 23, 1784, Tenn. St. Lib. has 1787-1788. 

[Savannah] Georgia Gazette, 1703-1776. 

Weekly. Established Apr. 7, 1703, by James Johnston. 
Suspended with the issue of Nov. 21, 1705, on account 
of the stamp-act, and not revived until May 21, 1706. 
It was then published continuously by Johnston until 
1776, when it was discontinued because of the war. The 
last number located is that of Feb. 7, 1770. 

Mass. Hist. Soc. has Apr. 7, 1703-May 23, 1770. Yale 
has May 28, June 4, July 2, 9, Sept. 3, 1700. Lib. Cong, 
has July 27, Aug. 10, 31, Sept. 7-28, Oct. 12, 1774; June 
21, Aug. 23, 30, Sept. 0, 20, 1775. Ga. Hist. Soc. has Jan. 
5, 1774-Feb. 7, 1770. A. A. S. has: 
1766. July 10. 

[Savannah] Georgia Gazette, 1788-1802. 

Weekly. A continuation of the "Gazette of the State 
of Georgia, " but without change of numbering, the first 
issue with the new name being that of Oct. 23, 1788 (no. 
300), published by James Johnston. Beginning with the 
issue of Jan. 7, 1790, the paper was published by James 
and Nicholas Johnston. It was suspended with the issue 
of Nov. 24, 1790 (no. 722), because of the great Savannah 
fire, but was revived on Sept. 2, 1797, (no. 723) by Nicho- 
las Johnston under the firm name of N. Johnston & Co. 
Nicholas Johnston died, and the issue of Oct. 21, 1802, 
has no publishers' imprint given. Beginning with the 
issue of Oct. 28, 1802, James Johnston is given as printer. 
The last issue was that of Nov. 25, 1802, upon which 
date James Johnston announced that the firm of N. 
Johnston and Co. was dissolved by the death of Nicholas 
Johnston and the poor health and advanced age of James 

1913.] Georgia. 387- 

Ga. Hist. Soc. has Oct. 23, 1788-Nov. 25, 1802. Har- 
vard has May 26-June 23, 1791; Aug. 1, 1793; Jan. 1795- 
Nov. 24, 1790; Mar. 28, 1799-Dec. 1800; Oct. 22, 1801- 
Nov. 25, 1802, scattered. Lib. Cong, lias Jan. 7, 1790- 
Dec. 29, 1791; Sept. 25, Oct. 30, Nov. 27, 1794; Feb. 14, 
21, 1799. DeRenne Lib. has Nov. 0, 1788. Savannah 
News office has 1794-1796. Univ. of Ga., Athens, has 
Jan. 19, 1798-Jan. 7, 1802. Tenn. St. Lib. has 1788-1789. 
A. A. S. has: 


June 4. 


Nov. 22. 

Dec. 20-. 


Jan. 17, 24. 

Feb. 28. 

May 16. 

July 11, 18. 

Aug. 8, 29. 

Sept. 12, 19. 

Oct. 10, 18, 24 

Nov. 14, 28. 

Dec. 26. 


Mar. 6, 20. 

May 22, 29. 


Apr. 10. 


Feb. 11. 

Oct. 13. 


Dec. 20. 


Apr. 3. 


Feb. 18". 

[Savannah] Georgia Journal, 1793-1794. 

Semi-weekly. Established Dec. 4, 1793, by James 
Carey, under the title of the "Georgia Journal: and In- 
dependent Federal Register." The last issue located is 
that of Feb. 19, 1794. 

Ga. Hist. Soc. has Dec. 4, 1793-Feb. 19, 1794. A. A. S. 
has : 

1793. Dec. 25, 28. 

388 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

[Savannah] Georgia Republican, 1802-1807. 

Weekly and semi-weekly. Established Aug. 21, 1802, 
by Lyon and Morse (James Lyon and Samuel Morse), 
under the name of the "Georgia Republican & State In- 
telligencer," changed from a weekly to a semi-weekly 
with the issue of Oct. 23, 1802. Morse died July 26, 
1805, and beginning with the issue of Aug. 2, 1805, the 
paper was published for James Lyon and the widow of 
Samuel Morse. Beginning with the issue of Jan. 3, 180G, it 
was published by Everitt and McLean (John F. Everitt 
and Norman McLean) and the title shortened to the 
"Georgia Republican." This partnership was dissolved 
and beginning with the issue of Jan. 2, 1807, the paper was 
published by John F. Everitt. On Mar. 10, 1807, the 
title was changed to the "Republican; and Savannah 
Evening Ledger," which see. 

Harvard has Oct. 16, 1802-June 13, 1803, scattered. 
Lib. Cong, has Jan. 12, 1803-Mar. 28, 1805; Jan. 2-Mar. 
6, 1807. Ga. Hist, Soc. has Dec. 15, 1802-Dec. 17, 1805, 
imperfect; Jan. 3, 1806-Mar. 6, 1807. Univ. of Ga., 
Athens, has Aug. 21, 1802-1807. A. A. S. has: 

1802. Sept. 4. 

1803. Apr. 18. 
May 23, 30. 
June 2. 
Sept. 27, 30. 
Oct. 18. 

1804. Feb. 24, 28. 
Mar. 6. 
Apr. 3. 
Oct. 5. 
Nov. 26. 

1805. Feb. 14. 
Aug. 2, 16. 
Oct. 15 m , 22. 

[Savannah] Georgian, 1818-1820-f. 

Daily and tri-weekly. Established Nov. 25, 1818, by 
J. M. Harney (John M. Harney). The first number states 

1913.] Georgia. 389 

that there is to be a daily paper and also a country paper. 
The second number states that the paper will be pub- 
lished daily during the winter and spring, and tri-weekly 
during the summer. From Dec. 24, 1818, to Feb. 15, 
1819, J. M. Harney's name is not in the imprint, and there 
is no clue to the publisher, but the name appears in later 
issues. Title changed to the "Daily Georgian" with the 
issue of Jan. 1, 1819. Issued as a tri-weekly from June 1, 

1819, to Oct. 19, 1819, and as a daily thereafter. In the 
issue of Mar. 3, 1820, the imprint is changed from " Pub- 
lished by John M. Harney" to "Edited by John M. 
Harney," and the announcement is made that the paper 
had been transferred on Apr. 19, and that N. H. Qlmstead 
would attend to the management, while Harney would 
be the editor. Continued after 1820. 

Ga. Hist. Soc. has Nov. 25, 1818-1820. Mass. Hist. Soc. 
has Apr. 5, 1820. DeRenne Lib. has Dec. 31, 1819; Aug. 
1, 1820. Univ. of Ga., Athens, has Jan. 4-June 29, 1820, 
scattered. Ala. Dept. of Archives has May 25-Nov. 25, 

1820. A. A. S. has: 
1819. Jan. 4, 6. 

[Savannah] Morning Chronicle, 1817-1818. 

Established late in the year 1817. An advertisement 
in the "Columbian Museum" of July 12, 1817, states 
that the "Morning Chronicle" will be published daily 
from Nov. 1 to June 1, and tri-weekly from June 1 to Oct. 
31, also that publication will start as soon as printing 
materials arrive. The only issue located is that of May 8, 
1818, no. 156, published by Samuel Ker, and stating that 
the paper is published daily during the winter and spring 
months, and tri-weekly during the summer months. It 
was probably discontinued before the close of 1818, as the 
"Georgian" was established as a daily on Nov. 25, 1818. 
A. A. S. has: 
1818. May 8. 

[Savannah! Patriot, see [Savannah] Southern Patriot. 

390 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

[Savannah] Public Intelligencer, 1807-1809. 

Tri-weekly and semi-weekly. Established Apr. 7, 1807, 
by Norman M'Lean and William E. Barnes, as a tri- 
weekly. It was changed to a semi-weekly with the issue 
of June 23, 1807. Barnes retired from the firm, and begin- 
ning with the issue of Oct. 20, 1807, the paper was con- 
ducted by Norman M'Lean. It was discontinued with 
the issue of Feb. 3, 1809. 

Harvard has Apr. 9-Nov. 10, 1807, scattered. Ga. Hist. 
Soc. has Aug. 14, 1807-Feb. 3, 1809. A. A. S. has: 

1807. Apr. 18, 21, 23, 25'". 
May 7, 9, 12* 21-, 30. 
June 2, 4, 6, 16, 20, 30. 
July 7, 14, 24, 28. 
Aug. 7, 11,21. 

Sept. 8. 
Nov. 27. 

1808. Mar. 15, 22, 26. 
July 12, 22, 29. 
Aug. 23. 
Sept. 2, 9, 27. 
Oct. 7, 18. 

[Savannah] Republican, 1807-1820+. 

Tri-weekly. A continuation, but without change of 
numbering, of the " Georgia Republican. " The first issue 
with the new name of the "Republican and Savannah 
Evening Ledger" was that of Mar. 10, 1807 (vol. 5, no. 
20). Published by John F. Everitt, but beginning with 
the issue of May 28, 1807, by Everitt & Evans (John F. 
Everitt and John J. Evans) ; and beginning with the issue 
of June 28, 1810, by John J. Evans. Evans died on Jan. 
15, 1813, and beginning with the issue of Jan. 23, 1813, 
the imprint read "Published for John J. Evans." On 
Mar. 4, 1813, Allen M'Lean and Mary Evans advertise to 
have his accounts settled, and with the issue of Mar. 9, 
1813, the paper was purchased and published by Fred- 
erick S. Fell. With the issue of June 18, 1816, the name 
was shortened to "Savannah Republican." Beginning 


1913.] Georgia. 391 

with the issue of Mar. 11, 1817, Fell took Archibald C. 
M'Intyre into partnership, publishing under the name 
of Frederick S. Fell & Co. Beginning with the issue of 
Oct. 13, 1817, the paper was issued as a daily and the 
name changed to " Daily Savannah Republican," the 
numbering being continuous. A tri-weekly edition for 
the country was also issued. From June 24 to Oct. 15 
1818, the regular tri-weekly replaced the daily, the title 
reverting with the issue of June 24 to " Savannah Repub- 
lican." Beginning with the issue of June 24, 1818, the 
partnership between Fell and M' In tyre was dissolved, 
and the paper published by Frederick S. Fell. With the 
issue of Oct. 16, 1818, the daily issue was resumed, the 
title changing to "Savannah Daily Republican." From 
July 8 to Oct. 16, 1819, and from June 13 to Nov. 4, 1820, 
the regular tri-weekly replaced the daily, the title changing 
to " Savannah Republican." Upon Oct. 19, 1819, and 
Nov. 6, 1820, the daily issues were resumed, the title 
changing to " Savannah Daily Republican." Con- 
tinued after 1820. 

Harvard has Mar. 19-Dec. 15, 1807, scattered. Essex 
Inst, has 1808. Lib. Cong, has 1807-1812, 1814-1820. 
Ga. Hist. Soc. has Mar. 14, 1807-Mar. 4, 1813. DeRenne 
Lib. has Oct. 14, 1813; Jan. 21, Feb. 28, 1815. Univ. of 
Ga., Athens, has 1807-1815, 1817-1820. A. A. S. has: 

1807. Mar. 21, 24, 26, 28, 31. 

Apr. 2, 4, 7, 9, 11, 14, 16,25,28. 

May 7, 9, 12, 14, 19, 21, 23, 30. 

June 6, 9, 11, 16, 18, 20, 23, 25, 27, 30. 

July 2, 4, 7, 9, 11, 14, 16, 18, 21, 25, 28, 30. 

Aug. 1, 4, 6, 8, il, 13, 15, 18, 20, 22, 25, 27. 

Sept. 3, 5, 10, 12, 15. 

Oct. 10, 27-. 

Dec. 12, 17, 24. 

Supplement: July 11. 

1808. Mar. 10, 15, 17, 22, 24, 26, 29. 
Apr. 2, 5. 

June 7, 23. 
July 5, 19, 28. 

392 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Aug. 11, 20. 

• ' 

Sept. 22, 24™, 


Oct. 8, 13 m , 18 

20, 22, 25, 27-. 

Nov. 5 W , 8, 10, 

12, 15-, 17, 19, 26. 

Dec. 1, 8. 


Feb. 23, 25. 


Apr. 28. 
May 29. 

Dec. 4. 


Oct. 9, 16. 


Jan. 22". 


June 29. 
Aug. 29. 


Aug. 3, 8. 
Sept. 3, 19. 


Apr. 15. 


May 7. 

Sept.* 1. 


May 27. 
July 6 m . 

[Savannah] Royal Georgia Gazette, 1779-1782. 

Weekly. Established Jan. 21, 1779, by John Daniel 
Hammerer, judging from the date of the first issue located, 
that of Feb. 11, 1779, no. 4. Between Mar. 11, 1779, and 
Jan. 4, 1781, the paper was taken over by James Johnston. 
The last issue located is that of June 6, 1782. The paper 
was evidently discontinued during this year, as Johnston 
revived the "Gazette of the State of Georgia" in Jan. 

N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Jan. 4-Dec. 27, 1781, wanting only 
Dec. 13, 20. Lib. Cong, has Feb. 11, Mar. 11, 1779; Jan. 
3, 24, Mar. 14, 21, Apr. 25, May 23, 30, June 6, 1782. 

[Savannah] Southern Patriot, 1805. 

Semi-weekly. Established Nov. 10, 1804, by James 
Hely. Hely sold the paper to John Dougherty, who 
began publishing it with the issue of Oct. 2, 1806. Title 
changed to the "Patriot and Commercial Advertiser" 
with the issue of Oct. 27, 1806. Dougherty admitted 

1913.] Georgia. 393 

John Carmoixt to partnership and beginning with the 
issue of Jan. 15, 1807, the paper was published by Dough- 
erty and Carmont. Discontinued with the issue of July 
20, 1807. 

Harvard has Nov. 14, 1804-July 14, 1806, scattered. 
Ga. Hist. Soc. has Jan. 28, Feb. 27, July 21, 1806; Aug. 
4, 1806-July 20, 1807. 

[Sparta] Farmer's Gazette, 1803-1807. 

Weekly. Established June 3, 1803, by Day & Ryan 

( Day and Dennis L. Ryan). The partnership was 

dissolved and Dennis L. Ryan succeeded to the sole 
ownership on Sept. 16, 1803. The last issue located is 
that of Aug. 29, 1807. Probably discontinued soon after- 
ward, as Ryan commenced publishing the " Georgia 
Argus" at Milledgeville in March, 1808. 

Harvard has June 3, 1803-Nov. 2, 1806, scattered; 
May 2, 1807. Univ. of Ga., Athens, has Aug. 16, 1806- 
Aug. 29, 1807, fair file. A. A. S. has: 













7, 14". 



[Washington] Friend and Monitor, 1815. 

Weekly. Established Jan. 13, 1815, by John K. M. 
Charlton, who had bought the " Monitor" from David P. 
Hillhouse and consolidated it with the "Friend" (pre- 
sumably a paper which he had proposed issuing). The 
issue for Jan. 13, vol. 1, no. 1, is dated 1814 instead of 
1815, but the error was corrected in the next issue. The 
last issue located is that of Dec. 22, 1815. Charlton es- 
tablished the "News" at Washington on Jan. 19, 1816. 
Ga. Hist. Soc. has Jan. 13-Dec. 22, 1815. 

[Washington] Monitor, 1801-1815. 

Weekly. Established Feb. 1801, judging from the date 
of the first issue located, that of Sept. 28, 1805, vol. 5, 


394 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

no. 240. Several Georgia writers state that this paper 
was a continuation of the "Washington Gazette," which 
it is asserted was established by Alexander M'Millan in 
1800, but I have located no issue of the " Washington 
Gazette." The " Monitor" was at first published by 
David Hillhouse. He died in 1804, and the paper was 
thenceforth published "for Sarah Hillhouse." In 1811 
or 1812, her son, David P. Hillhouse, assumed proprietor- 
ship of the paper and published it until the issue of Jan. 
6, 1815, when he sold out to John K. M. Charlton. See 
under "Friend and Monitor." 

Harvard has Sept. 28, 1805. Ct. Hist. Soc. has Apr. 20, 
1811. Yale has July 29, 1809. Ga. Hist. Soc. has Dec. 
30, 1809-Dee. 8, 1810; Jan. 9-Dec. 25, 1813; Jan. 6, 1815, 
extra. A. A. S. has: 
1810. June 30. 

Aug. 4. 

Dec. 8, 15. 
181-1. Jan. 26. 

Feb. 23™ 

Mar. 2. 

Apr. 13. 

1813. Apr. 3. 
Oct. 9. 

1814. Mar. 5. 
May 21". 
July 2. 
Aug. 6. 

[Washington] News, 181 6-1820+ . 

Weekly. Established Jan. 19, 1816, by John K. M. 
Charlton, judging from the date of the first issue located, 
that of Feb. 23, 1816, vol. 1, no. 6. Continued after 1820. 
A. A. S. has: 

1816. Feb. 23. 

1817. Apr. 4. 
1819. Apr. 9. 



1913.] Illinois. 395 


Edwardsville Spectator, 1819-1820+ . 

Weekly. Established May 29, 1819, by Hooper Warren. 
Continued after 1820. 

Lib. Cong, has May 29, 1819-Dec. 26, 1820. St. Louis 
Merc. Lib. has May 29, 1819-Dec. 26, 1820. Chicago 
Hist. Soc. has Apr.-Dec. 1820. 

[Kaskaskia] Illinois Herald, 1814. 

Weekly. Established in the spring of 1814. The only 
copy located is that of Dec. 13, 1814, vol. I, no. 30, pub- 
lished by Matthew Duncan (In Illinois St. Hist. Lib'y.) 

[Kaskaskia] Illinois Intelligencer, 1818-1820. 

Weekly. A continuation of the "Western Intelli- 
gencer/' without change of numbering, the first issue 
with the new name being that of May 27, 1818, new 
series, vol. 1, no. 39, old series, vol. 2. Published by 
Blackweli & Berry (Robert Blackwell and Elijah C. 
Berry). Beginning with the third volume, Sept. 1818, 
the new series of numbering was dropped. The issue for 
Oct. 14, 1820, vol. 5, no. 6, announced that this was the 
last number published at Kaskaskia, and that the next 
number would be published at Vandalia. See under 

St. Louis Merc. Lib. has May 27, 1818-May 12, 1819. 
Lib. Cong, has a scattered file, Jan. 13, 1819-Oct. 14, 1820. 
Chicago Hist. Soc. has June 16, July 21, 28, 1819. A. A. 
S. has: 

1818. July 1. 

[Kaskaskia] Western Intelligencer, 1816-1818. 

Weekly. Established Apr. 24, 1816, judging from the 
date of the first known issue, that of May 15, 1816, vol. 
1, no. 4. Published by Dan'l P. Cook & Co. With the 
issue of May 29, 1810, Robert Blackwell was admitted to 



American Antiquarian Society. 


partnership, and the paper was published by Cook & 
Blackwell. The issue for Sept. 10, 1817, is numbered 
"new series, no. 2, vol. 1," and is published by Berry & 
Cook (Elijah C. Berry and Daniel P. Cook) showing that 
on Sept. 3, 1817, the new firm had signalized their part- 
nership with a new numbering. With the issue of Oct. 23, 
1817, the publishers again changed, this time to Berry and 
Blackwell, which with the issue of Feb. 4, 1818, was trans- 
posed to Blackwell and Berry. The last issue with the 
name of " Western Intelligencer" was on May 20, 1818, 
new series, vol. 1, no. 38, old series, vol. 2, after which the 
name was changed to the "Illinois Intelligencer, ,, which 

St. Louis Mercantile Library has May 15, 1816-May 
20, 1818, with only a few numbers missing. A. A. S. has: 
1818. Apr. 29. 

[Shawneetown] Illinois Emigrant, 1818-1819. 

Weekly. Established June 13, 1818, judging from the 
date of the first issue located, that of Oct. 18, 1818, vol. 1, 
no. 19. Published by Eddy & Kimmel (Henry Eddy and 
A. W. Kimmel). No issues were published between June 
23 and Aug. 24, 1819, because of lack of paper. The last 
issue with this name was that of Sept. 18, 1819, vol. 1, 
no. 54, after which it was changed to "Illinois Gazette," 
which see. 

It has been frequently stated in Illinois histories that 
this paper was at first called the "Shawnee Chief," but no 
paper of this name is known, nor is there any evidence 
that such a paper existed. Mr. Frank W. Scott writes me 
under date of Jan. 10, 1914: "My search has convinced 
me that there never was a 'Shawnee Chief,' because as 
early as June 8, 1818, an agent wrote a letter to the editor 
of the 'Emigrant/ saying: 'I received your first number 
and the terms of subscription.' A similar letter from 
another correspondent is dated July 17, 1818. These 
letters clearly refer to a preliminary number of the paper 
used as a prospectus to be placed in the hands of agents 
who were to solicit subscriptions. This also shows that 

1913.] . Illinois. 397 

the ' Illinois Emigrant' was not merely a new title for an 
old paper, but a new title for a new paper. It was pro- 
jected as early as May, 1818, because the letter of June 8 
includes a long list of subscribers secured at various 

Lib. Cong, has Jan. 9, 1819-Sept. 18, 1819. A. A. S. has: 

1818. Oct. 17. 
Dec. 26. 

1819. Mar. 6. 

[Shawneetown] Illinois Gazette, 1819-1820-f-. 

Weekly. A continuation of the "Illinois Emigrant," 
without change of numbering, the first issue with the new 
name being that of Sept. 25, 1819, vol. 2, no. 1. The paper 
was published by Eddy & Kimmel (Henry Eddy and A. W. 
Kimmel), until Kimmel sold his interests to James Hall, 
and beginning with the issue of May 27, 1820, it was pub- 
lished by Hall & Eddy. Continued after 1820. 

Lib. Cong, has Sept. 25, 1819-Dec. 2, 1820. 

[Vandalia] Illinois Intelligencer, 1820+. 

Weekly. A continuation, without change of numbering, 
of the "Illinois Intelligencer" published at Kaskaskia, 
the first number published at Vandalia being that of Dec. 
14, 1820, vol. 5, no. 7. Published by Blackwell & Berry, 
(Robert Blackwell and William Berry, who had displaced 
his brother Elijah C. Berry upon the removal of the paper 
to Vandalia). With the issue of Dec. 23, 1820, the paper 
was published by Brown & Berry, Robert Blackwell hav- 
ing sold his interests to William H. Brown. Continued 
after 1820. 

Lib. Cong, has Dec. 14 and 23, 1820, and subsequent 
issues after 1820. 

398 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 


Brookville Enquirer, 1819-1820+ . 

Weekly. Established Feb. 5, 1819, by John Scott and 
Co., under the title of the " Brookville Enquirer and In- 
diana Telegraph." The prospectus in the first issue stated 
that since the publication of the "Plain Dealer" had 
ceased by the dissolution of the copartnership of its late 
proprietors, the subscriber proposed publishing a new 
paper; signed by [Miles] C. Eggleston, D. J. Caswell, 
William C. Drew and John Scott. This firm was dissolved, 
for beginning with the issue of Oct. 1, 1819, the paper was 
published by B. F. Morris & Co. (Bethuel F. Morris, D. J. 
Caswell and William C. Drew). With the issue of Mar. 2, 
1820, the title was shortened to "Brookville Enquirer." 

Lib. Cong, has Feb. 5, 1819-Dec. 26, 1820+, with only 
a few issues missing. 

[Brookville] Plain Dealer, 1816-1818. 

Weekly. Established Oct. 22, 1816, judging from the 
date of the first issue located, that of Nov. 5, 1816, vol. 1, 
no. 3. Printed by Benjamin Ogle, Jr., for B. F. Morris. 
Continued probably to 1818, as there is a reference to 
a paper at Brookville in the "Savannah Gazette" of 
Feb. 9, 1818. 
A. A. S. has: 

1816. Nov. 5, 12. 

[Charlestown] Indiana Intelligencer, 1818-1820+ . 

Essex Inst, has July 27, 1820, vol. 3, no. 110, pub- 
lished by Lingan & Dunkin. 

[Corydon] Indiana Gazette, 1816-1820+ . 

Weekly. Established in Nov. 1816, judging from the 
date of the first issue located, that of June 21, 1817, vol. 
1, no. 30. Published by Brandon & Lodge (Armstrong 
Brandon and John Lodge). Sometime between this date 
and Jan. 9, 1819, the firm name had become A. & J. Bran- 
don (Armstrong and Jesse Brandon). Beginning with 

1913.] Indiana. 399 

the issue of July 3, 1819, this firm became Brandon & 
M'Cullough, Randall M'Cullough having purchased an 
interest. M'Cullough retired from the firm, and begin- 
ning with July 0, 1820, the paper was published by Bran- 
don, & Co. Continued after 1820. 

Lib. Cong, has Jan. 9, 1819-Dec. 28, 1820+ . A. A. S. 

1817. June 21. 
[Corydon] Indiana Herald, 1816-1818. 

Weekly. Established in 1816, or possibly 1815, by 

Cox & Nelson ( Cox and Reuben E. Nelson). The 

paper is quoted in the Ind. House Journal of 1816, p. 56; 
the "Indiana Centinel" of Mar. 28, 1817; the ''Indiana 
Republican" of Sept. 16, 1817; the Savannah ''Repub- 
lican" of May 7, 1818; and the "Western Sun" of May 
30, 1818. 
[Jeffersonville] Indianian, 1818-1820. 

Weekly. Established in Oct. 1818, judging from the 
date of the first issue located, that of Nov. 13, 1819, vol. 2, 
no. 3. This issue was published by R. W. Nelson, who 
continued as proprietor as far as the last issue located, 
that of June 8, 1820. 

Ohio St. Lib. has Nov. 13, 1819-June 8, 1820, scattered. 
[Lawrenceburg] Dearborn Gazette, 1817-1820+ . 

Weekly. Established by B. (?) Brown, with Steele 
Simpson as his printer. The " Indiana Republican" has 
a reference to it. The record of a court martial by A. A. 
Meek was published in it in 1819. The Vincennes "Cen- 
tinel," Sept. 11, 1819, said that it was dead "again," 
and that the "Indiana Oracle" had taken its place. It 
seems, however, to have run until 1813, and joined the 
"Oracle." (Letter from Logan Esarey to editor.) 

[Lawrenceburg] Indiana Oracle, 1819-1820+ . 

Weekly. Established by Isaac Dunn and — 

Russell. No copies located. 

[Madison] Cornucopia? of the West, 1815-1816. 

Presumably established in 1815, succeeding the "West- 
ern Eagle." There is a reference to the paper in the 

400 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

"Western Sun" of July 20, 1816. The "Indiana Regis- 
ter" of Vevay, of Sept. 30, 1816, says, "D. T. Madox, 
editor of the late Cornucopias of the West, is a candidate 
for the senatorial clerkship." 

[Madison] Indiana Republican, 1816-1820+ . 

Weekly. Established Dec. 6, 1816, by Samuel Pelhani. 
In about a year Pelham sold out to John Lodge. 
There is a reference to this paper in the " Indiana Cen- 
tinel" of Mar. 21, 1817. An issue of July 26, 1817, was 
owned in private hands a few years ago (Ind. Mag. Hist., 
vol. 2, p. 108). The Ind. St. Lib. has an issue of Aug. 9, 
1821, numbered* vol. 5. 

[Madison] Western Eagle, 1813-1814. 

Weekly. Established June 4, 1813, judging from the 
date of the first issue located, that of Aug. 6, 1813, vol. 1, 
no. 10. Published by S. M. Levenworth and W. Hen- 
dricks (Seth M. Levenworth and William Hendricks.). 
This partnership was dissolved and beginning with the 
issue of Sept. 10, 1813, the paper was published by Hen- 
dricks & Camron (William Hendricks and Cam- 

ron). Hendricks resigned as editor in favor of Jacob 
Rhoads, and the paper was published by Rhoads & Cam- 
ron beginning with the issue of Apr. 8, 1814. This is the 
last issue located. 
A. A. S. has: 
1813.' Aug. 6. 

Sept. 10, 24. 
Oct. 1, 8'", 15, 22, 29. 
Nov. 5. 

Dec. 3, 17, 24, 31. 
1814. Jan. 14. 

Feb. 4, 11, 18,25. 
Mar. 18. 
Apr. 1, 8. 

[Salem] Tocsin, 1818-1819. 

Weekly. Established by Patrick and Booth (Ebenezer 
Patrick and Beebe Booth), on Mar. 17, 1818, judging 
from the date of the first issue located, that of Mar. 31, 

1913.] Indiana. 401 

1818, vol. 1, no. 3. The issue of July 5, 1819, the last 
located, was published by Ebenezer Patrick. There is a 
reference to the paper in the ''Illinois Emigrant" of Oct. 
A. A. S. has: 

1818. Mar. 31. 
May 5. 

1819. July 5. 

Vevay Examiner, 1819. 

There are references to a paper of this name in the 
" Indiana Republican" of July 10, 1819, and in the " West- 
ern Sun" in Sept. and Oct., 1819. 

[Vevay] Indiana Register, 1816-1817. 

Weekly. Established by William C. Keen on June 17, 
1816, judging from the date of the first issue located, that 
of July 8, 1816, vol. 1, no. 4. It was probably discon- 
tinued within two or three years, but was revived in 1824, 
by the same publisher, judging from an issue of Jan. 30, 
1824, vol. 1, no. 3. 

Lib. Cong, has July 8, 1816. A. A. S. has: 

1816. Sept. 16, 30. 

1817. Nov. 25. 

[Vincennes] Indiana Centinel, 1817-1820-+-. 

Weekly. Established Mar. 14,' 1817, by Samuel Dill- 
worth and Charles Keemle. Between Apr. 25, 1817, and 
July 3, 1819, the paper was given up by these publishers 
and published by N. Blackmail for Willis Fellows. Be- 
tween Aug. 21 and Dec. 11, 1819, Fellows retired and the 
paper was published by N. Blackmail (Nathan Black- 
man). Beginning with the issue of Apr. 15, 1820, the title 
was changed to "Indiana Centinel & Public Advertiser," 
although the issues of Aug. 19 and Sept. 2, 1820, were 
much reduced in size because of scarcity of paper and 
were titled "Indiana Centinel." With the issue of Dec. 2, 
1820, the paper was published by N. Blackmail, but also 
had in the imprint "W. H. Johnston, Printer." Con- 
tinued after 1820. 

402 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Lib. Cong, has Dec. 11, 1819-Dec. 30, 1820. Ind. St 
Lib. has May 22, 1819-1820. A. A. S. has: 
1817. Mar. 14, 21, 28. 
Apr. 4, 18, 25. 

1819. July 3. 
Aug. 21 m . 

1820. Jan. 1, 15, 22, 29. 
Feb. 5, 12, 26. 
Mar. 4. 

Apr. 8. 
June 24. 
Dec. 30. 

[Vincennes] Indiana Gazette, 1804-1806. 

Weekly. Established July 31, 1804, by E. Stout (Elihu 
Stout). The date of the first issue of this paper has gen- 
erally been conjectured as July 4, 1804, but the issue of 
Aug. 7, 1804, vol. 1, no. 2, gives every indication that 
the first issue was on July 31, 1804. The printing office 
was burned out in about two years, and the paper was 
succeeded by the " Western Sun." The last issue located 
is that of Apr. 12, 1806, vol. 2, no. 20, owned by H. S. 
Cauthorn, Jr., and reproduced in the Centennial Edition 
of the " Western Sun," July 4, 1904. 

Harvard has Aug. 7-21, Sept. 11-Oct. 2, Oct. 16-23, 
1804. A. A. S. has: 

1804. Aug. 7, 14, 21, 28. 
Oct. 23. 

1805. Aug. 7, 14. 

[Vincennes] Western Sun, 1807-1820+ . . 

Weekly. Established July 11, 1807, by E. Stout (Elihu 
Stout). With the issue of Aug. 1, 1807, the publishers 
became Elihu Stout and George C. Snioot, and with the 
issue of Nov. 17, 1807, Stout & Jennings (Elihu Stout and 

Jennings). Stout resumed sole proprietorship 

with the issue of Dec. 23, 1807. The title was changed to 
" Western Sun & General Advertiser" with the issue of 
Dec. 6, 1817. Beginning with the issue of Oct. 2, 1819, 
the paper was published by Stout & Osborn (Elihu Stout 

1913.] Indiana. 403 

and John W. Osborn), but with the issue of Oct. 7, 1820, 
Osborn retired and it was henceforth published by Elihu 
Stout. Continued after 1820. 

Ind. St. Lib. has a good file from July 11, 1807, to after 
1820. Lib. Cong, has Jan. 23, May 6, 13, 27, June 3, 10, 
July 1, 8, 15, Aug. 5, 12, 19, Sept. 2, Dec. 16, 30, 1809; 
Dec. 9, 1812; Jan. 2, 1819-Dec. 23, 1820. A. A. S. has: 

1809. May 13. 

1810. July 21. 
Aug. 4. 


American Antiquarian Society. 


Acasta, 52. 

Adams, Charles Francis, Corres- 
pondence of John Q. Adams, 
1811-1814, edited by, 110-169; 
Secretary for Domestic Corres- 
pondence", re-elected, 173. 

Adams, John, letters from J. Q. 
Adams, 117, 121-125, 142. 

Adams, Mrs. John, letters to J. Q. 
Adams, 111, 133, 145; letters to, 
from J. Q. Adams, 119, 123, 125, 
131, 134, 143, 146, 156-169. 

Adams, John Quincy, Correspon- 
dence of, 1811-1814, while min- 
ister to Russia, 110-169; on 
embargo, 113, 114; on wars of 
1812, 117-169; conversation with 
Mde. de Stael, 126; on Moscow 
campaign, 132; on press-gang, 
144, 162; on Gen. Moreau, 159; on 
Napoleon, 168; on Alexander, 169. 

Adams, Thomas B., Ill; letters 
from J. Q. Adams, 112-121, 129, 
139, 147, 152, 155, 166. 

Alabama, newspapers of, 219. 

Alden, Ebenezer, Fund, 192. 

Alder, (formerly La Clarisse), 39, 
45-47; captured by Yankee, 33, 
60, 61; accident to, 33, 34; pirate's 
flag, 35. 

Alexander I, Emperor of Russia, 
coalition against France, 110, 122, 
125, 148-155, 158-160, 165-169. 

Alexandria, Va., arrival of French 
emigrants, 227, 230, 232, 233, 

Alexandria Gazette, file acquired, 
180, 202-204. 

Alfred, 28, 29. 

Allen, Amos A., 23. 

Allen, Anson A., 32. 

Allen, Charles, 186. 

Allen, Ethan, 242. 

Allen, Miss Katharine, legacy to 
Society, 186. 

Almanacs, important accessions, 

Amazon, 54. 

Amelia, 43.. 

American Antiquarian Society, 
members at meetings, 1, 171; 
success of Centennial celebration, 
3; land purchased, 5; members, 
death of, 7, 210; members, and 
oflicers, elected, 172; pottery, rare 
collection, given, 171, 178, 213, 
and cases for preservation, 179, 
214; temperature of stack, im- 
proved, and dome, treated, 176; 
Bulletins issued, 177, 178; Craigie 
Mas., 222, 224. 

American Horse, Indian chief, say- 
ing of, 64, 72. 

Ames, Fisher, 222. 

Andalusia, captured by Yankee, 
36-39, 47, 60, 61. 

Anderson, Joseph, gift, 196. 

Andrews, Zep., 49. 

Angell, James, 21, 23, 25-27, 30, 32 

Angell, James B., gift, 196. 

Annabona, see Annobon. 

Annobon, Island of, 42, 46, 47, 62. 

Anthony, James, 49. 

Anthony, Joseph, 28, 49. 

Antonia, Francis, 54. 

Antonia de Santa Rosa de Lima, 43. 

Apollonia, 41. 

Appanoose, Indian chief, saying of, 

Arapaho Indians, legend of, 86; 
song, speech, prayer, 90, 91. 

Argus, 22. 

Ariadne, 22. 

Arkansas, newspapers of, 253. 

Ascension Island, 48, 49, 51, 62. 

Ashhurst, Henry, 241. 

Atwood, Preserved, 29. 

Auchmuty, Samuel, 245. 

Augustus, 56, 57. 

Avery, Samuel, 246. 


Bainbridge, William, 146, 162. 

Buker, Lemuel, 30. 

Balance, (formerly Sharinon), 




Balch, Thomas Willing, gift, 196. 

Baldwin, Simeon E., 175. . 

Bancroft, Hubert H., gift, 196. 

Barlow, Joel, 222, 232, 234-236; 
Scioto Co. agent to Europe, 227, 
and profit, 228. 

Barton, Samuel, 16, 17, 55. 

Barton, Seth, 21, 33, 36, 37, 41, 52, 
53, 62. 

Baxter, James Phinney, Secretary 
for Foreign Correspondence, re- 
elected, 173. 

Bayard, James. A., commissioner 
to Russia, 158-165. 

Bayard, William, 243. 

Beach, Abijah, 245. 

Beach, Abraham, 242, 245. 

Beach, Sarah, will of, 244. . 

Beach, William, will of, 244 

Beck man, G. G., 245. 

Belknap, Jeremy, 242, 243. 

Benjamin, Col., 245. 

Big Elk, see Ongpatonga. 

Billings, John S., death announced, 
7; obituary of, 9. 

Bingham, Hiram, gifts, 196. 

Bixby, William K., gift, 196. 

Blackfoot Indians, legends of, 79, 
80, 86. 

Black Hawk, Indian chief, sayings 
of, 64, 72. 

Black Thunder, see Mackatana- 

Blake, Francis, death announced, 
7; obituary of, 10. 

Blakeslee, George H., New Basis 
Needed for the Monroe Doctrine, 

Bolton, Herbert E., member, elec- 
ted, 172. 

Bookbinding Fund, 192. 

Boston Harbor, Christian Remick's 
view of, 197. 

Bowen, Clarence W., Committee to 
nominate officers, 172; Council- 
lor, re-elected, 173. 

Boyden, W. Thane, certificate as 
accountant, 195. 

Boynton, Samuel, 24-27, 32. 

Brant, Joseph, Indian chief, sayings 
of, 164. 

Brazil, 62. 

Bridgetown, Barbados, library, 183. 

Briggs, John, 21, 23, 25-27, 30, 32. 

Brigham, Clarence S., Bulletins is- 
sued, 177, 178; Librarian's Re- 
port, with list of donors, 196-221; 
Bibliography of American news- 
papers, 247-403. 

Brissot de Warville, Jean P., 222, 
230, 231; American investments, 

Bristol, R. I., 55, 58; founded, 12; 
commerce, 12. 

Browne, C, 244. 

Browne, Charles F., pseud. Arte- 
mas Ward, article of, read by 
Lincoln before Cabinet, 102-104. 

Browne, Daniel, 245. 

Browne, William, 243, 244. 

Bruce, George A., 16. 

Bryce, James, on American humor, 

Bullock, A. George, Treasurer, re- 
elected, 173; report, 190-195. 

Burgas, Miguel, 25. 

Burton, Clarence M., gift, 197. 

Burton, D., 243. 

Burton, John, 242. 

But man, Joseph, 32. 

Byruni, Ebenezer, 23. 

Caddo Indians, legend of, 83. 

Cameron, Simon, 101. 

Canonicus, Indian chief, saying of, 

Canterbury, George A., Arcfibp. of, 
correspondence with S Johnson, 
240, 242. 

Cape Lahou, 40. 

Cape Mount, 35, 36. 

Cape Palmas, 39, 40. 

Cape St. Augustine, 51. 

Cape Verde Islands, 27-31, 47, 60, 

Carlyle, Thomas, on Civil War, 97. 

Carnegie, Andrew, gifts of libraries, 
183, 184. 

Carr, Mr., 38. 

Carter, John, 38, 40, 42, 43, 45, 46, 

Catlin, George, 67, 73. 

Centennial Fund, 192; gifts to, 186, 

Chamberlain, Alexander F., Wis- 
dom of the North American In- 
dian in Speech and Legend, 63- 
96; Committee to nominate offi- 
cers. 172. 

Chandler, George, Fund, 192, 205. 

Chandler, Thomas B., 242, 213. 

Chapman, George, 243. 

Charles XII, of Sweden, 137. 

Chauncey, Isaac, 16-4. 

Cherokee Indians, legend of, 85; 
birth incantation, 94. 

Chesapeake, 155, 157. 



American Antiquarian Society. 

Chesapeake Bay, blockade of, 5G, 
139, 140. 

Chester, John, 242. 

Chew, Joseph, 241, 243. 

Child, William, 38. 

Churchill, Benjamin K., 18, 19. 

Claviere, Stephen, 230. 

Clay, Henry, 10G, 107. 

Clinton, De Witt, 137. 

Club of Odd Volumes, gift, 197. 

Cockroach, CulTee, 17, 18. 

Coit, Richard M., 51. 

Golden, Cadwallader, 242. 

Collection and Research Fund, 192. 

Columbia College, 238; Johnson 
papers, deposited, 239. 

Congress t 22. 

Connecticut, land claims, 246; news- 
papers of, 254. 

Connecticut Historical Society, 
Johnson papers, deposited, 240. 

Constable, William, 222. 

Constitution, 141, 145. 

Continental Congress, 241. 

Conway, Henry S., 245. 

Cooper, Myles, 241, 242. 

Corey, Deloraine P., gift in mem- 
ory of, 5; to Centennial Fund, 
186, 190, 191. 

Corey, Mrs. Deloraine P., gift, 5, 
186, 190, 191. 

Council, reports, 3-8, 176-187; mem- 
bers, elected, 172. 

Courtney, captured by Yankee, 18. 

Coxe, Tench, 242, 243. 

Craigie, Andrew, and the Scioto 
Associates, 174, 222-236; specu- 
lations, 222, 224, 226, 229-232; 
Cambridge house, 224; Scioto 
Co., trustee, 226, 231, 236. 

Crawford, James, 26, 27. 

Cree Indians, saying of chief, 71. 

Creek Indians, legend of, 87. 

Cresap, Michel, 66. 

Crowley, Ehaard, 33-35, 60. 

Cundall, Frank, bibliography of 
West Indies, 181-183. 

Cunningham Henry W., 197; Coun- 
cil report, 3-8: Committee to 
announce president, 172; Coun- 
cillor, re-elected, 173; gift, 199. 

Cutler, Manasseh, 225, 226. 


Daggett, Naphtali, 242. 
Darby, G., 243. 

Dartmouth, William Legge, Earl 
of, 242. 

Davis, Andrew McF., 174; presides. 
1 ; Vice-president, re-elected, 172, 

Davis, Edward L., legacy paid, 4, 
186; Isaac and Edward L. Davis 
Fund, 190-192, 205. 

Davis, Mrs. Edward L., 2. 

Davis, Mrs. Eliza, John and Eliza 
Davis Fund, 192, 205. 

Davis, Isaac, Isaac and Edward L. 
Davis Fund, 190-192, 205. 

Davis, John, John and Eliza Davis 
Fund, 192, 205. ' 

Davis, Livingston, entertains mem- 
bers of Society, 2; Committee to 
nominate officers, 172. 

Deane, Silas, 241. 

Decatur, Stephen, 22, 56, 138, 146, 

Delaware, Indians, saying of chief, 
71; newspapers of, 331. 

Dewey, Francis II., Fund, 192, 205. 

Dewey, Francis II., Councillor, 
re-elected, 173. 

De Wolf, James, 12, 55; letter to 
W. Eustis, 13; owner of Yankee, 

Dexter, Franklin P., gift, 197. 

Dimon, Jonathan, 242. 

District of- Columbia, newspapers 
of, 343. 

Dodge, Mrs. Eliza D. ; Fund, 192. 

Dow, George F., Committee to 
announce president, 172; wel- 
fare of the Society, committee, 

Duane, James, 242, 243. 

Du Barth, Count, 234. 

Duer, William, relationship with 
A. Craigie, 222, 223; speculations, 
223, 225-227, 231, 232; died in 
jail, 224; Scioto Co., trustee, 226, 
231 236. 

Dwight/ximothy, 241, 242. 

Dyer, Eliphalet, 241, 242. 

Eddy, George, 17, 46. 
Edes, Henry II., Committee to nom- 
inate officers, 172. 
Edwards, Ann F., 243. 
Edwards, Pierpont, 243. 
Edwards, Richard, 246. 
Edwards, Sarah, 244. 
Edwards, Timothy, 246. 
Ellery, William, 60. 
Elliott, Francis, 17. 
Ellis, George E., Fund, 192. 
El Pajaro, 25. 
Endeavor, 234. 



Episcopal Church, Johnson papers 
relating to, 239, 241, 215. 

Eskimo Indian, saying of, 71. 

Eustis, William, 13. 

Evans, Charles, gift, 197. 

Evarts, William M., humor, 100. 

Farmer's Brother, see Honayawus. 

Farrand, Max, Papers of the John- 
son Family of Connecticut, 174, 
237-240; gifts, 197. 

Felix, Capt., 43. \ 

Fernando de Noronha, Island, 52, 
53, 62. 

Fillmore, Millard, 241. 

Fish, Carl R., gift, 197. 

Fitch, Thomas, 241. 

Flint, Royal, 224, 227, 231, 232; 
Scioto Co., trustee, 226, 231, 236. 

Florida, newspapers of, 369. 

Floyd, Richard, 245. 

Fly, captured by Yankee, 41, 47, 61. 

Foster, Bossenger, 224. 

Francis, George E., death an- 
nounced, 7; obituary of, 10. 

Francis, captured by Yankee, 16. 

Franklin, Benjamn, 241. 

Franks, David S., 229, 231-234. 

Frazier, Nalbro, 230. 

French emigrants, bound to Scioto 
lands, 225, 227-236. 

Frolic, 51, 146. 


Gaboon, 52, 53. 

Gaboon River, 45. 

Gale, Benjamin, 241-245. 

Gallatin, Albert, commissioner to 
Russia, 158-165. 

Gallipolis papers, 229. 

Garangula, Indian, sayings of, 64, 

Garver, Austin S., Committee to 
announce president, 172. 

Gay, Frederick L., gifts, 4, 197. 

General Jackson, (formerly San 
Jose Indiano), 55. 

General Frescotl, 21. 

General Wellesley, captured by Yan- 
kee, 18. 

George, captured by Yankee, 38, 61. 

Georges, Capt., 29. 

Georgia, newspapers of, 370. 

Gotf, — , 34. 

Gore, Christopher, 222, 246. 

Goree, Island of, 30, 39. 

Gorham, Nathaniel, 224. 

Grafton, Samuel, 18. 

Grand Sisters, 39. 

Grangula, see Garangula. 

Grant, Ulysses S., 100. 

Gray, Samuel, 241. 

Great Britain, Historical Mss. Com- 
mission, Reports, purchased by 
Society, 197. 

Green, Samuel A., Vice-president, 
re-elected, 172. 

Green, Samuel S., Councillor, re- 
elected, 172; gift, 197. 

Griswold, Matthew, 241, 242. 

Guerriere, 138, 141, 145, 156. 

Guion, John, 229, 233. 

Gullifer, Sampson, 17. 

Guimerson, George, 30, 32. 

Hall, G. Stanley, Councillor, re- 
elected, 173. 

Hallock, Benjamin, 245. 

Hamilton, Alexander, 222. 

Hamilton, Henry, 243. 

Hannibal, 158. 

Hardiman, Lieut., 19. 

Harriott and Matilda, captured by 
Yankee, 51, 61, 62. 

Harrison, Benjamin, anecdote of, 
99. ' 

Harrison, William Henry, use of 
classics, 99; his death, 100. 

Hart, Miss Minerva, 183. 

Hart, 146. 

Haven/Mrs. Frances W., Fund, 192, 

Haven, Samuel P., Fund, 192. 

Haynes, George II., Publication 
Committee, re-elected, 173. 

Henriette, 24. 

Hetherington, A. B., 18. 

Hill, Benjamin T., Auditor, re- 
elected, 173; report, 194. 

History, Some Humors of American, 

Hoadly, George, 245. 

Hobart, Noah, 245. 

Holdeu, Andrew, 42, 43, 62. 

Holden, James, 43-46. 

Holker, John, 230. 

Holmes, Bartlett, 22. 

Honayawus, Indian chief, sayings 
of, 64, 76. 

Hudnut, Alexander M., 178, 213. 

Hudson, Mrs. Susan E. Johnson, 

Hulbert, Archer B., Andrew Craigie 
and the Scioto Associates, 174, 
222-236; gifts, 197. 

Hull, Isaac, 130, 135, 138, 115, 162. 

Humors, Some, of American His- 
tory, 97-109. 


American Antiquarian Society. 

Humphreys, David, 245. 
Hunnewcll, James 1<\, Fund, 192. 
Huntington, Anna, 214. 
Huntington, Jabez, 241. 
Huntington, Samuel, 241, 242. 
Huxham, John, 244. 

Illinois, newspapers of, 395. 
Indiana, newspapers of, 398. 
Indians, North American, Wisdom 

of, in Speech and Legend, (33-9(5. 
Ingersoll, Jared, 241-243. 
Ingraham, Ned, 21, 24, 27, 30. 
Inman, John, 51, 61. 
Iroquois Indians, saying of chief, 

72, 75. 


j. f 

— , first Mate o 

Shannon, 55-59. 

Jackson, Andrew, 106-108. 

Jackson, Richard, 241-243, 245. 

Jamaica, Institute of, 181-183. 

James, Edward, 31. 

James, William, 245. 

Java, 146, 156. 

Jenckes, William C, 18. 

Jenkins, Capt., 24. 

Jibsheet, Jack, 17, 18, 30. 

John, 53. 

Johnson, Andrew, 100. 

Johnson, Ann, 243. 

Johnson, Ann F., letters, journals, 

Johnson, Elizabeth, 243. 

Johnson, Nancy, 243. 

Johnson, Robert, family of, 237. 

Johnson, Robert C, 242, 243. 

Johnson, Samuel, 237. 

Johnson, Samuel, Episcopal clergy- 
man, first in Conn., 237; King's 
College, first President, 238; let- 
ters, 240. 

Johnson, Samuel W., 242, 244; 
letters, journals, documents, 243. 

Johnson, Sarah, 243. 

Johnson, Susan, 242, 244; letters, 
journal, 243. 

Johnson, William, 237. 

Johnson, W r m. Samuel, Stamp Act 
delegate, 238, and papers of, 240; 
special agent to London, 238, 
and letters, 240; Congress, mem- 
ber of, 238, and Mss. on, 210; 
Federal Convention delegate, 238, 
and documents, 240; Columbia 
College President, 238, and pa- 
pers relating to, 241; letters, 
journals, documents, 240-242; 

Mohegan Indian documents, 244. 

Johnson family, Papers of, of Con- 
necticut, 174, 237-21ii; disposi- 
tion of, 239-216; printed matter, 
240, 246; inscriptions, pedigree, 
arms, 244. 

Jones, Cave, 243. 

Jones, Edward, 35. 

Jones, Jacob, 142, 1 15. 

Jones, Noah, 19, 28, 43, 44, 55, 62. 

Jones, Thomas, 16, 17, 21, 62. 

Karok Indian, words to a dead 
child, 91. 

Kendall, Anthony Y., 36-38, 60. 

Kendall, Robert, 55, 61. 

Kent, Conn., iron works, 245. 

Keokuk, Indian chief, sayings of, 

King's College, established, 238; 
Mss. relating to, 241. 

Kiowa Indian, songs of, 89. 

Kneeland, Charity, 244. 

Kootanay Indian, saying of, 72. 

Koster, John, 25-27, 31. 


La Clarisse, (later the Alder), 33. 

Lafayette, Gilbert M., Marquis de, 

Learning, Jeremiah, 242, 243. 

Led lie, H., 244. 

Ledyard, John, 243. 

Lee, Francis H., death announced, 
179; obituary of, 188. 

Lewis, Joseph, 25-27, 30. 

Liberty, 234. 

Librarian's and General Fund, 192. 

Library Building Fund, 192. 

Library of Congress, Johnson papers, 
deposited, 239, 240. 

Library of the Society, Librarian's 
report, with list of donors, 196- 
221; notable accessions, 196-197; 
American imprints, 197-199; al- 
manac and newspaper acquisi- 
tions, 199-205; U. S. documents 
arranged, 206; school books, 
exhibit of early American, 186, 
206, with list, 207-213. 

Life Membership Fund, 192. 

Lincoln, Abraham, keen sense of 
humor, 101-106; proclamation of 
freedom, 101-105; false anecdotes 
attributed, 105, 106. 

Lincoln, Levi, Lincoln Legacv Fund, 

Lincoln, Waldo, absence from meet- 
ing, 4; presides, 171; President, 



re-elected, 172; entertains mem- 
bers of Society, 175; Council 
report, 176-187; on the Stafford- 
shire pottery, 178; deaths an- 
nounced, of W. A. Smith, F. A. 
Ober, F. H. Lee, 179, J. Lubbock, 
180; gift of W. 1. newspapers, 181, 
204; press, and libraries of the 
West Indies, 181-185. 

Lindegard, J. C, 45, 4b\ 

Litchfield Law School, 245. 

Little Belt, 113. 

Little Black, Indian chief, saying 
of, 65, 76. 

Little Sisters, 39. 

Little Turtle, Indian chief, sayings 
of, 65, 73. 

Livius, George, 242. 

Logan, John, Indian chief, 68, 77; 
speech of, 65, 66. 

Lombard, Herbert E., member, 
elected, 172. 

Louis XVIII, of France, 150. 

Lowth, Robert, Bp. of Oxford, 
242, 243. 

Lubbock, Sir John, death an- 
nounced, 180. 


MacDonald, William, welfare of 
the Society, committee, 177. 

Macedonian, 56, 141, 146, 156. 

Mackatanamakee, Indian chief, say- 
ing of, 66, 73, 76. 

Madison, James, 110, 137. 

Madokawando, Indian chief, say- 
ings of, 66, 73. 

Mahaska, Indian chief, sayings of, 
66, 73. 

Maidu Indians, legend of, 84. 

Maine, land speculation, 232. 

Malbone, Godfrey, 243. 

Marsh, Henry A., Auditor, re- 
elected, 173; report, 194. 

Mary Ann, captured by Yankee, 
31, 35, 38, 39, 60, 61; destroyed, 

Maryland Indians, saying of chief, 

Mason, Aaron, 27. 

Massachusetts Historical Society, 
Wm. S. Johnson's letters, de- 
posited, 240. 

Massasoit, Indian chief, saying of, 

Matthews, Albert, 198. 

Meades, Joseph, 62. 

Meigs, Josiah, 243. 

Menominee Indians, legend of, 82. 

Merriman, Daniel, legacy paid, 
4, 186, 190, 191. 

Merriman, Mrs. Daniel, gift, 4. 

Metakoosega, Indian chief, saying 
of, 67, 74. 

Miantunnurnoh, Indian chief, say- 
ings of, 67, 73, 71. 

Midget, Abner, 32. 

Miller, Caleb, Surgeon of Yankee, 
21, 23-33, 38, 39, 42-44, 46, 48, 
49, 53, 62. 

Miller, Jeremiah, 241, 242. 

Mills, Isaac, 245. 

Milton, Thomas, 17, 42. 

Mishikinakwa, .see Little Turtle. 

Mitchell, Henry, 28. 

Mitchell, Stephen M., 243. 

Mi wok Indians, creation-legend of, 

Moanahonga, Indian, sayings of, 
67, 73. 

Mohegan Indians, Johnson papers 
and letters, relating to, 241, 244, 

Mommsen, Theodor, on Civil War, 

Monroe Doctrine, new basis needed, 

Moore, Clarence B., gifts, 197. 

Moreau, Jean V., 157; his death, 

Morjiana, 29, 52. 

Morris, Robert, 224. 

Morris, Watson, 27. 

Morse, Mrs. Emma DeF., gift of 
rare Staffordshire pottery, 173, 
174, 178, 213; resolutions trans- 
mitted by Society, 174, 179; es- 
timate of, 178, 213. 

Munro, Wilfred IL, Most Success- 
ful American Privateer, 2, 12-62. 

Murfree, Mary N., Prophet of the 
Great Smoky Mountains, cited, 


Nantucket, 59. 

Napoleon, I, Emperor of France, 

50; Russian campaign, 110-169. 
Navaho Indians, prayers of, 91, 

94; "Song of the House," 93. 
Navy, American, 138-142, 157, 164. 
Navy, British, 139-142, 147, 157, 

Neapope, Indian chief, saving of, 

67, 73. 
Nelson, William, gift, 197. 
Nevis, Island, public records, 185. 
New Constitution, 41. 


American Antiquarian Society. 

New Hampshire, land claims, 245. 

New York, land claims, 224, 245. 

Newport, R. I., 59, 60. 

Newspapers, additions, 176, 177, 
180, 181; Society's specialty, 186; 
important files acquired, 201-205; 
Bibliography of American news- 
papers, 247-403. 

New York Historical Society, 224. 

Nichols, Charles L., Recording Sec- 
retary, pro tempore, 171, and 
elected, 173; Publication com- 
mittee, re-elected, 173. 

Nina, 43. 

Ninigret, Indian chief, sayings of, 

Norton, John, see Teyoninhoker- 


Ober, Frederick A., death an- 
nounced, 179; obituary of, 188. 

O'Connor, Mr., 38. 

Ohio, sale of lands, 240, 245. 

Ohio Company of Associates, 230; 
origin, 225; operations, 227. 

Ohio Historical and Philosophical 
Society, 229. 

Ojibwa Indians, legend of, 87. 

Olinde, 50. 

Oliver, Vere L., foreign member, 
elected, 172. 

Omaha Indians, prayer of, 95. 

Ongpatonga, Indian chief, saying of, 

Osceola, Indian chief, saying of, 67. 

Otis, James, 242, 243. 

Ottawa Indians, saying of chief, 72, 

Paine, Nathaniel, Councillor, re- 
elected, 172. 

Palmer, Thomas, 243. 

Parker, Daniel, 223, 227. 

Parker, Henry A., gift, 197. 

Parsons, Samuel IL, 243. 

Patriot, 234. 

Pawnee Indians, legend of, 80, 81; 
prayer, war-song, 92. 

Peck, Lyman, 30. 

Pennsylvania, proprietaries of, 246. 

Penobscot Indians, legend of, 88. 

]£ernambuco, 50-52. 

Peters, Samuel, 243, 245. 

Pezhekezhikquashkum, Indian chief, 
saying of, 67, 75. 

Phelps, Oliver, 224. 

Philadelphia, arrival of French 

emigrants, 227, 230, 231. 

Philip, or ''King Philip," Indian 
chief, saying of, 67. 

Pickens,- Samuel, 41. 

Pickering, Timothy, 243. 

Pigot, George, 245. 

Pinta, 43. 

Pitkin, William, 240-242. 

Pitts, Thomas, 02. 

Pocock, N. H., land grant, 245. 

Pontiac, Indian chief, sayings of, 
68, 73. 

Port of Spain, Trinidad, library, 

Port Praya, Yankee anchors at, 

Porter, Thomas, 229, 231-236. 

Porteus, Beilby, Bp. of London, 
242, 243, 245. 

Postal system, insecurity of letters, 
111, 118, 148. 

Pottery, Staffordshire, noted col- 
lection with American views, 
given, 174, 178, 213; cases for 
preservation, 179, 214. 

Pownall, John, 242. 

Pownall, Thomas, 243. 

President, 22, 113, 141. 

Prevost, Sir George, 164. 

Privateer, Yankee most successful 
American, 12-62; 

Prize, 55: 

Publishing Fund, 192. 

Purchasing Fund, 192. 

Pushmataha, Indian chief, sayings 
of, 68, 75-77. 

Putnam, Rufus, 230, 232, 235; or- 
ganized Ohio Co. of Associates, 


Ramsey, David, 244. 

Reade, Lawrence, 242, 243. 

Recovery, 234. 

Red Jacket, Indian chief, sayings 
of, 68, 69, 73-76. 

Redding, William, 23, 29, 30. 

Remittance, 55. 

Rhodes, James F., Some Humors 
of American History, 97-109. 

Rice, Franklin P., Publication Com- 
mittee, re-elected, 173. 

Rogers, Nathaniel, 243. 

Rogers, Robert, 68. 

Root, Jesse, 241. 

Roseau, Dominica, library, 184. 

Royal Bounty, captured by Yankee, 

Rugg, Arthur P., 4; Councillor, 
re-elected, 173. 



Russell, Thomas H., 13, 15. 
Russia, War with France, 110-142, 

Rutledge, John, 240. 


Sage, Comfort, 243. 

Sagoweyatha, See Red Jacket. 

Saint Andrews, 40. 

St. Bartholomew, Island, news- 
papers, 185. 

St. Christopher, Island of, library 
and press, 185. 

St. Croix, Island, newspapers, 185. 

St. George, Grenada, library, 183. 

St. Helena, 46, 49. 

St. Jago, Island, Governor of, en- 
tertained Commander of Yankee, 

St. Jago, 30, 31, 47, GO. 

St. John's, Antigua, library, 184. 

St. Nicholas, Island of, 27, 28. 

St. Thomas, Island of, 43, 02; 
Governor of, entertained Com- 
mander of Yankee, 44. 

Sala, George A. 11., Diary, cited, 

Salisbury, Daniel, 35, 45, 46, 52. 

Salisbury, Stephen, Salisbury Leg- 
acy Fund, 192. 

Saltonstall, Gurdon, 244. 

Saltonstall, Richard, 242. 

Samoset, Indian, saying of, 69. 

San Jose, (alias (El Piijaro), 25. 

San Jose Indiano, captured by 
Yankee, 18; (later General Jack- 
son), 55. 

Sargent, Winthrop, 226. 

Saugrain de Vigni, Antoine F., 
Scioto emigrant, 230. 

Scarborough, William, 245. 

School books, early American, ex- 
hibit, 186, 206, with list, 207-213. 

Schoonerson, George, 28. 

Scioto, Compagnie du, 227, 230- 
232, 236. 

Scioto Company, origin, 226; trus- 
tees, 226, 231, 236. 

Scioto lands, Andrew Craigie and 
the Scioto Associates, 174, 222- 

Settakroo, 39. 

Shannon, (later Balance), captured 
by Yankee, 55, 59, 61, 62. 

Shawnee Indians, saying of chief, 

Sherman, Roger, 241-243. 

Shirley, William, 242. 

Sia Indians, prayer of, 94. 

Sierra Leone, 31. 
Silliman, Ebenezer, 242. 
Simmons, Cyrus, 21, 23, 25-27. 
Sioux Indians, prayer, and song of, 

Sitting Bull, Indian chief, saying of, 

69, 73. 
Skenando, Indian chief, saying of, 

69, 76. 

Slocum, N. A., 43, 44. 

Slocum, N. M., 47. 

Smith, John, 17; owner of Yankee, 

Smith, John C., 243. 

Smith, Justin II., welfare of the 
Society, committee, 177. 

Smith, VVilliam, 243, 245. 

Smith, William A., death an- 
nounced, 179; obituary of, 189. 

Smohalla, Indian, savings of, 69, 

70, 74. 

Snow, Elisha, 16-18, 27, 33, 37, 45, 
53, 62. 

Society for the Propagation of the 
Gospel, 245. 

Special Gifts Fund, 192. 

Stael Holstein, Anne L. G. (Neck- 
er), la Baronne de, conversation 
with J. Q. Adams, 126. 

Stearns, Ezra S., gift, 197. 

Stebbins, Calvin, gift, 197. 

Steiner, Bernard C., member, elec- 
ted, 172. 

Stevens, Thaddeus, 101. 

Stevenson, Edward L., gift, 197. 

Stiles, Benjamin, 243. 

Stratford, Conn., 245. 

Sturgis, Jonathan, 243. 

Sturgis, R. Clipston, 214. 

Susquehannah lands, Johnson pa- 
pers, relating to, 241, 246. 

Sutherland, Stewart, 31, 38, 39, 60. 

Sweet, Manly, 13, 15. 

Switcher, Asa, 30, 32, 45, 46. 


Tabgayeeta. See Logan. 

Taft, Miss Jane A., legacy paid, 

186, 190, 191. 
Tecumseh, Indian chief, sayings of, 

70, 75. 
Temple, Robert, 242, 243. 
Tenny, Joseph A., Fund, 192. 
Teyoninhokerawen, Indian chief, 

saying of, 70, 74. 
Thames, captured by Yankee, 17, 

46, 47, 61. 
Thayeridinaga. See Brant, Joseph. 
Thomas, Benjamin F., Local His- 


American Antiquarian Society. 

tory Fund, 192, 205. 

Thomas, Cyrus, 05. 

Thomas, Isaiah, 200. 

Thomas, James, 27, 30, 52-54, 56- 
58. ' 

Tom, 20. 

Tomlinson, Agur, 242, 243. 

Tornocomo, Indian chief, Baying of, 

Tompenny, Robert, 38. 

Toohulhulsoote, Indian, saying of, 

Toole, Francis, 46, 51, 61. 

Trade Town, 30. 

Trumbull, Benjamin, 246. 

Trumbull, Mrs. Faith, 243. 

Trumbull, Jonathan, 240-243, 245. 

Trumbull, Jonathan, Jr., 243. 

Trumbull, Joseph, 242. 

Tupper, Benjamin, 225. 

Turtle, 48-50. 

Tuttle, Julius H., Committee to 
nominate officers, 172; Publica- 
tion Committee, re-elected, 173. 

Two Friends, 37. 

Tydernan, Jonathan, 41, 61. 


Ulster Co., N. Y., 245. 

United States, episode of priva- 
teering, 1812, 12-02; war of 1812, 
110-169; government documents, 
Society's collection, 206; first 
Congress, 241. 

Uriitcd States, 22, 141, 146. 

Usher, James, 2d, 13, 15. 

Utley, Samuel, obituaries of J. S. 
Billings, 9, F. Blake, G E. Fran- 
cis, 10, F. H. Lee, F. A. Ober, 188, 
W. A. Smith, 189. Councillor, re- 
elected,, 173. 

Uttamatomakin. See Tornocomo. 

Vermont, land claims, 245. 
Verplanck, Guilian C., 244. 
Vinson, John H., 43-47, 53, 62. 


Wadsworth — , 233. 

Wadsworth, Mrs. Faith, 243. 

Wadsworth, Jeremiah, 241-243. 

Wakaun Haka, Indian chief, say- 
ings of, 71, 76. 

Wapella, Indian chief, saying of, 
71, 74. 

War of 1812, episodes of privateering, 
12-02; correspondence of J. Q. 
Adams, 110-109. 

Ward, Artemas, pseud. See 
Browne, C. F. 

Ward well, Henry, 18. 

Warren, Sir John, 56. 

Washburn, Charles Francis, Fund, 

Washburn, Charles CI., 4; Council- 
lor, re-elected, 173. 

Washington, George, 226. 

Wasp, 142, L45. 

Waub-Ojecg, Indian chief, saying 
of, 71. 

Weatherford, Indian chief, saving 
of, 71. 

Webster, Daniel, 100. 

Wellington, Arthur Wellesley, Duke 
of, 54, 50, 147, 158, 165. 

West Indies, newspapers, gift of, 
to Society, 181, 204; bibliography, 
181; press, libraries, public offices, 

Whitehead, Charles 13., 33. 

Whitin, Albert H., Centennial Fund 
gift, 186, 190, 191. 

Whiting, Nathan, 241, 242. 

Whitmarsh, Jonathan, 31. 

Whitney, James L., Fund, 191, 192. 

Whittlesey, Chauncey, 243. 

Williams, CapL, 28. 

Williama, William, 211. 

Wilson, Oliver, 13, 15, 10, 47; Com- 
mander of the Yankee, 19, 02, and 
Journal, 19-60. 

Wilson, Tom, 39. 

Wilson, Woodrow, member, elected, 

Winship, George P., Councillor, 
elected, 173, 180; Recording Sec- 
retary, resigns re-election, 180. 

Winslow, Edward, 242. 

Wittuwamat, Indian chief, saying 
of, 71. 

Woods, Henry E., Committee to 
nominate officers, 172. 

Woolsey, Ann, 244. 

Woolsey, Laura, 244. 

Worcester Art Museum, purchased 
land of, 5. 

Wyandot Indians, legend of, 82. 

Wyllys, George, 243. 


Yankee, most successful American 
privateer, 12-62. Articles of A- 
greement for sailing, 13-15; cap- 
tured Royal Bounty, Francis, 10, 
Thames, 17, 40, 47, 61; San Jose 
Indiana, Courtney, Gem ral Welles- 
ley, 18, Mary Ann, 31, 32, 60, 




Alder, 33, 60; Andalusia, 36-38 
60; George, 38, 61; Fly, 1 1, 42, 01 
Harriott and Matilda, 51, 61 
Shannon, 55, 01; profit by cap- 
ture, 19, 32, 34, 38, 40, 42, 47, 
48, 51, 52, 55, 59-62; Journal of 
second cruise, 10, 19-00; armed, 
19; remarkable sailor, 20, 00; 

Old Neptune's ceremonies, 25; 
supplies taken on, 28-30, 38-10, 
47, 48, 53, 02; seamen punished, 
31, 47, 53; treatment of prisoners, 
38; list, of prizes, officers, route, 
second cruise, 00-02. 
Yeo, Sir James L.. 104. 

Vol. 23 

New Series 

Part 1 



pmerttatt fbtfiquartan $>xxnt\ \\ 



APf*ILi 9, 1913 



Proceedings of the Meeting 1 

Report op the Council 3 

Obituaries 9 

The Most Successful American Privateer Wilfred H. Munro 12 

Wisdom of the North American Indian in Speech and Legend 

Alexander F. Chamberlain 63 

Some Humors of American History . . James Ford Rhodes 07 

Letters of John Quincy Adams, 1811-1814 

Charles Francis Adams 110 

Vol. 23 

New Series 

Part 2 



ffttrattatt 3*nf tqitatian $>nmlti 



OCTOBER 15, 1913 



Proceedings of the Meeting 171 

Report of the Council 176 

Obituaries 188 

Report of the Treasurer 190 

Report of the Librarian 196 

List of Donors 215 

Andrew Craigie and the Scioto Associates 

Archer B. Hulbert 222 

The Papers of the Johnson Family of Connecticut 

Max Farrand 237 

Bibliography of American Newspapers, 1690-1820 

Clarence S. Brigham 247 

Vol. 23 

New- Series 

Part 2 



Jjtmerttan Jftnttqnartan ^txntty 



OCTOBER 15, 1913 



Volume 1 

Volume 2 

(out of print) 

Volume 3 

Volume 4 

Volume 5 

Volume 6 

Volume 7 


Volume 8 

Volume 9 

• . 

Volume 10 

Volume 11 

Volume 12 




Note. — With the intention of giving a larger circulation to its pub- 
lications, the Society has decided to place only a nominal price on its 
volumes and has accordingly issued the above revised price-list. A full 
set of the Transactions will be sold for $35.00, or, excluding volume 2, 
which will possibly be reprinted, for $25.00. 


1812-1849 (printed 1912, 582 pp.) . . $2.50 

1856-1880 (semi-annual) .... each 0.50 
n. s. 1880-1913 (semi-annual) . . . each 1.00 

Note. — The Proceedings^ of 1849-1855 can be supplied only in part, 
since most of them are out of print. The new series of Proceedings began 
in October, 1880, and from 1880 to 1913 consists of 23 volumes, with 
either two or three issues in a volume. The price is $1.00 per issue, and 
$2.50 per bound volume. 

The Society also has for sale the following books. 

Chandler Genealogy, by George Chandler, 1883 . . $10.00 

Waldo Genealogy, by Waldo Lincoln, 2 vols. 1902 .. 10.00 
Tracts relating to the Currency of the Massachusetts 

Bay, ed. by A. McF. Davis, 1902, pp.394 . 1.50 
The Confiscation of John Chandler's Estate, by 

A. McF. Davis, 1903, pp. 296 1 . 50